Writers on positive international law half sovereign states iSts Tesnvsom

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writers on positive international law half sovereign states.
iSts Tesnvsom Lady of Shalott ii, ' I am half *k:1c of
*hndow*f said The Lady of Shulott. 1878 Kditii Tmom»»«**
Hist. ling. xix. 106 Half wild with rirc ami Kricf.

b. qualifying a pa. imle.

c 1380 .V#> Fernmb. 3569 «r |wy wcrn oil helf y-dy*t, Jm*
barons tome oppon hem ryjt. rs4*VCaxton Sonncs of
Aymon ix. 938 We l»eii halfe discomfyted. 154* Hai.i.
Chron.,Edw.Il\ 109 b, The eric had not halfe tolde his
tale, iuo H. Buttes Pyets drit Dinner H vj b, Colc-
worc*.. Halfe sodden, make soluble. i6t« I. Stkwkns
Satyr. Ess. 8 In her halfe ruin'd cell. Ibid. 43* * *»
halfe perswaded that if hee had hut a balladinaktira poetry',
he would sooner make an Epitaph. 1857 R. Licon Bar-
badoes(t673) 19 Dinner being near half done. 1711 ArroiooM
Sped. No. 66 F5 A Man's Life is half spent before.he 1S
taken notice of. 1897 Hall Caink Christian x, Half hidden
behind a little forest of palms and ferns.
0. qualifying a pr. pplc. or verb.
14*3 /as. I Kin sis (\ lxxhi. Half sleping and half swoun,
in suich a wise, iuo m TJiwrar Poems Ixxxi. 1 This
hinder nycht halflT slcipintf I lay. 1608 Bp. Hall Char.
* I'. 135 Halfe reading every title. 1650 Bulwkr
Anthro/owet. 16a, I half mupect some concurrent affrc-
tatioiiH. 1674 tr.
Schijfer's Lapland 12 A bow whirh a
Norwegian can scarce half beml. 1797 Mrs. Raim liffe
Italian xxxi. On entering he half turned to look back.
1859 Farrar 7. Honwvjs He., half wished he had not come.

d. qualifying an adv. or advb. phrase.
a 1310 in Wright Lyric P. 40 Nys non -so icep, nc half »
freo. 1390 Gowkr Conf I. 225 There may no mantles pri«
vete Ben heled half so well, c 1470 Henry Wallace x. 128
HalflT in wraith frawart him gan he Kanjg. 1579-80 N jrtii
Plutarch (1613) 740 A man halfe beside himself. 1648
Gage West Ind. iyi The three Spaniards were halfe of the
same mind. 1674 S. Vincent Vug. Gallant's A cad. 18
Caudle will not go down half so sweetly a* this will.
1706 AnniaoM Rosamond Wks. 1753 1. 13a The lily was
not half so fair, Nor half so sweet the rose. 17114 R.
Falconer t 'oy. (1769) 66, 1 rowed half round .. the first
Day. 183* Half right, half-left [nee
Half- 11 d].

2. Used correctively: Half ..half....

(Now sometimes hyphened to the following word; but
this is unnecevtary.)

944 in Earle Land Charters 170 Donne is |tt»t land act
snoces cutnbe healf \ne% iringes healf uncer brentinges.
I11000 jElfkic K*t. in Wr.-Wulcker 109/16 Onocentannts,
healf mann and hcalf assa. fiaos Lay. 1330 Hit i* half
mon & half fisc. 1390 Gowkr Conf 11. 304 He was half
man and half beste. i«o W. Cunningham Counogr.
Glasse 86 The Sonne .. halfe above the Hori/ont, and half
under. 1581 Pkitik Guaztws Civ. Com*. 1. (15861 93, I
ment not that they are halfe good, and halfe cvill. 1614
Bp. Hall Kecoll. Treat. Co An evill man i* halfe a beast,
and balfe a Divell. 1708 Mottpux Ralfclais iv. Ixvii.
0.737) 274 With, .one of hit Stockins, half on half off, about
his Heel. 1810 S<:oit Lady of L. 1. xxxiv, Half shewing,
half concealing all The uncouth trophies i>f the hall. 1818
M. G. Lewis Jmi. W. Ind. (1834) 78 A kind of pouting
look, half kind, and half reproachful. 1858 Ana. Lincoln Sp.
16 June in A//V( 1890) II. viii. U7,1 believe this Government
cannot endure permanently half .slave and half free.

