Village in the eastern Caprivi floodplains.
An estimated 65,000 people were affected by the floods. 71 casualties were reported by March 2008 of which there were 42 deaths.[page needed] Deaths were predominantly children and the elderly who drowned crossing oshonas[what language is this?] (flood plains) at night. Wounds resulting from walking in water were a problem in Caprivi.[page needed] Outreach clinics in rural areas were cut off by the flooding.[page needed] Relocation camps were set up in the Engela District and Oshana Region and housed over 4,600 of the displaced. Camps had limited or no access to latrines, waste disposal and clean tap water, and some camps were overcrowded. An outbreak of cholera at Engela in the Ohangwena Region was announced in March. An assessment undertaken 19–20 March by the World Health Organization (WHO) identified that the case fatality rate (CFR) for cholera may be under recorded and reported common acute diseases in the under fives to include malaria, diarrhea and respiratory infections. Cholera cases were also reported at Odibo and Okatope. By the 16th of April, 958 cases of cholera, including four deaths, had been reported.Engela Hospital, which was inaccessible by road, opened a cholera treatment centre. WHO figures for cholera in Namibia for 2008 were 3,496 with 38 deaths (1.09% CFR) compared to 14 cases in 2007 with 0 deaths (0% CFR). Food Security
The floods significantly reduced yields of mahangu, the staple cereal food for the majority of the population in the Northern Central regions[page needed]. The household stocks of mahangu were not expected to last beyond next the harvest, forcing the household to use savings to purchase food.[page needed] As low-income households could not easily compensate by lowering already minimal non-food expenditure, they were likely to shift food consumption towards lower calorie and less nutritious foods or simply reduce their food intake. The European Food Safety Authority mission estimated that compared to the previous agricultural season, there was an average 59% drop in production in the North Central Regions and 46% in affected areas of Caprivi. As a result, 16.4% of the flood affected households in the Northern Central regions were food insecure rising to 32.5% in Caprivi, an area with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS.[page needed] These households were unable to meet their daily nutritional requirements.[page needed] The population affected by the floods went from chronically food insecure to acutely food insecure.[page needed] An estimated 52,000 people were in immediate need of assistance to cover their basic food needs in flood-affected areas.[page needed] Response
The Namibian government declared a state of emergency on 5 March 2008 and appealed to international community for assistance. Working jointly with humanitarian agencies including UN, the government assessed damage extent and established critical needs in the affected areas. The government of Namibia provided food supplies worth N$221,000 and non-food commodities worth N$5.3 million and pledged N$65 million to assist the displaced. The Emergency Management Unit in the Office of the Prime Minister delivered necessary food items to the affected regions using helicopters following roads damage. Flood victims were evacuated to relocation centres in the Engela District and Oshana Region. The Namibian Red Cross supported over 40,000 people, who were moved back to their homes by end of August 2008. The Red Cross distributed blankets, hygiene kits, water makers, mosquito nets, bar soaps in North-western regions. In partnership with the Swedish Red Cross the Red Cross also provided agricultural items such as millet, sorghum, goats and chicken to improve food security among the most vulnerable in Ohangwena region. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs triggered the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters" to help the country battle against floods and the subsequent cholera outbreak that ravaged the country.UNICEF trained community health activists, produced radio messages on cholera prevention and distributed water purification tablets in the affected areas. Aftermath
Oshana region in floods
Since 2008, when the first serious Namibia floods disaster occurred, they have become a devastating, almost annual event that finds most households hardly recovered from the previous flood. The communities in the rural areas of North and Central Namibia were most affected by the floods. Their livelihoods are dependent on subsistence farming and the floods increased livestock and household vulnerability of the farmers. Water logging and retention due to the floods was associated with the loss of land productivity and soil degradation. The declining quality of soil affected the farming of major staple crops, sorghum and mahangu, which escalated food prices in the region furthering household food insecurity. Livelihoods were affected after livestock died from drowning in large numbers, whilst the poor prevailing conditions made those remaining susceptible to diseases and parasites such as Lumpy skin disease and the African swine fever. Other impacts were on public infrastructure like roads, bridges, sewerage system, health facilities, market places and schools which were damaged extensively. Rehabilitation work in flooded areas went beyond repairs to include the elevation of roads and improvements to the drainage system. The cost of this was 5.5 times the value of replacing damaged structures. Unfortunately, the area and the population had not yet recovered and were still vulnerable when flooding occurred in 2009.[
Types of Disasters
Disaster is a severe concern for the living. The impact of a disaster can vary from small to large, depending on its types. In particular, disasters can have many causes. But in most cases, disasters can cause damage to material resources as well as life. Although they are unpredictable and can be unconditional, there can be many reasons for which we are also responsible.
