Year 9 unit overview — Australian Curriculum: Geography



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Year 9 unit overview — Australian Curriculum: Geography


Source: Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), Australian Curriculum v5.0: Geography for Foundation–10, www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Geography/Curriculum/F-10.

Unit no.

Unit title

Duration of unit

2

Geographies of interconnections

25 hours



Unit outline

The Year 9 curriculum extends students’ knowledge beyond their own communities as they work with more abstract concepts, consider increasingly complex ideas, and debate alternative answers and interpretations.

Geographies of interconnections focuses on investigating how people, through their choices and actions, are connected to places throughout the world in a wide variety of ways, and how these connections help to make and change places and their environments. This unit examines the interconnections between people and places through the products people buy and the effects of their production on the places that make them. Students examine the ways that transport and information and communication technologies have made it possible for an increasing range of services to be provided internationally, and for people in isolated rural areas to connect to information, services and people in other places. These distinctive aspects of interconnection are investigated using studies drawn from Australia, a country in North-East Asia and across the world.

Students’ geographical knowledge and mental map of the world continue to be extended through the investigation of selective studies of world regions and specific countries. Where studies of place are not specified, teachers can select an area of Australia, or countries in the Asia region, or areas of the world, which are contextually appropriate. Students undertake studies at the full range of scales, from local to global, and in a range of locations.

There is a focus in this unit on the use of geographical inquiry and skills. The following skills that students will undertake are identified in the Year 9 year plan. The students will:

develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that uses geographical methodology and concepts

collect, select, record and organise relevant data and geographic information from a range of primary and secondary sources using geographical tools

evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness

represent multivariable data in a range of appropriate forms such as scatter plots tables and annotated diagrams using spatial technology where appropriate

represent the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena by constructing special purpose maps using spatial technology where appropriate

evaluate multivariable data and other geographical information to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies in a range of appropriate, and predict outcomes of the proposal.

The inquiry questions for the unit are:

What are the causes and consequences of change in places and environments and how can this change be managed?

What are the future implications of changes to places and environments?

What are interconnections and interdependencies important for the future of places and environments?





Identify curriculum

Content descriptions to be taught

General capabilities
and crosscurriculum priorities


Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

The perceptions people have of place, and how this influences their connections to different places (ACHGK065)

The way transportation and information and communication technologies are used to connect people to services, information and people in other places (ACHGK066)

The ways that places and people are interconnected with other places through trade in goods and services, at all scales (ACHGK067)

The effects of the production and consumption of goods on places and environments throughout the world and including a country from North-East Asia (ACHGK068)

The ways that places and people are interconnected with other places through trade in goods and services, at all scales (ACHGK067)

The effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places, and the implications for the future of these places (ACHGK069)



Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS063)



Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect, select, record and organise relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS064)

Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness, and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS065)

Represent the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena by constructing special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS066)



Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Evaluate multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS067)



The application of the General capabilities and cross-curriculum priroities in this unit may include:

description: description: gc_literacy Literacy

Use geographical terminology to develop explanations about spatial distributions in maps.



description: description: gc_numeracy Numeracy

Display data in a table to compare global transport routes of selected countries.



description: description: gc_ict ICT capability

Use spatial technology to create a special purpose map of urban settlement patterns.



description: description: gc_critical Critical and creative thinking

Propose actions in response to managing spatial change.



description: description: gc_personal_social Personal and social capability

Debate alternative responses about the changing interconnections between places.



description: description: gc_ethical Ethical understanding

Explore the different perceptions of places in the local area portrayed in the media.



description: description: gc_intercultural Intercultural understanding

Investigate how cultural influences the patterns of consumption on a global scale.







Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS068)

Identify how geographical information systems (GIS) might be used to analyse geographical data and make predictions (ACHGS069)



Communicating

Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms, selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose; using relevant geographical terminology, and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS070)



Reflecting and responding

Reflect on and evaluate the findings of the inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS071)



Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Explore the connections of Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islander people to places in the local area



description: description: cc_asia Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia

Identify the patterns in international trade between Australia and North-East Asia.



description: description: cc_sust Sustainability

Assess the sustainability of future use of places of popular recreational use in Australia.