3. Not half: a long way from the due amount;
to a very slight extent; in mod. slang and colloq.
use-not at all, the reverse of, as (not half bad' ^
not at all bad, rather good.

1503 a-rocKER ttist. err*, warres i*on*e c. n. 00n
were not halfe well prouided to goe awaie vpon the r
1619 Drumm. ok Hawth. Conv. v. It. Jonsonxua
Sir W. Alexander was not half kinde unto him, am

1583 Stocker Hist. Cfp. Warres Loiue C. 11. 66 b, The!

s Hpurre.

1184a) 11

_ ,, and neg-
lected him. sdaa Maker tr. Aletnan's Guzman d*Alf. 11. L
iii. II. He thought this was hard teaching, he did not
halfe like it. s8st
Craven Dial. s. v.t' He's nut hauf a bad
an1, i.e. he i* a fair, respectable person. 1859 Hughes
Scouring W. Horse vl 133, I didn't half like the way in
which Miss Lucy was running on. 1871 Planch £ King
Christmas. He never admits a thing i« good, but merely
'not half bad*. 1886 J. K. Jeromk Idle Thoughts Fret,
One or two friends to whom I showed these papers in MS.
observed that they were not half bad.

4. Idiomatic nses, in which half is now adverbial,
though probably originally the adj. or sb.

a. In stating the time of flay, kalf past {or after)
one or one o'clock, etc.* half an honr pagt the hour
named. (In Scotland, ' half' is often prefixed to
the following hour, as in Ger.
halb elf etc.)

I7«o G. ft. DonniNGTON Diary (1785) 74 just at half pa.it
twelve she waft delivered of a Prince, a 1791 Grose Olio
(1796) 107 C Pray what's o* clock? W. ft will be half
ten, 1618 Jas. Mn.1. Brit. India IL v. v. 404 From half
after seven .. they remained exposed to the Are .. till nine
o'clock. 1819 FivKfiv
yuan 1. civ, Aliout the hour Of half-
past six. 1853 Reade Clir. Joknstone 994 Flticktr informed
her that the nock <*id ' half eleven '—Scotch for ' half-past-
ten '. 1891 Murray's Mag. Apr. 445 It was half after eight
o'clock one evening.

b. Naut. Between the names of two points of
the compass, half» half a point (i.e. 5J°) from the
first towards the second point mentioned.

1796 Shelvockb Voy. round World (1757) 17 Bearing
South East half East, distant six leagues. 1893 Karl
Pamirs J. 252 We.. altered our course from
north to east half-south by the compass.

o. Naut. In standings, half before a numeral
adds half to it; thus half four ^^\ fathoms.

1809 Trrmrnheere in Naval Chron. XXIII. 10s The
ship..shoaled her wattr to a half three. 1840 Marryat
Poor Jack xlvli, We shall have A*//>v/dire<;tly, and
after that the water will deepen, c i860 H. Stuart Sea*
moh's Catcch. 43 Suppose 4$ fathoms, what soundings
would you call ? And a half four.
Kalf-, in comb. [OK. kalf, kealf, was regularly
combined with an adj. or pplc, as in kealfrwic,
kealfdeadf kealfkwU, kealfrfiui, kealfsoden, kealf


slipiende; also with a sb., as kealfktofod forehead,
kcalfmann, ktalffenifa kealftrendel hemisphere.
In OTeut. halt*- appears to have teen a later sub-
stitute for the original */*//-, OK. sam-, as in
OHG. sAmiquec, OS. s&tnquic, OE. samavic half
alive, so satnbmrnd half-burnt, samMce a half-
breach ; = L. semi- in shnidoctus, semivfvus, semi-
coctus, scmiiieusj scmihomo, etc.; Or. Aju- in i)/ic-

Skr. samt\ in samijiwas half alive, etc.]

I. In adverbial relation.

L With adjectives and pa. pples. Already in
OE.: sec above. Very common in later use, esp.
with pa. pples., to which half- may be prefixed
whenever the sense suits: e.g. kalfafraid, -awake,
-Hind, -crazy, -deaf, -drunk, -full,'kuMan,-learned,
-mail, -open, -raw, -ripe-, -savage, •true\ kalf
armed, -ashamed, -bent, -buried, -cured, 'disposed,
-done, -dressed, -eaten, -educated, -finished, -formed,
hidden> -opened, -roasted, -ruined, etc, etc. With
adjs. expressing shape, it implies the form of half
the figure, as half cordate, -sagittate, -terete.

