Writing in ap history



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Writing in AP History
https://cognitiveitching.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/keep-calm-and-write-history.png

Originally created by Mr. Daniel Lazar

John F. Kennedy School

Revised/edited by Mr. Robert Rivera, Solon High School



AP History Exam Information

The AP History Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long and includes a 105-minute multiple-choice / short-answer section (Part I) and a 90-minute free-response section (Part II).

Each section is divided into two parts, as shown in the table below. Student performance on these four parts will be compiled and weighted to determine an AP Exam score.

AP Scores are 5 – 1.





Section


Question Type


Number of Questions


Timing

Percentage of Total Exam Score

I

Part A: Multiple-choice questions

55 questions

55 minutes

40%




Part B: Short-answer questions

4 questions

50 minutes

20%




BREAK










II

Part A: Document-based question

1 question

55 minutes

25%




Part B: Long essay question

1 question

(chosen from a pair)



35 minutes

15%



How your learning will be assessed on the AP Exam:

The following are general parameters about the relationship between the components of the curriculum framework and the questions that will be asked on the AP Exam:



  • Achievement of the thematic learning objectives will be assessed throughout the exam

  • Demonstration of the nine historical thinking skills (HTS) will be assessed throughout the exam

  • One essay, DBQ or LEQ, will examine change over time and, thus, challenge the writer to examine long-term developments which span two or more time periods.

  • In APUSH, no DBQ or LEQ will focus exclusively on events prior to 1607 (Period 1) or after 1980 (Period 9)


Everything You Need Know About the Short Answer Section
What does it look like?

• 4 short answer questions


• 20% of test (5% each)
• Each question will ask 3 tasks, worth 1 point apiece
• Tasks are typically divided as (a) (b) (c)
• Students have a one page box with 23 lines on which to write. No more.
SAQ Types?

  • With stimuli

    • Visual Stimuli: painting, cartoon, graph, table, map, etc.

    • Text Stimuli: One Source/Perspective

      • Primary

      • Secondary

    • Text Stimuli: Opposing Perspectives

      • Primary

      • Secondary

  • Without stimuli


How to Write the SAQ

  • Directly answer the question. Be painfully explicit.

  • Use the phraseology of the question (but do not rewrite or repeat the question).

  • Include specific historical terms/events/people in each section of each SAQ.

  • Limit your response to each section to 2-4 content rich sentences.

  • You have 23 lines on which to write.

  • Label each part

    • (A) – Your Response

    • (B) – Your Response

    • (C) – Your Response


How NOT to Write the SAQ

  • Do NOT write a short essay

  • Do NOT write a paragraph

  • Do NOT write a thesis statement

  • Do NOT write in bullet points

  • Do NOT write in sentence fragments

  • Do NOT quote from nor parenthetically cite the excerpt(s) provided


Everything You Need Know About the Short Answer Section (continued)
What does it look like?
1. United States historians have proposed various events to mark the beginning of an American identify

A) Choose ONE of the event listed below and explain why your choice best represents the beginning of American identify. Provide at least ONE piece of evidence to support your explanation



  • The end of the Seven Years’ War (French-Indian War) in 1763

  • Signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776

  • Ratification of the United States Constitution in 1789

B) Contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice.


  1. Use the image below to answer parts a, b, and c.


a) Briefly explain the point of view expressed through the image about ONE of the following.

  • Emancipation

  • Citizenship

  • Political participation

b) Briefly explain ONE outcome of the Civil War that led to the historical change depicted in the image.

c) Briefly explain ONE way in which the historical change you explained in part b was challenged in the period between 1866 and 1896.



Everything You Need Know About the Short Answer Section (continued)


  1. Use the image below to answer parts a, b, and c.


A) Choose ONE of the factors below and explain why it played the greatest role in precipitating the Missouri Compromise. Cite ONE piece of historical evidence to support your explanation:

  • Debates over political values

  • Regional identity

  • Environmental factors

B) Briefly contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice.