Geographical understandings

The unit provides opportunities for students to develop geographical understandings that are particularly focused on the following concepts.

Place

Space

Environment

Scale

Interconnection

Sustainability

Change

Explanations of the geographical concepts with examples are provided in the QSA year level plans at:
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/yr9-geography-resources.html > Curriculum > Planning templates and exemplars > Year level plans and in the Appendix.

Achievement standard

By the end of Year 9, students explain how geographical processes change the characteristics of places. They predict changes in the characteristics of places over time and identify the possible implications of change for the future. They analyse interconnections between people, places and environments and explain how these interconnections influence people, and change places and environments. Students propose explanations for distributions and patterns over time and across space and describe associations between distribution patterns. They analyse alternative strategies to a geographical challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria and propose and justify a response.

Students use initial research to identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They collect and evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources and select relevant geographical data and information to answer inquiry questions. They represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate graphic forms, including special purpose maps that comply with cartographic conventions. They analyse data to propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies and to predict outcomes. Students synthesise data and information to draw reasoned conclusions. They present findings and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. Students propose action in response to a geographical challenge taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and predict the outcomes and consequences of their proposal.






Relevant prior curriculum

Curriculum working towards

The Queensland SOSE Essential Learnings by the end of Year 9 Knowledge and understanding

Place and space

Interrelationships between human activity and environments result in particular patterns of land and resource use, and can cause environmental problems

Governments and communities need to balance economic, social, political and environmental factors through sustainable development, consumption and production

Ways of working

Students are able to:

plan investigations, using discipline-specific inquiry models and processes

research and analyse data, information and evidence from primary and secondary sources

evaluate sources of data, information and evidence for relevance, reliability, authenticity, purpose, bias and perspective

draw conclusions and make decisions supported by interpretations of data, information and evidence

communicate descriptions, decisions and conclusions, using text types specific to the context and purpose and the conventions of research-based texts

reflect on learning, apply new understandings and justify future applications.



Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Geography

Geographical Knowledge and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS072)



Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Collect, select, record and organise relevant data and geographical information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS073)

Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS074)

Represent the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena by constructing special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS075)



Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Evaluate multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS076)

Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS077)

Identify how geographical information systems (GIS) might be used to analyse geographical data and make predictions (ACHGS078)



Communicating

Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose, using relevant geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS079)






Reflecting and responding

Reflect on and evaluate the findings of the inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS080)



Bridging content

The SOSE Essential Learnings by the end of Year 9 do not focus on the use of transportation and information and communication technologies to connect people to services, information and people in other places and the ways places and people are interconnected through trade in goods and services at all scales. Bridging learning experiences may be needed to develop the geographical skills of recording, representing and evaluating multi-variable data using qualitative and quantitative methods and constructing special purpose maps such as thematic maps, weather maps, choropleth maps and topographic maps.

Links to other learning areas

Australian Curriculum: Geography is a subject of the Humanities and Social Sciences and has connections to Australian Curriculum: History, Civics and Citizenship, and Economics and Business. There is the possibility of linking concepts and content in the unit that may be taught in other curriculum areas when implementing the Australian Curriculum: Geography.



Assessment

Make judgments

Describe the assessment

Teachers gather evidence to make judgments about the following characteristics of student work:

Understanding

Predict changes in places over time

Identify the possible implications of changes for the future

Analyse interconnections between people, places and environments

Explain how these interconnections influence people, and change places and environments

Propose explanations for the distributions and patterns over time and across space

Describe associations between distribution patterns

Analyse different strategies to a geographical challenge

Propose and justify a response

Skills

Develop questions to frame an inquiry

Collect, evaluate and select relevant sources

Represent multi-variable data in graphic forms, including maps

Analyse spatial patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies and predict outcomes

Synthesise data and information to draw conclusions

Present findings using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations

Propose actions in response to a geographical challenge




Students are given opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge, skills and understanding across a range of assessments. This assessment is collected in student folios and allows for ongoing feedback to students on their learning.