The two elements arc often written separately
when the adj. is in the predicate (sec Half adv. 1);
the use of the hyphen mostly implies a feeling of
closer unity of notion in the compound attribute,
as in
kalf-blind, half-dressed, half-raw^ viewed as
definite states; but it is often merely for greater
syntactical perspicuity, on which ground it is
regularly used when the adjective is attributive,
thus / am kalf dead (or kalf dead) witk cold; a
kalf-dead dog.

a. in the predicate.

c 893 K. /Ft.ntRD Pros. iii. ix. I 4 & funde hicne .. hcalf-
a 1000 Elene 133 (Gr.) Suinc healfcwice fluxnn on
faesten. c 1000 /F.lkric Voc. in Wr.-Wiilckcr 163/7 Snbatbus,
healfhwit. C1475 Norn. Ibid. 710/1 Scttthciiis}Y\a\\h\yx\i\.
t6e* Bacon (J.), The officer* of the kings houshofd ..
must look both ways, elite they are but half-sighted. 1704.
Swift T. Tub \. (1709) 29 As if they were naif-ashamed
to own us. i7t*-!4 Popk Rape I.t*ck iv. 144 Her eyes half-
lauguiahing, half-drown*d in tears. 1714 Mandkviluc Fab.
Bees (1735) I. 340 A rascal hnlf-drunk. 1715 Pope Odyss. 111.
144 Leave half-heard the melancholy talc. 174s
Pamela (1834) I. xxi. 971 Being hall-vexed, and half-afraid of
his raillery. i8etf
Scott 7rwA(i8oo) 1.3519 Either half-edu-
rated or cock-brained by nature. 1845 Liwdmcy Sch. Bot. v.
(1858) 58 Stipules ovate, half- cordate, 1855 Kingsley Heroes
11. iv. (1868) 193 Stories of it, some false and some half-true.
1863-5 J. Thomson Sunday at Hamfishad v, The meat
half-done, they tore it and devoured. 1868 Darwin in Life
4 f-ttt. (1887) III. 80 Half-sterile, i.e. produce half the full
number of offspring. 1880 Gray Struct. Bot, vi. f 8. 379
Amphitropoiis, also termed .. Half-anatrupous. 1880
tent p. Rev. Feu. 196, 1 am more than halfdisposed to go
along with you in what you say.
b. as attribute.

*594 Hooker EccL Pol. 1. viii. f 10 Certaine halfewaking
men. 159s Shaks. John 111. i. 54 The halfe-hlowne Rose.
i6ss Donnk Serm. Ixvi. 667 The Half-present Man, he
whose body
h here and minde away. i8ag Chapman
Juvenal Sat. v. 393 That half-eat hare will fall.. to our
shares. 168a N. O.
Bmlean's Lutrin 11. t6 And dos'd her
speech with an half-dying swoon. 1887 Drydkn Hind *r P.
lit. 400 The clown unread, and half-read gentleman, a 1711
Kkn Hymnothe* Poet. Wk*. i7ai III. 333 Half.form'd
Words. 1795 Popk Odyss. xxii. 106 The half-shut door
conceal'd hi
« lurking foes. 177a Huntkr in Phil. Trans.
LXII. 453 Halfdigestcd food. 1786 tr. Beckfor^s Vathek
(1868) 10 The learned, the half-learned, and those who were
neither. 1817 Colkridge Btog, Lit. 333 In one of his half-
earnest, half-joking moods. 18*7 Sou they Hist. Penins.
War II. 679 The half-armed, half-clothed, half-hungered
Arragonese. 1837-9
Hall am //*'*/. Lit. viii. 1.1 37 Some
half-mformed critics 1838 Lytton A lice 13 Her half-childish,
half-womanly grief. 1847 Mrs. Sherwood Life xii. 330 A
If-coloured df" #- •■•—•■

Anstkd Channel

little half-coloured child, from India.