In this article, we are discussing different types of disasters and their definition. Knowing their types is very important because they have a significant impact on society. Before discussing the different types of disasters, let us first understand briefly about the disaster with the help of its definition:
What is Disaster?
A disaster is an emergency of such severity and magnitude resulting from various uncertainties such as multiple deaths, injuries, illness, and property damage, and often not handled with routine procedures and resources. Such uncertainty can occur for several reasons. The causes can be natural, human error, equipment malfunction, disease, biological danger, etc.
The duration of disasters can range from a minute of disruption to an hour, day, or a week, and the effects can go from minor to large scale. These disruptions caused by various disasters can damage human resources, economic resources, environmental supplies, and even the lives of multiple species, including humans. Although any disaster type may occur for a specific period, it will have long-term effects that are usually beyond the affected society's tolerable capacity.
Disaster Management, Prevention, and Mitigation
Disaster management refers to the systems we use to deal with human, property, economic or environmental resources against disasters. It is how we prepare, deal, respond, and learn from disasters and their effects.
Disasters management mainly aims to:
Minimize the risks and uncertainties to societies affected by disaster
Proper planning and mitigation measures can play a leading role in risk-prone areas to prevent or mitigate the worst effects of many disasters, including cyclones, earthquakes, and floods. Besides, many disasters are predictable before arrival, so we can prepare ourselves to reduce the damage caused by them.
Types of Disasters
There are many types of disasters and can take different forms. However, all these can be broadly classified into the following three categories:
Human-made or Technological Disasters
Let us now understand each type in detail:
Natural disasters are defined as a natural event that occurs slowly or rapidly and causes immediate widespread devastation on human health leading to death and suffering. Some biological activities, such as rainfall, can also turn into natural disasters when they occur above the average limit. These disasters are mainly characterized by various factors such as their intensity or magnitude, area of the range, duration, speed of onset, etc.
Natural disasters are also harmful to natural resources. They often cause mass destruction. Such disasters harm humans and other species. For example, a natural disaster like wildfire destroys the environment and loss of life for animal habitat. Also, it damages natural resources and property.
Besides, some natural disasters may be caused by various anthropogenic activities. For example, deforestation, mining, and agricultural activities can trigger landslides. However, they are classified in the category of natural disasters.
Some most common types of natural disasters are discussed below:
Geological disasters refer to catastrophic events that arise due to Earth's variations, either above or below the Earth's surface. In particular, volcanic eruptions often occur where tectonic plates make contact. On the other side, earthquakes are prone to areas with active plate tectonics.
Some common examples of geological disasters include earthquakes, avalanches, landslides, tsunamis, sinkholes, volcanic eruptions, etc.
Hydrological disaster refers to instantaneous and violent events that occur below the Earth's surface or in the atmosphere due to variations in water quality, movement, or distribution. A tsunami is a large column of water or waves mainly caused by the displacement of high amounts of water. They are usually caused by biological activities, such as volcanic eruptions or earthquakes, under the sea.
Some common examples of hydrological disasters include flooding, tsunamis, limnic eruptions, etc.
Climatological Disasters refer to immediate and violent changes in the earth's environment related to or caused by the earth's atmosphere. It is a hazard mainly caused by long-lived/meso to macro-scale processes in the spectrum from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal climate variability. Moreover, these types of disasters can last from minutes to days. They are further classified as Extreme Temperature and Wildfire. Extreme Temperature events are identified as cold waves, heat waves, and severe winter situations (e.g., icing, avalanche, snow pressure, freezing rain, etc.). Besides, wildfire is identified as the forest fires and land fires (fires due to grass, scrub, etc.).
Meteorological disasters refer to events that are caused by extreme weather conditions, such as rain, snowfall, or drought. Disasters of this type usually affect the Earth's atmosphere and the means of the changing climate. Besides, these disasters are very destructive to the environment and can wreak havoc on many lives, including various species. Some common examples of meteorological disasters are tornados, hailstorms, and hurricanes.
Biological disasters refer to natural and unfortunate events that can cause diseases, disabilities, or even deaths at an average to a larger rate of various species, including humans and plants. Biological disasters are defined as catastrophic scenarios caused by living or non-living organisms that cause large-scale severe diseases, viruses, or infections in plants, humans, and other species. These disasters are usually caused by micro-organisms such as infectious, bacteria, toxins, viruses, etc. Some common examples of biological disasters include animal plagues and insect-borne diseases.