The teaching and learning experiences throughout the term provide opportunities for students to develop the understanding and skills required to complete these assessments. As students engage with these learning experiences, the teacher can provide feedback on specific skills.



Research: Multimodal (movie, infographic with explanation, seminar presentation) or written report (which may be based on fieldwork)

The purpose of this assessment is to make judgments about students’ abilities to research, collect, represent, analyse and draw conclusions about geographical interconnections.

Students:

develop questions and plan an inquiry about the effects of global production and consumption of a specific good, or a recreational activity* on a selected country

collect, record and organise relevant geographical data and information

evaluate sources for their bias, reliability and useful

represent multi-variable data in a variety of forms

analyse the spatial patterns of interconnections

draw conclusions about the effects global consumption has on the places and environment of the country

predict how changing choices of consumption may affect places in this country in the future

communicate their findings which uses ICT and spatial technology tools

*Goods and services could include cars, fashion, shoes or food. Recreational activities could include tourism, sport, music or anime.



Suggested conditions:

Multimodal

  • The material must include a student-created map showing interconnectedness. The format of presentation could involve a Google Earth Tour, Infographic (easel.ly), or Prezi.

Length: 3–5 mins

Scale: Global

Resources recommended: use of Google Earth, and mapmaking tools such as Google Maps; Scribble Maps.

Written report


  • The material must include a student-created map showing interconnectedness.

Length: 400–800 words

Scale: Global

Resources recommended: use of Google Earth, and mapmaking tools such as Google Maps; Scribble Maps.

Refer to Australian Curriculum: Geography — Assessment categories, techniques and conditions: www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ac_geography_assess_advice.pdf



The valued features of the standard elaborations targeted in this assessment are:

Geographical knowledge and understanding

Questioning and researching

Interpreting and analysing

Communicating

For further advice and guidelines on constructing task-specific standards, refer to the standards elaborations: www.qsa.qld.edu.au/26025.html > select the Year level > choose the Resources tab > Standards elaborations.





Teaching and learning

Teaching strategies and learning experiences

Supportive learning environment1

Resources

Personal Interconnections

Students:

create personal digital maps of their local area using Google My Map

develop geographical questions to compare class members’ spatial use of the local area, e.g. What are the features of the local area that connect us and where are they located? How do they connect us?

describe and explain spatial patterns (e.g. linear, clustered etc.) and relationships, e.g. gender patterns; how the local area is used.

compare perceptions of places in the local area, particularly at different times of day, between males and females, different age groups and people from diverse culture using survey data

explore the historical and contemporary perspectives of Place of Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islander peoples. How are they the same and different from non-indigenous perspectives? Seek permission to examine songlines maps and art as personal maps

analyse maps to identify spatial patterns (including anomalies) and reasons why people go to these places

select a contentious place within the local area and explore different perceptions of the place within the group and from outside the group, e.g. Consider the perceptions of the media, a guest speaker, the view of the council or interviews with people from outside the local area.


Adjustments for needs of learners

Students would benefit from access to:

spatial technologies such as Google Earth, special purpose maps,

primary sources materials such as surveys, annotated maps.

Other resources

Geogspace: Exemplars www.geogspace.edu.au/core-units/years-9-10/exemplars/y9-exemplars.html

Geogspace: Developing an inquiry in Year 9 and 10 www.geogspace.edu.au/core-units/years-9-10/inquiry-and-skills/years-9-10/y9-is-illus1.html

Geogspace: Developing geographical skills in Year 9 and 10 www.geogspace.edu.au/core-units/years-9-10/inquiry-and-skills/years-9-10/y9-is-illus2.html



Interconnections between people and places

Transport

Students:

explore spatial connections through transport (road, rail, air and sea) in response to teacher-directed questions

create a map of private and public transport routes using tools such as Google Earth, Google Maps, route planners and worldwide air travel maps from sites such as www.worldmapper.org

explore spatial patterns in statistical data to analyse why some types of transport are preferred and identify the economic and social barriers to access transport

Goods and services

Students:

explore the production and consumption of goods and services on a global scale with a focus on North-east Asia using focus questions such as:

What types of products and services are produced?


