Year 9 unit overview — Australian Curriculum: History
Source: Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), Australian Curriculum v3.0: History for Foundation–10, .
Duration of unit
Depth study: World War I
The Year 9 curriculum provides a study of the history of the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918. It was a period of industrialisation and rapid change in the ways people lived, worked and thought. It was an era of nationalism and imperialism, and the colonisation of Australia was part of the expansion of European power. The period culminated in World War I 1914–1918, the “war to end all wars”.
In this depth study, students investigate key aspects of World War I and the Australian experience of the war, including the nature and significance of this war in world and Australian history.
The key inquiry questions for this unit are:
What were the changing features of the movements of people from 1750 to 1918?
How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period?
What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period?
What was the significance of World War I?
Content descriptions to be taught
General capabilities and crosscurriculum priorities
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
World War I
An overview of the causes of World War I and the reasons why men enlisted to fight in the war (ACDSEH021)
The places where Australians fought and the nature of warfare during World War I, including the Gallipoli campaign (ACDSEH095)
The impact of World War I, with a particular emphasis on Australia (such as the use of propaganda to influence the civilian population, the changing role of women, the conscription debate) (ACDSEH096)
The commemoration of World War I, including debates about the nature and significance of the Anzac legend (ACDSEH097)
Chronology, terms and concepts
Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS164)
Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS165)
Historical questions and research
Identify and select different kinds of questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACHHS166)
Evaluate and enhance these questions (ACHHS167)
Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS168)
Analysis and use of sources
Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS170)
Explore the experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during the war
This depth study provides opportunities for students to develop historical understandings particularly focused on the key concepts of:
Information obtained from historical sources used to construct an explanation or narrative, to support a hypothesis, or prove or disprove a conclusion.
☐ Continuity and change
Continuities are aspects of the past that have remained the same over certain periods of time. Changes are events or developments from the past that represent modifications, alterations and transformations.
☒ Cause and effect
The relationship between a factor or set of factors (cause/s) and consequence/s (effect/s). These form sequences of events and developments over time.
A point of view or position from which events are seen and understood, and influenced by age, gender, culture, social position and beliefs and values.
An understanding of the past from the point of view of the participant/s, including an appreciation of the circumstances faced, and the motivations, values and attitudes behind actions.
The importance that is assigned to particular aspects of the past, such as events, developments, movements and historical sites, and includes an examination of the principles behind the selection of what should be investigated and remembered.
Debate about particular interpretations of the past as a result of the nature of available evidence and/or different perspectives.
By the end of Year 9, students refer to key events and the actions of individuals and groups to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and make judgments about their importance. They explain the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of these events and developments over the short and long term. They explain different interpretations of the past.
Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, with reference to periods of time and their duration. When researching, students develop different kinds of questions to frame an historical inquiry. They interpret, process, analyse and organise information from a range of primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students examine sources to compare different points of view. When evaluating these sources, they analyse origin and purpose, and draw conclusions about their usefulness. They develop their own interpretations about the past. Students develop texts, particularly explanations and discussions, incorporating historical interpretations. In developing these texts, and organising and presenting their conclusions, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and they reference these sources.
Relevant prior curriculum
Curriculum working towards
The Queensland SOSE Essential Learnings by the end of Year 7
Events from pre-colonisation to Federation, including Indigenous heritages, European colonisation, frontier conflicts, the development of the economy, and the Federation movement, have established the Australian nation and contributed to Australian identities
National traditions, celebrations and commemorations have evolved to reflect public sentiment and the perspectives, values and interpretations of different groups.
The Queensland SOSE Essential Learnings by the end of Year 9
Knowledge and understanding
Time, continuity and change
Important ideas of democracy, government and law, citizenship rights and public decision making, and the concepts of power, dissent and civic duty, developed from ancient to modern times and from Eastern and Western cultures
Evidence of events in Australian, Asian, Pacific and global settings can be interpreted from different perspectives and values positions.
