Worst comes to worst, my people come first…

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“Worst comes to worst, my people come first…”: 2nd Period





China 1450-1750

  • Ended exploration programs in 1433

  • Trade with the interior Grand Canal

  • Limited trade with Europeans to the ports of Canton


“ “ Japan

  • 1467-1477 Onin War

  • 1600 Founding of Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan

  • Feudalism

  • Period of Warring States

  • Ashikaga Shogunate (1336-1573)

  • Shogunate System

  • Bakufu System

  • Tokugawa

  • Ieshu

Johnathan, Caitlin, Danielle

Chinese Rulers



Qin: Qin Shi Huangdi: died 210 BCE- Used Legalism

Han: Wu Ti (140-87BCE): important leader- Confucianism tested with Civil Service Exams

Sui: Wendi: founder, murdered by son, Yangdi(new capital city)

Tang: Li Yuan and his son, Tang Taizong(627-649), Empress Wu(690-705)Buddhism

Song: Zhao Kuangyin/ Emperor Taizu: founder

Yuan: Kubilai Khan: founder 1260-1294




Mao Zedong: Communist Leader of the Communist or Great Proletariat Revolution 1949. Helped establish the People’s Republic of China

Deng Xiaping: Took over in the 1960’s. Was a pragmatist and tried to strengthen the economy.

Ernest, Emily, Anna

Chinese Dynasties

Shang: bronze-casting

Zhou: (1029 to 258BCE) Mandate of Heaven, “Middle Kingdom”, standardization of Mandarin Chinese, Kong Fuzi (Confucianism)

402 to 201BCE: Period of Warring States

Qin: Qin Shi Huang-di, Legalism, standardized weights and measures, Terra-cotta soldiers, Great Wall connected

Qin died 210BCE

Han: (202BCE to 220 CE)Confucianism, paper, Civil Service Exam, Pax Sino,

220-589CE: unrest, Warring States Period: unrest, spread of Buddhism from India

Sui: 589-618CE Confucianism, building of Grand Canal

Tang:618-907CE Confucianism: spread and persecution of Buddhism (pure land vs. Chan/Zen Buddhism), footbinding

Song: 960-1279CE: Neo-Confucianism, move of capital to South because of Jurchen invasion.

Yuan: 1279-1368 founded by Kubilai Khan, rule by Mongols

Ming: “brilliant,”

Qing: rule by Manchus

Republic: Overthrow Qing, nationalist movement led by Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)

Mao Zedong: Gained power in 1949 Communist Revolution. Inspired by peasants, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, Little Red Book

Deng Xiaoping: A Pragmatist, wanted to open up economy to more international trade


Muslim Empires

Umayyads/ Abbasids: Umayyads: Sunni/ Abbasids: Sunni, supported by the Shi’a

“Gunpowder Empires”: Mughals, Safavids, Ottomans


C&C Aztecs and Incas


A and I were polytheistic, controlled large areas by tribute system, human sacrifice,


I empire was larger (2,000 miles long), A had a more established merchant class, A practiced more human sacrifice (flower wars, captives, etc). I practiced veneration of leaders (mummified in Temple of the Sun)


Religious trends in China

Ancestor Worship




Buddhism: spread from India via the Silk Roads during the Warring States Period, following the decline of the Han Empire.

Aidan, Lauren

C&C Umayyads and Abbasids

Similarities: Sunni Muslims (but Abbasids had support of the Shi’as), Umayyad capital in Damascus, Syria, and the Abbasid capital was in Baghdad. Trade was important. Also, taxation by the Umayyads of “People of the Book.” Umayyads overthrown by Abbas of Persia, established the Abbasid Dynasty.


Islam (Religion)

Prophet Muhammad (b. 570CE)

Hijrah/ left from Mecca to Yathrib(Medina) 622CE= year 1 of Muslim Calendar

Holy book: Qur’an

Five Pillars: Prayer 5x a day facing Mecca, Fast from sun-up to sun-down during Ramadan, Profession of faith: there is one god, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet


Indian Culture

Dravidians/ Aryans: Vedic Age 1500-1000BCE- establishment of social classes

Kshatriyas (warriors), Brahmins (priests), Vaisyas (traders/farmers), Sudras (common laborers), Pariahs (untouchables/ outcastes).


  • Hinduism- no single founder, no central holy figure

  • Encouraged political and economic goals (artha) and worldly pleasures (called Karma)

  • Gurus= mystics/ teachers

  • Vishnu= preserver Shiva= destroyer

  • Reincarnation- souls (atman) do not die with bodies- but pass into other beings (animal and human)

  • Soul depends on karma/ dharma- how good a life someone led

  • Ultimately- full union with Brahman (MOKSHA)

322BCE Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka 269BCE

Guptas 320CE

Jasmine, Eric, Titi

Middle Eastern Empires


Al-Mahdi (775-785 CE):luxurious living, criticized, not able to balance the religious sects

Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE): Leader of Abbasids, associated with luxury (1,001 Nights)

1055: Seljuk Turks took over.

Salah-uh-din: Muslim leader during the 3rd Crusades, last decades of 1100’s, won back land from the Christians, well respected.


Post-Classical India

Guptas 320CE

535CE: Gupta Dynasty overthrown by the Huns

Fall of Gupta Empire



Middle East 1750-1914

Ottoman Empire in control

Crimean War (186__) between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Ottomans aided by Britain and France, Ottomans win).


Enlightenment Thinkers

Locke: Two Treatises on Government (humans are good, and government should protect basic rights of life, liberty, and property.)

Hobbes: Leviathan (Humans are naturally selfish and wicked, and need a strict ruler to keep them under control- divine right/ absolute monarchy)

Montesquieu: On the Spirit of Laws (Power is a check to power- US Constitution- 3 branches of government)

Rousseau: The Social Contract (Government makes a contract with its people, Legitimate rule only comes from the consent of the governed)


Peloponnesian War


Between Sparta (Peloponnesian League) vs. Athens (Delian League)

Battles on land(S) and sea (A)


Ottoman Empire

1453: Conquered Constantinople/renamed Istabul.


Trade Routes

Silk Roads

Maritime Indian Ocean Trade Routes

Sub-Saharan Trade Routes

Black Sea Trade Routes

South China Sea Routes


African Kingdoms

Ghana (1st)(taxed gold-salt trade)

Mali(2nd)Founded by Sundiata, (“Lion Prince”) Key leader Mansa Musa, went on a pilgrimage to Mecca

Songhai(3rd) Key leader: Askia Muhammad, continued to spread Islam amongst the elites.



European Nationalism (19th century)

Conservatism: Belief that governments should be traditional-based (monarchies).

Liberalism: Belief that governments should allow for greater participation of its citizens (ex: Increased male suffrage, Constitutional Monarchy in England.)

Congress of Vienna: 1815- following Napoleonic Wars. Led by Klemens von Metternich- desire to return Europe to the way it was BEFORE Napoleon. CONSERVATISM- Balance of Power, Containment of France, Legitimacy

Unification of Italy: Led by Count Camilo di Cavour

Unification of Germany

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