(e.g. cars, clothes, shoes, food)

Where are the products and services produced?

Where are the products and services transported and distributed?
Complete a mapping activity using Google Earth so routes can be measured.)

How does production and consumption impact on places?


(Consider social, economic and environmental impacts.)

investigate, through a case study from either Japan, South Korea or China, the effects of interconnections. Case study examples may include:

apparel production linking China and the world (NikeInc)

car production linking South Korea or Japan and the world (Hyundai/Kia or Toyota)



  • electronics manufacture linking South Korea and the world (Samsung)




Websites supporting
case studies

Nike manufacturing map http://manufacturingmap.nikeinc.com

CIA World factbook www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/

BBC South Korea profile  www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15289563

Economy watch Follow the money www.economywatch.com/world_economy/south-korea/

Samsung https://www.samsung.com/au/aboutsamsung

Gapminder  http://gapminder.org

Scoop.it: Year 12 Geography  http://scoop.it/t/year-12-geography

Internet World Stats
www.internetworldstats.com/travel.htm

Economy watch:


South Korea Economy www.economywatch.com/world_economy/south-korea/


Information and Communication Technologies

Students:

identify the differences in people’s access to the internet between and within countries and explore how ICTs are being used to connect people to information, services and people in other places

use maps to analyse the level of connectedness through ICTs, globally and regionally. Connectedness may include infrastructure, such as cell phones service and internet access, as well as infrastructure-dependent services such as facebook or twitter

identify why some people have greater access to ICTs. Consider income and access to infrastructure, such as the National Broadband Network (NBN) in Australia, and differences between rural and urban areas

Recreation

Students:

explore the effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places, and the implications for the future of these places

identify types of travel and recreational activities that people engage in, e.g. sporting tours, cultural tours or tourist visits

use primary sources (surveys) and secondary sources (tourism statistics) to identify the types of travel and recreational activities that people engage in, e.g. sporting tours, cultural tours

transform statistics into an annotated map and add graphical representations of travel destinations

investigate the impacts of travel on a specific locations and cultural practices through a case study, e.g. Bali traditional, cultural dance performances for tourists; Rio and the World Cup; London and the Olympics





Travel information

Datagenie: International visitors to Australia http://ivs.datagenie.edu.au

Online travel industry statistics http://infographicsmania.com/online-travel-statistics-2012/


Reflect and review questions

What are the consequences of these interconnections on people and places? Consider aspects such as the positive and negative consequences, appearance and features of places, the economy, the workforce, standards of living, and the environment

What geographical tools can be used to show these consequences?
Consider tools such as line graphs, column graphs and annotated photographs

Are there alternative points of view on the value of these interconnections?


Consider labour conditions, trade policies and environmental impacts

What conclusions can be drawn about why interconnections and interdependences are important for the future of places?












Use feedback

Ways to monitor learning and assessment

Teachers meet to collaboratively plan the teaching, learning and assessment to meet the needs of all learners in each unit.

Teachers create opportunities for discussion about levels of achievement to develop shared understandings; co-mark or cross mark at key points to ensure consistency of judgments; and participate in moderating samples of student work at school or cluster level to reach consensus and consistency.



Feedback to students

Teachers strategically plan opportunities and ways to provide ongoing feedback (both written and informal) and encouragement to students on their strengths and areas for improvement.

Students reflect on and discuss with their teachers or peers what they can do well and what they need to improve.

Teachers reflect on and review learning opportunities to incorporate specific learning experiences and provide multiple opportunities for students to experience, practise and improve.