1st. iv. xxi. (cd. 9) 494 LUt of half-hardy plans*. 1674
J. Sully Sensat. $ Intuit. 95 Vague and half-thought out

c. Hence derivatives, as half-dresseVness.
^ 1889 Daily News 39 June 5/4 That delicious condition
• of haif-dressedness.

2. With adverbs, as kalf angrily, -askamedly,
-blindly, -divinely, 'learnedly, -questioningly, etc.;
half left, -rigkt, -round, etc. (Cf. Half adv. f d.)

C1700 Watts Lyric P., To Mitio Pt. lit. iL Wks. 1813
IX. boo Damon is half-divinely blest. 1840 Carlyle Heroes
v. 996 Struggling half-blindly, as in bitterness of death
against that I ifcj Mrs. Whitney Faith Gartners Girl*
hood i. 10 Holding the bank-note haifoshamedly in her
hand. 1883
Harper's Mag. June 141/9 The.. Uuia trot..
lisped, half-coaxingly, half-auestioninglv.

8. With verbs, as half believe, -deify % -fill, -make,
-murder, -poison* (Cf. Half adv. 1 c.)



1834 Ht. Martimbau Farrers iL 95

Two out of the remaining four halfstarted from their chair.
1848 Thackeray Van. Fair xlv, He half-murdered a ferret.

1850 Marc. Fuller Wt

_„ 19M C. (i860 943 Madame

Recamier U half reclining on a sofa. iSSoTvbkv Mi*.
Proph. 60 The mind which before was .. half-delfed. 1878
Stargazing 195 We shall not only halve, but
halfhalve rt th bti 879 F C

LocKYKt Stargazing 195 We shall not only halve,
half-halve, or quarter the aberration. 1879 Frouds Ctt
xxvii. 477 In Cicero Nature half-made a great man*
4. Special comb.: half-equitut a. {Bat.) -

1874 Wood Life 9 Feb. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) II. 081 Mm that
half-hanged themselves to try how it was. iw 4(8 Thom*
son Summer 1130 Locks, That half-cmbrac'd ner in a humid
veil. 1803 J. ISadcock Dom. Amuum. 60 Half.fijling


Obvolutk: c(. demi-equitartt; hftlfhigh a. (see
quot.); half-imperial a.t half imperial-folio
size; half-large a., (a card) 3x a} inches (Tacobi
Printer's Vocab.); half-saved a., half-witted

1891 Daily Xewt 18 Nov. 3/1 An evening drera to be
worn by a very young girl.is made ••half-high'., which
means that the bodice i* to be cut away lo n line mid-
way between the neck-and, bust. 1898 Collinqwood Life
Raskin 1.9a Ruskin madeWcetch after sketch on the •half-
imperial board. 1896
Daily Neiu* a3 Oct. 6/5 He generally
completed a half-imperial sketch .. in two hours. 1834
Southky Doctor jr. 115 He wan what in called #half-saved.
Some of his faculties were more than ordinarily acute, but
the power of self-conduct was entirely wanting in him.
1871 M.
Collins Mrc. 4- Mitch. I. iii. 160 He wan what
the villager* called

H. In attributive relation to a sb.

Of these there were already a few instances in
OE. (e.g. hcalf mann < gemivir', kcalfpenfa healf
trendel hemisphere) ; their number has been enor-
mously increased in later times, especially through
the practice of hyphening an adjective and substan-
tive when these nave a special or individualised
application. These combinations may be dis-
tributed among the following classes:

a. In names of Coins, Weights, Measures of
space, quantity, time, etc., as jhalf-barrel, -bit,
-cent, -cooper, -farthing, -firkin, -fiortnf -foot, -hogs-
head, • inch, joe, -mile, -mutchkin, -feck, -pint, -pipe,
-pound, -quarter, 'quartern, -tierce. Cf. Dim- 7.
Also Half-anobl, -ckown, -dollar, -hour,
etc. These forms may also be used
attrib. as in half-inch board, half-mile race, kalf
f/ttartem loaf,

1494 Act ix lien. I'//, c » Preamb., Every barell, *half
barrcll and firlcyn. 1178a T. Jrfperson Autobior. Wk*.

8 I A Th llt i i th "hlfhit

barrcll an

1859 I. A

1 -20 of a d


rlcyn. 1178a T. Jrfperson Autobior. Wk*.
. 173 The smallest coin .. is the "half-hit, or
llar, a i8a4 K. Patteruon cited in Wobcester

lftTlm C Di Hlf t

1846 fur "Half cent. 1889 Cent. Dict.% Half-cent, a copper
coin of the United States.. wefchimi 04 trains, current from