Ways of working
identify a research focus from broad topics and design focus questions and sub-questions
plan investigations, using discipline-specific inquiry models and processes
research and analyse data, information and evidence from primary and secondary sources
evaluate sources of data, information and evidence for relevance, reliability, authenticity, purpose, bias and perspective
draw conclusions and make decisions supported by interpretations of data, information and evidence
Year 10 Australian Curriculum: History
The Year 10 curriculum provides a study of the history of the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context. The twentieth century became a critical period in Australia’s social, cultural, economic and political development. The transformation of the modern world during a time of political turmoil, global conflict and international cooperation provides a necessary context for understanding Australia’s development, its place within the Asia-Pacific region, and its global standing.
Chronology, terms and concepts
Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS182)
Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS183)
Historical questions and research
Identify and select different kinds of questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACHHS184)
Evaluate and enhance these questions (ACHHS185)
Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS186)
Analysis and use of sources
Identify the origin, purpose and context of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS187)
Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS188)
Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS189)
Perspectives and interpretations
Identify and analyse the perspectives of people from the past (ACHHS190)
Identify and analyse different historical interpretations (including their own) (ACHHS191)
communicate descriptions, decisions and conclusions, using text types specific to the context and purpose and the conventions of research-based texts
respond to local and global issues by taking action in planned and enterprising ways
apply strategies for making group decisions and for taking informed social and environmental action
reflect on different perspectives, and recognise and evaluate the influence of values and beliefs in relation to social justice, the democratic process, sustainability and peace
Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS192)
Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS193)
The SOSE Essential Learnings covered by the end of Year 7, and to some extent those which students will have encountered during their Year 8 SOSE studies, address Australia’s historical, political, economic, social and cultural links as part of the British Commonwealth. Colonial experiences, Federation and the establishment of the Australian nation are concepts that have been previously encountered. Revision of this material through bridging learning experiences related to these concepts may assist in consolidating student understanding and preparedness for the depth study on World War 1.
Links to other learning areas
There is the possibility of linking the concepts and content in this unit to the broader Year 9 Queensland and Australian Curriculum content that may be taught in other curriculum areas when implementing the Australian Curriculum: History.
Describe the assessment
Teachers gather evidence to make judgments about the following characteristics of student work:
explanations of different interpretations of the past and the evidence used to support these interpretations
descriptions of the causes and effects of historical events and developments with reference to the importance and the motives and actions of people in the past
analysis and synthesis of information from a range of primary and secondary sources, including the identification of motivations, values and attitudes
communication in texts that incorporate historical argument and use and acknowledge sources of evidence, use historical terms and concepts and develop and justify interpretations of the past
For further advice and guidelines on constructing guides to making judgments refer to the Learning area standard descriptors: www.qsa.qld.edu.au
Students are given opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge, skills and understanding across a range of assessments. The assessment is collated in student folios and allows for ongoing feedback to students on their learning.
Year 9 teachers make decisions about the length of time required to complete the tasks and the conditions under which the assessment is to be conducted.
The teaching and learning experiences throughout the term provide opportunities for students to develop the understanding and skills required to complete these assessments. As students engage with these learning experiences, the teacher can provide feedback on specific skills.
Research: Essay (Written)
The purpose of this assessment is to make judgments about students’ abilities to research, collect, analyse and draw conclusions about historical sources.
Students construct a persuasive essay about the commemoration of World War I and debates about the nature and significance of the “Anzac Legend”. The essay will be based on research and make reference to the:
For further advice and guidelines on conditions for assessment refer to Assessment: History on the QSA website: www.qsa.qld.edu.au
Teaching and learning
Supportive learning environment
Teaching strategies and learning experiences
Adjustments for needs of learners
Chronology, terms and concepts
use and understand historical terms and concepts such as historical sources, primary and secondary sources, evidence and inquiry
construct an annotated timeline of events leading to the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in 1914
identify the causes of World War 1, including the impact of nationalism, imperialism and militarism on the relationships between European powers
understand the importance of European alliances (particularly the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente) and their significance when war broke out in 1914.