Space disasters are different types of disasters. These usually involve natural actions in space, such as solar flares, airburst events, and impact events. At least once, the impact events have occurred in the history of around 4.5 billion years of the Earth. It is also said that it caused the extinction of all non-avian dinosaurs several million years ago. Solar flares are defined as the sudden release of extensively large amounts of solar radiation by the sun. Airburst events are observed as the enormous energetic explosions of rays (e.g., Gamma-ray) in distant galaxies. If such an event occurs again today, it may result in many species' mass extinction, including humans.
Human-made or Technological Disasters
Disasters can also be caused by humans, either directly or indirectly. Human-made disasters are defined as the events generated by humans primarily in, or close to, human settlements. Such events typically cause environmental or technological emergencies.
Human-made disasters have elements of human intent, negligence, or error that involve the human-made system's failure. Additionally, sometimes disturbances in natural resources also lead to human-made disasters. Some of the most common examples of human-made disasters include terrorism, large-scale crime or mass violence incidents, war, arson, civil disorder, biological/chemical threat, Reduction in consumption resources, etc.
Some most common types of human-made or technological disasters are discussed below:
Environmental degradation is a type of disaster involving over-consumption of natural resources, reducing the environment's ability to meet social and ecological needs. This ultimately reduces the effectiveness of ecosystem services, resulting in the mitigation of floods and landslides. In turn, the risk of natural disasters increases.
Pollution is another type of human-made disaster. Although it does not show any direct symptoms, it affects natural resources and living organisms. This also reduces the environment's quality and further decreases the environment's ability to balance ecological needs. From day to day, pollution reaches significantly higher levels due to humans' large number of wastes. This leads to increased risks of disasters. Besides, when disasters occur, many of them subsequently pollute and degrade the environment.
Terrorism is a type of human-made disaster and is defined as incidents in which terrorists use force or violence against people or property violating criminal laws for purposes such as threats, rebellion, or ransom. Terrorism aims to create unrest within the country and spread panic among the people. Acts of terrorism typically include intimidation, murder, bombing, kidnapping, hijacking, and even cyber-attacks (obtaining intelligence and security information). Terrorists can also use chemical and biological weapons to target people at public events, gatherings and landmarks.
Accidents can sometimes take the form of disaster. It usually involves accidental events in which loss of life and material is measured extensively. It includes industrial, technical, and transportation-related accidents during the production, use, or transportation of hazardous materials.
Some disasters can occur due to the impact of many disasters. Such disasters are usually classified under complex emergencies. It is generally defined as the consequences of natural and human-made disasters. In particular, complex emergencies can include the breakdown of authority, attacks on strategic installations, looting, increasing rampant crimes, many other conflict situations, or even wars.
The following are common characteristics for identifying complex emergencies:
Loss of many life
Extreme damage to economies and societies
Displacements of populations
Increased security for humanitarian relief workers
Large scale humanitarian aid required by various agencies
Need for political and military barriers that affect or prevent humanitarian aid
Some of the most common types of complex emergencies that fall under the category of disasters are discussed below:
Food insecurity is usually defined as a secondary type of disaster. It is a threat that primarily involves incidents that cause damage to food stores and food systems. For example, natural disasters such as floods and droughts can damage agricultural infrastructure and stored food. Unexpected climate changes can also affect people's food sources. Because people need to consume adequate, healthy, and nutritious food at certain times of the day to live a healthy life, food insecurity leads to problems and other uncertainties. Sometimes, it can also be due to human actions, such as an unsuccessful experiment on agriculture.
Epidemics and Pandemics
The epidemic primarily involves the devastating effects of disasters caused by any disease, disability, or death of people in a particular area or community. Besides, pandemics include disasters that affect a large extent, even the entire country or the world. For example, recent coronavirus disease has been declared a pandemic by the WHO (World Health Organization). Both these disasters can be caused by nature or humans.
The displaced population includes people who have had to leave their residents due to disasters/ technical/ intentional incidents. People can be from the same country or refugees (people from other countries or opposite borders). This can lead to a specific emergency as there will be uncertainties to meet the basic structural needs of livelihoods. It can force people to commit crimes and other conflicts.
Classification Based on Categories
Earth, in its 4.54 billion year history, has experienced various types of disasters. Some of these disasters have led to many mass extinctions and drastic consequences for different living species. The most common types of disasters can also be classified according to the following categories: