Citizens resumed daily lives only taking shelter during the attacks
Hitler unsuccessful in claiming air superiority and Britain was more determined to defeat the Nazis
Tripartite Agreement – Sept. 27, 1940
Germany, Italy, & Japan become alliesFight Soviet communism
Agreed to not interfere with one another’s plan for territorial expansion
Hungary and Romania joined in November 1940 and Bulgaria joined March1941.
Africa and the Balkans
September 1940 – Mussolini order forces from their colony Libya into Egypt.
Hitler sent General Erwin Rommel; “Desert Fox” to North Africa.
Pushed the British back across the desert towards Cairo, Egypt.
October 1940 – Italian forces invaded Greece
1941 – Germany provided reinforcements
Greece and Yugoslavia added to growing Axis Empire.
Greek and Yugoslav guerillas plagued the occupying forces
Bulgaria and Hungary joined the Axis alliance.
Germany Invades Soviet Union
June 1941 – Hitler nullified the Nazi-Soviet Pact-Nullified – made invalid
Operation Barbarossa – invaded the Soviet Union
Crush Communism in Europe and defeat Stalin: “If I had the Ural Mountains with their incalculable store of treasures in raw materials, Siberia with its vast forests, and the Ukraine with its tremendous wheat fields, Germany under National Socialist leadership would swim in plenty.” – Hitler
Hitler unleashed blitzkrieg in the Soviet Union about 3 million German soldiers invaded.
Stalin suffering from the Great Purge
Soviet Union lost 2 and a half million soldiers
When retreating – destroyed factories, farm equipment, and burned crops
By autumn, Nazis were poised to take Moscow and Leningrad (St. Petersburg)
Siege of Leningrad – started September 1941 and lasts two and a half years
Leningrad did not fall to the Germans
Stalin urged Britain to open a second front in Western Europe.
Churchill did not offer much help, but the two powers agreed to work together.
Isolationism – The policy or doctrine of isolating one’s country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements, etc…, seeking to devote the entire efforts of one’s country to its own advancement and remain at peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.
December 7, 1941 - Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor“a date which will live in infamy”
December 8, 1941 - United States declared war on Japan
December 11, 1941 - Germany and Italy declared war on the United States
Executive Order 9066- 2/19/42- “I hereby authorize the Secretary of War the right to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine from which any or all persons may be excluded.”
Allies Turn the Tide
Another TOTAL war: Rations, War bonds, Prices/wages regulated, Increase in production (helps end depression), Propaganda, “Rosie the Riveter”-women are key
The US Joins British Forces
1)Defeat of Axis in Europe = Top Priority
Adolf Hitler considered #1 enemy
Stalin (Allied power since 6/41) in need of help
U.S. could only look for help in Pacific when Hitler defeated
2) Only unconditional surrender of the Axis powers allowed
Germans fought in USSR since June ’41→ Siege of Leningrad
Feb 1945-Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin met at Yalta (S. SU)
Big Three-planned strategy-Stalin insists SU needed to maintain control of E. Europe to protect from future aggression
Roosevelt wanted self-determination for E. Europe
Churchill and Roosevelt need Stalin to win war
At Conference→3 agree SU would enter war in Pacific 3 months after Germany’s knocked out of war. Stalin in return would take possession of S. Sakhalin Islands, Kuril Island and occupation zone in Korea.
Germany would be temporarily divided into 4 zones. One to each ally-US, GB, France, SU
Stalin also agreed to free elections in Europe
Liberation of Camps
Soviets first, then Americans
April 25, 1945- Soviet Army stormed Berlin
Hitler prepares for end-marries Eva Braun April 29th-same day writes address to German people-blamed Jews for starting war and generals for losing it
Next day-shoots himself, Eva swallow poison→taken outside and bodies burned
May 8, 1945- V-E Day-General Eisenhower accepted unconditional surrender of 3rd Reich