. .the number, .isimed between 185a and 1854 wa*»a.6a 1.784.
c 1440 7<*rt'* Well (E. E. T. S.) 129 pe secundo *hal#ote
wose in coueytise is raueyne. 1707 Lond. Com. No. 4337/4,
40 '"half HoKsbeads, of true neat Rourdeaux Brandy. i8ao
Scokrsbv Acc. Arctic Re*. II. 194 Defended by plates of
♦half-inch iron. 1858 Greener Gunnery «u An half-inch
boiler plate. 1777 J-
Q- Adams WM1854) IX. 470 Guineas,
"half joes, and milled dollars in as high estimation as in
Pennsylvania. 1601 R. John&on Aingd. Comtmu.
(1603) 86 Distant from the towne some *halfe mile. Mod.
The winner of the half-mile race in the Oxford University
Sports. 1816
Scott A ntiq. i, He might have stayed to take

a *half-mutchkin extraordinary with his crony the hostler*
17SJ Scots Mag. June 310/1 Each..received a *half-peck
loaf 1O11 CorcR.,
DeMi-sextier.xhe quarter of a French

pinte, and much about our *halfe pinte. 1744 Bbrkklcy
Let. 3X Aug. Wks. 1871 IV. 309 fcither in^alf-pint or
quarter-pint glasses. t9o$ Med. frnt. XIV. 186 An old half-
pint bottle. 159a Huloet, *Halfe pounde, selibra, Halfe
pownde wayght, sefnissis. gm Covkrualb Neh. iii. 16 The
ruler of the *halfe Quarter of fiethcur. tiULond. Gas. No.
3078/4 Lace, three naif quarters broad. 184 F. J. Brittkn
Watch fCiockm. as4 HalfKiuarter repeaters, instead of
giving the minutes, strike one additional blow if the half
quarter has passed.
Mod. Mm. 8 Feb., Half Quarter Day.
1898 Dickens O. Tm*t v, A 'half-quartern loaf and a piece
of cheese. 1708 Motteux Rabelais v. xlv. (1737) tot A
•Half-Tierce, or Hogshead,
b. In Heraldry* Dkmi- B i, aa half-belt, -ckeek-


Ibid. viii. < He beareth Vert, an Half Spade. tSeS Berry
Rncycl. Her. s.v. S/ade, This..spade U borne in the arms
o. In Artillery, Arms, denominating a piece of
half the sise of the full-slMii piece, or a shortened
size of the latter, as half'armour, -cannon, *eulverin,
-falconet, -kead-piece,-lance. CHDwc-a-4. Also
,Half-pikb, -8W0BD, etc.

1874 Boutkll Arms 4 Arm. x. 18B *Ha&Armour* the
period of the partial use of armour, extending to the com-
mencement or the s8th#centunv sdfo Fuller Jost+h't
Coat t Cor. xL «o (1867) 80 SonYetlmeTHe ihooteih *Glf
cannon. 1676 Lond. Gam. No. 1116/3 A Battery of i» Half-
Cannon, sets Florio, Metua testa, a kindtrhalfe skull,
Or "haife head-pecce. 1868 Kirk cias. Bold III. v. i. 339
Armed with a Mtalf-lance.
d. In Military tactics, dress, eta, as %alf
squadron, -turn, -wheel', half-batt«t7#-0ompanr,
-distance, -file, (see qaots.); half •mounting, the
underclothing and minor articles of apparel belong-
ing to a soldier's outfit in the z8th c. C£ Demi- 6.
Half-paci, etc.
1800 War Office Order 9 Apr. In Groat Milit.A*


mounting two pair of good shoe* of tl. ------- -- -_


lings and sixpence each pah\ ttja RiguL Itutr* Cmmtry
111 *7S The.:troopswhiZl half Sht./W^« — - ^
Troop wheels more than a half-wheel. /
wheel halMeft. t8u Stocquium JW _ _. ,

art the same M .
Ha(Adistance It the

to two

veen troops drawn «p in rankii or
fmWUetklM the givenTTmUr


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