Reflection on the unit plan

Identify what worked well during and at the end of the unit, including:

activities that worked well and why

activities that could be improved and how

assessment that worked well and why

assessment that could be improved and how

common student misconceptions that need, or needed, to be clarified.


Appendix

Concepts for developing geographical understandings in Years 7–10


Concept

Description

Place

Places are parts of the Earth’s surface and can be described by location, shape, boundaries, features and environmental and human characteristics. Places are unique in their characteristics and play a fundamental role in human life. They may be perceived, experienced, understood and valued differently. They range in size from a part of a room to a major world region. For Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islander peoples, Country/Place is important for its significance to culture, identity and spirituality.

In Years 7–10, students extend their focus beyond their own communities to a wider exploration of the world. Students explain how geographical processes influence the characteristics of places and how places are perceived and valued differently.



Space

Spaces are defined by the location of environmental and human features, geographical phenomena and activities across the Earth’s surface to form distributions and patterns. Spaces are perceived, structured, organised and managed and can be designed and redesigned to achieve particular purposes. Space can be explored at different levels or scales.

In Years 7–10, students investigate the spatial distributions, patterns, trends and relationships among geographical phenomena over time. For example, students can investigate population patterns over time to determine how urban planning organises the spaces within cities or regions.



Environment

The environment is the product of geological, atmospheric, hydrological, geomorphic, edaphic (soil), biotic and human processes. The concept of environment is about the significance of the environment in human life, and the important interrelationships between humans and the environment. The environment supports and enriches human and other life by providing raw materials and food, absorbing and recycling wastes, maintaining a safe habitat and being a source of enjoyment and inspiration.

In Years 7–10, students focus on the significance of the environment and how different views of places and environments influence decisions about their management.



Interconnection

Interconnection is the way that people and/or geographical phenomena are connected to each other through environmental processes and human activity. Interconnections can be simple, complex, reciprocal or interdependent and have strong influence on the characteristics of places. An understanding of the concept of interconnection leads to holistic thinking. This helps students to understand Aboriginal peoples’ and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ holistic connection to Country/Place and the knowledge and practices that developed as a result of this connection.

In Years 7–10, students investigate how people, through their choices and actions, are connected to places throughout the world, and how these connections help to make and change places and their environments.



Change

Change involves any alteration to the natural or cultural environment and can involve both time and space. The concept of change is about explaining geographical phenomena by investigating how they developed over time. Environmental change can occur over both short and long time frames, and have interrelationships with human activities. An understanding of the current processes of change can be used to predict change in the future and to identify what would be needed to achieve more sustainable futures.

In Years 7–10, students apply human–environment systems thinking to understand the causes and consequences of environmental change and the geographical concepts and methods used to evaluate and select strategies to manage the change.



Sustainability

Sustainability addresses the ongoing capacity of the Earth to maintain all life. It is both a goal and a way of thinking about how to progress towards that goal. Sustainable patterns of living meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs (economic, social and environmental). Sustainability depends on the maintenance or restoration of the functions that sustain all life and human wellbeing.

In Years 7–10, students begin to focus on sustainability, which is a continuing theme and is progressively developed to become the major focus in Year 10.



Scale

Scale refers to the different spatial levels used to investigate phenomena or represent phenomena visually (maps, images, graphs), from the personal to local, regional, national, world regional and global levels. Scale is also involved when geographers look for explanations or outcomes at different levels. Scale may be perceived differently by groups and can be used to elevate or diminish the significance of an issue, for example, a local issue or global issue.

In Years 7–10, students explore the interaction between geographical processes at the full range of scales, from local to global, and in a range of locations.






1 Part 6 of the Disability Standards for Education (The Standards for Curriculum Development, Accreditation and Delivery) states that education providers, including class teachers, must take reasonable steps to ensure a course/program is designed to allow any child to participate and experience success in learning. The Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Cwlth) is available from:
www.ag.gov.au > select Human rights and anti-discrimination > Disability standards for education.

DRAFTQueensland Studies Authority July 2013 | 


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