Everything You Need Know About the Short Answer Section (continued)

“[W]e have in [United States history] a recurrence of the process of evolution in each western area reached in the process of expansion. Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities, its continuous touch with the simplicity of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating American character. The true point of view in the history of this nation is not the Atlantic coast, it is the Great West. . . . In this advance, the frontier is the outer edge of the wave—the meeting point between savagery and civilization.”

-Frederick Jackson Turner, historian, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” 1893

“[T]he history of the West is a study of a place undergoing conquest and never fully escaping its consequences. . . . Deemphasize the frontier and its supposed end, conceive of the West as a place and not a process, and Western American history has a new look. First, the American West was an important meeting ground, the point where Indian America, Latin America, Anglo-America, Afro-America, and Asia intersected. . . . Second, the workings of conquest tied these diverse groups into the same story. Happily or not, minorities and majorities occupied a common ground. Conquest basically involved the drawing of lines on a map, the definition and allocation of ownership (personal, tribal, corporate, state, federal, and international), and the evolution of land from matter to property.”

-Patricia Nelson Limerick, historian, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West, 1987


  1. Using the excerpts above, answer parts a, b, and c.

a) Briefly explain ONE major difference between Turner’s and Limerick’s interpretations.

b) Briefly explain how someone supporting Turner’s interpretation could use ONE piece of evidence from the period between 1865 and 1898 not directly mentioned in the excerpt.



c) Briefly explain how someone supporting Limerick’s interpretation could use ONE piece of evidence from the period between 1865 and 1898 not directly mentioned in the excerpt.
Nine Historical Thinking Skills (HTS)

These skills will be assessed throughout the test …

Historical Argumentation: Historical thinking requires one to define and frame a question about the past and to address that question by constructing an argument. A plausible and persuasive argument requires a clear, specific, complex, and refutable thesis statement which is then supported by relevant historical evidence. Additionally, argumentation involves the capacity to describe, analyze and evaluate the arguments of others.
Use of Relevant Historical Evidence: Historical thinking involves the ability to identify, describe and evaluate evidence about the past from diverse sources (including written documents, works of art, quantitative data, etc.) with respect to content, authorship, purpose, format, and audience. It involves the capacity to extract useful information, make supportable inferences, and draw appropriate conclusions from historical evidence while also understanding such evidence in its context, recognizing its limitations, and assessing the points of view that it reflects.
Contextualization: Historical thinking involves the ability to connect historical developments to specific circumstances in time and place, and to broader regional, national, or global processes.
Interpretation: Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, evaluate, and create diverse interpretations of the past—as revealed through primary and secondary historical sources—through analysis of evidence, reasoning, contexts, and points of view.
Synthesis: Historical thinking involves the ability to arrive at meaningful and persuasive understandings of the past by applying all the other historical thinking skills, by drawing appropriately on ideas from different fields of inquiry or disciplines and by creatively fusing disparate, relevant (and perhaps contradictory) evidence from primary sources and secondary works. Additionally, synthesis may involve applying insights about the past to other historical contexts or circumstances, including the present.
And The Big Four HTS… The LEQ & DBQ will each be based on one of these 4 skills.

Historical Causation: Historical thinking involves the ability to identify, analyze and evaluate multiple cause-and-effect relationships in a historical context.
Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time: Historical thinking involves the ability to recognize, analyze, and evaluate the dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time, as well as relating these patterns to larger historical processes or themes.
Compare and Contrast: Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, compare and evaluate multiple historical developments within one society, one or more developments across or between different societies, and in various chronological and geographical contexts. It also involves the ability to identify, compare and evaluate multiple perspectives on a given historical experience.
Periodization: Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, evaluate and construct models of historical periodization that historians use to categorize events into discrete blocks. Periodization challenges us to identify turning points, recognizing that the choice of specific dates favors one narrative, region or group over another narrative, region or group; therefore, changing the periodization can change a historical narrative. Moreover, the particular circumstances and contexts in which individual historians work and write shape their interpretations and modeling of past events.
The Big Four HTS Models: Simple and Complex


  1. Historical Causation /Cause and Effect


Simple: Complex:

Example Essay Prompts:
Simple:

      • Explain the major causes of the American Civil War.