The Australian experience of war
consider the reasons Australians so readily enlisted in the early years of WW1 through examining a range of primary sources (e.g. newspaper articles, recruitment posters, etc.)
map the various theatres of war (e.g. Fromelles, the Somme, Gallipoli, Sinai and Palestine) in which Australian soldiers fought
compare and contrast the conditions, types of warfare and personal experiences of Australian soldiers in Gallipoli and on the Western Front
identify and describe the different experiences of war of both individuals and groups in Australia (e.g. soldiers at the Front, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, people of German descent, women) through examining a range of source documents (e.g. letters, photographs, newspaper articles, government propaganda)
describe the experiences of returned service personnel in the immediate post-war years (e.g. health, employment prospects)
investigate the reasons for the establishment of programs and organisations (e.g. Soldier Settlement schemes and the RSL) to support returning soldiers after the war.
Issues and controversies
consider the role of propaganda and the ways in which it influenced public perceptions and attitudes about the war (e.g. the nature and publication of propaganda posters at various stages of the war; enlistment figures)
locate evidence to describe how conscription might have been viewed by people of different ages, genders, social position and beliefs and values
examine and analyse the different perspectives evident in relation to the “conscription debate” in Australia (e.g. government, trade unionists, Irish Catholics) and the outcome of various referenda on the issue.
The impact of war on Australian society
identify and explain the changing attitudes of Australians towards the war and the decline in enlistment numbers from 1916. Show this graphically
evaluate the importance of Australia’s involvement in World War I in the development of a “National Identity”
analyse the changing relationship between Australia and Britain as a result of Australia’s “coming of age” on the battlefields of Gallipoli and the Western Front
investigate the changing role of women in Australian society as a result of their involvement in various capacities during World War I.
understand and explain the development of the Anzac legend and the ideals and characteristics inherent in the “Anzac spirit”
discuss and debate differing perspectives in relation to Anzac Day (i.e. notions about the “glorification of war” as opposed to commemorating and honouring the contribution of Australian servicemen and women).
Section 6 of the Disability Standards for Education (The Standards for Curriculum Development, Accreditation and Delivery) states that education providers, including class teachers, must take reasonable steps to ensure a course/program is designed to allow any student to participate and experience success in learning.
The Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Cwlth) is available from: select Human rights and antidiscrimination > Disability standards for education.
Students would benefit from access to:
computer facilities and ICT support
field trips to relevant locations or excursions to museums and galleries (e.g. Anzac Square, Queensland Military Memorial Museum, The 2nd/14th Light Horse Regiment (Queensland Mounted Infantry) Museum); local cemeteries or War Memorials).
Australian War Memorial www.awm.gov.au
Australians at War www.australiansatwar.gov.au
Representatives from the RSL or Veterans associations could discuss the experiences of soldiers.
Historians or librarians/museum curators could discuss the methods and sources used in historical investigations and/or how to locate and use evidence related to Australia’s involvement in WWI.
Ways to monitor learning and assessment
Teachers meet to collaboratively plan the teaching, learning and assessment to meet the needs of all learners in each unit.
Teachers create opportunities for discussion about levels of achievement to develop shared understandings; co-mark or cross mark at key points to ensure consistency of judgments; and participate in moderating samples of student work at school or cluster level to reach consensus and consistency.
Feedback to students
Teachers strategically plan opportunities and ways to provide ongoing feedback (both written and informal) and encouragement to students on their strengths and areas for improvement.
Students reflect on and discuss with their teachers or peers what they can do well and what they need to improve.
Teachers reflect on and review learning opportunities to incorporate specific learning experiences and provide multiple opportunities for students to experience, practise and improve.
Reflection on the unit plan
Identify what worked well during and at the end of the unit, including:
activities that worked well and why
activities that could be improved and how
assessment that worked well and why
assessment that could be improved and how
common student misconceptions that need, or needed, to be clarified.