      • Evaluate the extent to which westward expansion led to the development of sectionalism prior to 1860.

      • Explain the three most important causes leading to the “Reagan Revolution” in 1980.

Complex:

  • Explain the major political and economic causes and of the growth of big business in American society from 1870 to 1900.




  1. Continuity and Change over Time (CCOT)



Simple: Complex:
A B

T1 T2

A B
Key Event



Before Key Event


After Key Event

Example Essay Prompts:
Simple:

A B C



  • Evaluate the extent to which trans-Atlantic interactions from 1600 to 1763 contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostered change in labor systems in the British North American colonies.

  • Identify and analyze the changing role of women within American society from the American Revolution to the Civil War.

  • Evaluate the extent to which increasing integration of the U.S. into the world economy contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in U.S. society from 1945 to the present.


Complex:

  • Evaluate major changes and continuities in the social and economic experiences of African Americans who migrated from the rural South to urban areas in the North in the period 1910–1930.




  1. Compare and Contrast (CC)



Simple: Complex:
Example Essay Prompts:
Simple:

  • Compare and contrast the New England colonies with the colonies in the Chesapeake.




  • Immigration has always played an important role in the history of the United States, compare immigration during the 1840’s and 1850’s with immigration during the 1870’s and 1880’s.


Complex:

  • Compare and contrast the New England colonies with the colonies in the Chesapeake. In so doing, address two of the three following characteristics in your answer: political, economic, and social patterns.




  • Immigration has played an important role in the history of the United States. Compare and contrast immigration during the 1840’s and 1850’s with immigration during the 1870’s and 1880’s. In so doing, address two of the three in your answer: patterns of settlement, reasons for immigrating, reactions of nativist groups.



  1. Periodization / Turning Point



Simple: Complex:


Example Essay Prompts:
Simple:

  • Evaluate the extent to which the Spanish-American War was a turning point in foreign policy in the United States.

  • Evaluate the degree to which the Progressive Era marked a turning point in the relationship between the American people and their government.


Complex:

  • Historians have argued that the “Era of Good Feelings” was a misnomer. Given the political, social, and economic circumstances, to what extent is this “The Era of Good Feelings” a valid title for the period 1816-1824?

  • The 1980’s have been marked as a time of a conservative revolution. Evaluate the degree to which the 1980’s were indeed a revolutionary period in American history.



The Thesis Statement
You will write a thesis that is specific, refutable, and complex. The thesis must be the final sentence (or two) in the introductory paragraph. Your thesis is the most important sentence in your essay. Take the time to write it well. Use the wording of the question to demonstrate that you are responding directly to it.

  • Specific—your thesis must be a clear and precise foreshadowing of your argument.

  • Refutable—the reader must be able to disagree with your thesis. It must be debatable. If it is not debatable then you are not making an argument in your essay.

  • Complex—demonstrate your understanding of the complexity of the issue by writing a sophisticated thesis and then by examining contradictory evidence in the body of your essay.


How specific must my thesis statement be?

It’s a balancing act. You don’t want to be too general (Level 3) or too specific (Level 1). Let the reader know where you are going, but delve too far into your evidence. We want the reader to keep reading. We will call the right amount of specificity Level 2 Specificity.


Consider the following prompt:
Evaluate the extent to which the Articles of Confederation were effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation.
Level 3: The Articles of Confederation was successful as a first attempt at building a government. However, the Articles of Confederation was weak politically, socially, and economically. Therefore, the Articles of Confederation did not provide an effective answer to the problems facing the new nation.
Level 2 (just right): The Articles of Confederation created a well-organized system for dealing with newly acquired territories and providing a financial means to increase needed revenue. However, it established a loose confederation of states that lacked a sense of national unity, it created internal gridlock that failed to establish a system of checks and balances, and it created a government that did not have the powers to conduct basic governmental business. Therefore, the Articles of Confederation largely ineffective in solving many of the problems faced by the newly formed United States.
Level 1: Under the Articles of Confederation, the Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787 created a well-organized system for dealing with newly acquired territories and a plausible means to increase government revenue in a time in which the country was facing massive debt. However, it established a decentralized government with limited sovereignty, creating a league of friendship, with limited effectiveness; it was unable to foster any sense of nationalism; it contained a lack of leadership and a lack of independent judiciary; it lacked provisions for raising revenues and collecting taxes from the states, as well as failing to handle the abuses of paper money, with no control over interstate commerce; and could not protect the country from rebellions like Shays’ Rebellion. Therefore, the Articles of Confederation proved unable to handle the problems faced by the country after the American Revolution.
Contextualization: Setting the Stage and Showing the Broader Picture
To provide effective analysis, students must step back and explain what’s going on in the country (or world) that could justify or explain historical issues/events/figures/developments (the facts).
Let’s use the following prompt and thesis:


Analyze the causes of the American independence movement from the end of the French and Indian War until the end of the American Revolution.
Beginning on the North American continent and spreading to Europe and around the globe, the French and Indian War culminated with a British victory and acquisition of French lands from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. With an enlarged empire and a burdensome war debt, Great Britain asserted its mercantilist power over its American colonies. However, American colonists tended to perceive Britain’s policies as an attack on their rights as Englishmen, as a disruption to their regional markets and commerce, and a disregard of their egalitarian lifestyle and status. With each Parliamentary act, the American patriot cause increasingly clamored for proper recognition and, ultimately, separation.

The writer chose to address the political, economic, and social aspects of their position (without saying so)


Contextualization for the POL paragraph

"The British victory following the French and Indian War and its culminating Treaty of Paris (1763) heightened British nationalism and position on the world stage. Increasingly confident, the British Empire attempted to secure their expanded territorial claims to avoid future potential wars by taking an authoritarian position over its American colonies and throughout the world.”


The student can then argue this position with Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Declaratory Act, Quartering Act, Coercive Acts, Sons of Liberty, Letters from a Farmer, Olive Branch Petition, Second Continental Congress, and Declaration of Independence.
Contextualization for the ECON paragraph

"Given Britain's stronger global position after the French and Indian War, the empire reinforced its commitment to mercantilist policies. Besides paying off the massive war debt, Parliament sought to use the colonies as a source of revenue and to ensure colonial raw materials fed the mother country’s growing industries."
The student can then argue this position using the Sugar Act, the Townshend Acts, the Tea Act, colonial merchants, colonial regional economies, smuggling, direct and indirect taxes.
Contextualization for the SOC paragraph

"The colonies developed a unique American way of life centered on equal opportunity after decades of salutary neglect. As the British Empire encouraged strict adherence to its imperial authority, the colonists viewed Parliament's actions as disruptive to its American lifestyle and essentially subjugated."
The student can then argue this position using variety of Western Europe immigrants, fluid social hierarchy vs rigid European society, American identity, regionalism, colonists as second-class subjects, patriots vs loyalists, English nationalism vs American pride.
When should I offer context in an AP History essay?

  • Probably in the introduction, and

  • Once or twice in the body

  • …and perhaps in your conclusion

Synthesis: inferring relationships among themes, positions, and periods
There are 2 ways students can provide synthesis according to the rubric:


  1. Synthesis using theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, or intellectual history)



The Enlightenment ideals from Europe spread among American patriots like wildfire. A brief pamphlet written in the vernacular, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense deployed rational arguments to criticize the perpetual European warfare and England's unfamiliarity with the diverse regions and cultures of North America. Reasoned, measured, Enlightenment-based argumentation explained the necessity for American independence. As the understanding of the patriots’ cause spread from elites to the masses, the struggle for independence became a fight for liberal ideals.



  1. Synthesis using historical period, situation, or geographical area.



The American independence movement of the 18th century proclaimed a righteous call to separate from England, who was increasingly seen as overbearing and overzealous. Less than a century later, a similar call for independence and self-determination emerged in America. The Southern states, with their unique agrarian lifestyle and economy, felt threatened by the growing influence and power of the industrializing Northern states. The South felt underrepresented and subjugated as more Northern states gained control and influence in the federal government. Eventually, the South echoed many of the sentiments expressed by the founding patriots against Great Britain.
Where should I offer synthesis points?

  • Probably not in the introduction

  • One could thoughtfully integrate a synthesis into any body paragraph

  • If time permits a short synthesis paragraph is not unacceptable

  • Usually fits rather tidily into the concluding paragraph

How to Write an AP History DBQ


  1. Begin by reading the question. Make sure you understand exactly what is being asked of you as a writer.




  1. There is a mandatory 15 minute planning session during which you will brainstorm to create an outline.

  • Structure your argument and develop a vision for your essay

  • Write topic sentences for each body paragraph

  • Consider thoughtful transitions

  • Jot down all the names, events, acts, and writings that come to mind for the period covered in the essay

  • Consider how you will connect your argument to broader events or processes.

  • Consider how you will connect your argument to a different historical context




  1. Read the documents demandingly

  • Note next to each document any additional outside information triggered by the document.

  • Use HIPP or APPARTS. Assume that every source has a point of view.

  • Never quote the documents. Ever.

  • You can and must paraphrase, in which case you must cite the document.

  • Integrate useful and meaningful outside information into your essay. DBQs without a reasonable balance of documentary references and outside information will not earn desirable marks.




  1. Write a thesis that is specific, refutable, and complex. The thesis must be the final sentence (or two) in the introductory paragraph. Your thesis is the most important sentence in your essay. Take the time to write it well. Use the wording of the question to demonstrate that you are responding directly to it.

  • Specific—your thesis must be a clear and precise foreshadowing of your argument.

  • Refutable—the reader must be able to disagree with your thesis. It must be debatable. If it is not debatable then you are not making an argument in your essay.

  • Complex—demonstrate your understanding of the complexity of the issue by writing a sophisticated thesis and then by examining contradictory evidence in the body of your essay.




  1. Write an introduction that sets the stage for your thesis by establishing time and place.

  • Lead sentences are important as they are your first impression on the reader.

  • “Funnel” introductions are advisable for history essays.

  • Your introduction should be 1-3 sentences + thesis.

  • Your introduction should offer clear historical context

  • Do NOT introduce evidence in your introduction. Evidence is used to prove your argument—save it for body paragraphs.

  • Do not fear the functional introduction. There is a law of diminishing return on creativity.




  1. Cite your sources by using parenthetical citations after referring to a particular document

  • Example: Progressive social activist and city reformer Jane Addams, in a speech delivered in Chicago in 1899, argues that the forceful annexation of the Philippines begat violence in the streets of America. She asserts that the barbarism of the war and the barbarism of the propaganda machine that glorified the war, engendered barbarism in previously peaceful Chicago neighborhoods. Similar conclusions were drawn by critics from the Left and Right when assessing the perils of homeland violence during the Vietnam War (Doc 6).

  • You must use all or all but one of the documents given.

  • Documents do not speak. Thus to write, “Document 6 states that…” makes no sense.




  1. Conclude: although the reader’s mind is likely made up by the time (s)he reads your conclusion, it does leave a final impression.

  • Restate your thesis (rephrase it, do not repeat it).

  • Offer an insightful closing remark that does not stray from your thesis or introduce new information.

  • Conclusions are a logical place—though not the only logical place—to offer a synthesis.

    • Find common ground between thesis and antithesis

    • Connect this historical period to another historical period



  1. Some Other Tips:

  • Never simply restate the question in the introduction.

  • Third person formal. No ‘I’, ‘You’ or ‘We’

  • Demonstrate your awareness of change over time and cause and effect relationships.

  • Do not begin or conclude paragraphs with documents since the document is not the topic of the paragraph.

  • Do conclude paragraphs with a concluding thought, perhaps one that ties back to the thesis.

  • Use transitions BETWEEN and WITHIN paragraphs to demonstrate the connections that you are making. You absolutely must have an arsenal of transition words at your disposal. If you don’t just Google “transition words” and start memorizing.

  • While there is no correct answer, there is always a good one.

  • Demonstrate that you are keenly aware of the controversial nature of the question.

  • Relax and write with confidence once you have determined your thesis and your approach.

  • Demonstrate your understanding of the complexity of the issue by writing a complex thesis and by examining contradictory evidence in the body of your essay. You should attempt to confront the point of view that you did not take or that was true to a lesser extent.

  • As always, appreciate and enjoy a challenge.



How to Grapple with the Documents in the DBQ




Part One: Analytical Models
Model One: APPARTS Document Analysis

A – Author

P – Place & Time

P – Perspective/Bias

A – Audience

R – Reasoning/Argumentation

T – The Main Idea

S – Significance



Author: Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author's point of view?
Place and time: Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source?
Prior knowledge: Beyond information about the author, and the context of the document's creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source? For example, do you recognize any symbols and recall what they represent?
Audience: For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source?
Reason: Why was this source produced and how might this affect the reliability of the source?
The main idea: What point is the source trying to convey?
Significance: Why is this source important? Ask yourself, "So what?" in relation to the question asked.




Model Two: HIPP
H – Historical Context
I – Intended Audience
P – Purpose

P – Point of View

How to Grapple with the Documents in the DBQ (continued)



Part Two: Integration
It’s as easy as 123…or CIA

C- Contextualize the document

Set it up: Who wrote it? What do we know about him/her? When, where, and why did they write it? To/for whom did they write it?



I- Integrate the document into your argument

A- Analyze the document (using APPARTS or HIPP)

Part Three: Citation

Cite your sources by using parenthetical citations after referring to a particular document



  • Example: Progressive social activist and city reformer Jane Addams, in a speech delivered in Chicago in 1899, argues that the forceful annexation of the Philippines begat violence in the streets of America. She asserts that the barbarism of the war and the barbarism of the propaganda machine that glorified the war, engendered barbarism in previously peaceful Chicago neighborhoods. Similar conclusions were drawn by critics from the Left and Right when assessing the perils of homeland violence during the Vietnam War (Doc 6).

See what I did there?

  • You must use all or all but one of the documents given.

  • The DO NOT list:

    • Documents do not speak. Thus to write, “Document 6 states that…” or “According to ‘Document 1’ blah, blah, blah…”makes no sense. Do NOT do that.

    • Do NOT quote the documents. EVER!

  • In order to get full credit (3 points) for document usage on the DBQ, you must be HIPP, you must take the documents APPART, and you must use all or all but one of the documents.


AP HISTORY DBQ RUBRIC
Name: ____________________________________ DBQ TOPIC__________________________________


Thesis and Argument Development

Clear thesis that makes a historically defensible claim AND directly addresses all parts of the question (more than restates the prompt)


1

Develops and supports a cohesive argument that recognizes and accounts for historical complexity by explicitly illustrating relationships among historical evidence such as contradiction, corroboration, and/or qualification


1

Outside Information

Contextualization: Situates the argument by explaining the broader historical events, developments, or processes immediately relevant to the question.

Note: contextualization requires knowledge not found in the documents and requires an explanation, typically consisting of multiple sentences or a full paragraph, not a mere phrase or reference.


1

Evidence Beyond the Documents: Provides an example or additional piece of specific evidence beyond those found in the documents to support or qualify the argument.

Must be 1) distinct from evidence used to earn other points and 2) more than a mere phrase or reference)




1

Document Analysis


Utilizes the content of at least 6 documents to support thesis
Doc ___ Doc ___ Doc ___ Doc ___ Doc ___ Doc ___ Doc ___

1

Offers plausible analysis of at least 4 documents considering one of these: HIPP

  • Historical context -- Intended audience – Purpose - Point of view

Doc _______ Doc ________ Doc________ Doc ________



1

Synthesis

Extends argument by explaining the connections between the argument and ONE of the following (more than a passing mention)”

  • A development in a different historical period, situation, or geographical area.

  • A course theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, or intellectual history)

  • A different discipline or field of inquiry (such as economics, gov’t and politics, art history, or anthropology)

1


Overall Use of Documents: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Citation: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Integrates Docs into Essay: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Number of Docs Used: ______

Number of Docs Misused: ______



WC = word choice
AWK = awkward
FRAG = fragment
SP = spelling error
RED = redundant
IRREL = irrelevant
T = transition / NT = need transition
NEED EV = need evidence
HUH? = unclear. I don’t follow.
GOOD/GOOD PT. = good point

Circled info is a good thing

Xs are not so good = wrong info


Structure:

Introduction: _____ Context Est _____ Weak ______ Functional _____ Strong

Thesis: ______Clear, ______Specific, _____Complex, _____Refutable

Organization: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Topic Sentences: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Transitions: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Conclusion: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong


Language:

3rd Person Formal: _____

Tense: _____

Word Choice Issues: _____


Awkward/Poorly Constructed Sentences: _____




AP HISTORY LEQ RUBRIC
Name: __________________________________ LEQ TOPIC:_______________________________


Thesis (1 pt)

Clear thesis that makes a historically defensible claim AND directly addresses all parts of the question (more than restates the prompt)

1

Historical Thinking Skills (2pts)

CCOT

Describes historical continuity AND change over time

1

Analyzes specific examples that illustrate historical continuity AND change over time


1

Comparison

Describes similarities AND differences among historical individuals, events, developments, or processes

1

Explains reasons for similarities AND differences among historical, individuals, events, developments, or processes.

OR (depending on the prompt)

Evaluates the relative significance of the historical individuals, events, developments, or processes


1

Causation

Describes causes AND/OR effects of a historical development

1

Explains reasons for causes and/or effects of a historical development

(if prompt requires discussion of both causes & effects, response must address both in order to earn both points)




1

Periodization

Describes ways in which the historical development specified in the prompt was different from OR similar to developments that preceded and/or followed

1

Explains the extent to which the historical development specified in the prompt was different from AND similar to developments that preceded and/or followed, providing specific examples to illustrate the analysis


1

Evidence (2 pts)

Effectively addresses the topic of the question with multiple specific examples of relevant evidence.

1

Thesis Driven:

Utilizes specific evidence to fully and effectively substantiate the stated thesis or a relevant argument.



1

Synthesis (1pt)

Extends argument by explaining the connections between the argument and ONE of the following (more than a passing mention)”

  • A development in a different historical period, situation, or geographical area.

  • A course theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, or intellectual history)

  • A different discipline or field of inquiry (such as economics, gov’t and politics, art history, or anthropology)

1

Long Essay Score: _______/6

WC = word choice
AWK = awkward
FRAG = fragment
SP = spelling error
RED = redundant
IRREL = irrelevant
T = transition / NT = need transition
NEED EV = need evidence
HUH? = unclear. I don’t follow.
GOOD/GOOD PT. = good point

Circled info is a good thing

Xs are not so good = wrong info
Structure:

Introduction: _____Time/Setting Est _____ Weak ______ Functional _____ Strong

Thesis: ______Clear ______Specific _____Complex _____Refutable

Organization: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Topic Sentences: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Transitions: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Conclusion: ______ Weak ______Acceptable ______Strong

Language:

3rd Person Formal: _____

Tense: _____

Word Choice Issues: _____


Awkward/Poorly Constructed Sentences: _____


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