World Trade Organization


Table 1: Cinema Exhibition in Europe and



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Table 1: Cinema Exhibition in Europe and

other Continents: Key Facts, 1994




Europe

USA

Japan

Australia

Population

383 m.

ca. 257 m.

ca. 125 m.

ca. 17 m.

Number of screens

18.805

26.586

1.747

1.028

Number of inhabitants per screen

ca. 20.400

ca. 9.700

ca. 71.000

ca. 16.500

Gross Box Office Revenues** (in million ECU)

3.058*

4.293

1.259

281.0

Admissions (in millions)

ca. 688.7*

1.210

123

63.6

Frequency per head of population

1.9*

4.7

1

3.7

Average ticket price (ECU)

ca. 4.44*

3.55

10.23

4.42

* Not including Ireland and Portugal.

** ECU Values 31 Dec. 94: 1 ECU = 1.223 US$; 1 ECU = 122 Yen; 1 ECU = 1.583 A$



Data referring to Europe include the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Source: Eropean Cinema Yearbook 1995 (As found in OECD, Content as a New Growth Industry).

Table 2: Film and Video: Worldwide Cinema Industry

(units)

1985

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

Number of long length feature films produced including co‑productions

EUR 15

547

526

578

544

574

514

Deutschland

64

48

72

63

67

60

España

77

47

64

52

56

44

France

151

146

156

155

152

115

Italia

89

119

129

127

105

95

United Kingdom

47

47

46

42

60

70

USA

356

477

583

519

450

N/A

Japan (1)

319

239

230

240

238

251

Australia

42

34

27

30

23

29

Number of feature films released

EUR 15 (2)

(3) 288

(3) 271

269

253

250

(3) 251

Deutschland

309

303

334

288

263

263

España

409

328

329

318

306

345

France

456

370

438

381

359

387

Italia

345

495

430

437

397

373

United Kingdom

248

277

283

227

236

N/A

USA

426

401

404

379

440

420

Japan

583

704

697

617

590

553

Australia

212

254

239

227

236

N/A

Film production investment (million ECU)

EUR 15 (4)

930.5

1 163.6

1 378.3

1 253.0

1 218.3

1 350.4

Deutschland

106.9

97.5

117.0

107.4

144.6

162.5

España

65.8

50.9

96.2

60.6

62.4

42.0

France

305.0

475.7

540.2

533.5

469.7

437.3

Italia

192.0

220.5

302.1

239.3

196.2

216.1

United Kingdom

172.2

203.0

228.2

185.3

169.6

334.3

USA

3 266.7

3 586.2

4 002.9

3 412.4

3 612.3

4 115.5

Australia

N/A

86.3

73.1

45

34.7

88.1

(1) Films released during the reference period.

(2) Average number of films released. Excluding Ireland.

(3) Estimates excluding Sweden.

(4) Estimate.



Source: Eurostat, national sources, others (as found in European Commission, Panorama of EU Industry (1997).

Table 3: Top 10 Countries Shares of World Music Market by Sales

1995

Retail Value

(USD millions)



Per Cent Share

USA

12 102.0

30.5

Japan

7 552.1

19.0

Germany

3 269.6

8.2

UK

2 571.6

6.5

France

2 391.8

6.0

Canada

1 113.1

2.8

Brazil

1 053.1

2.7

Netherlands

716.5

1.8

Australia

680.5

1.7

Italy

582.7

1.5

TOTAL

32 032.8

80.7

Source: IFPI (as found in OECD, Content as a New Growth Industry).

Table 4: Market Shares of US Films in Europe (per cent)




1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

Belgium*

69.5

73.4

79.6

72.9

71.8

74.7

Denmark

63.7

77.0

83.3

77.7

74.0

66.7

Finland

70

80

80

63.0

63.0

66.0

France

55.5

55.9

58.0

58.2

57.1

60.0

Germany

65.7

83.8

80.2

82.8

87.8

81.6

Greece

86

87

88

92

-

82

Ireland

75

87

91.5

-

-

-

Italy

63.1

70.0

58.6

59.4

68.1

65.0

Luxembourg

87

80

85

78

80

84

The Netherlands

75.6

85.8

92.5

78.8

89.3

90.0

Norway

72.0

70.0

65.0

68.0

74.0

72.7

Portugal

81.0

85.0

85.0

-

61.2

-

Spain

73

72

69

77.1

75.5

72.3

Sweden

69.3

82.3

70.5

65.5

72.7

70.0

Switzerland

71

76

77

67.3

**72.4

79.8

United Kingdom

84

89

84

90.6

94.2

-

* Brussels only

** Non-European films, i.e. US and other countries

Source: European Cinema Yearbook 1995 (as found in OECD, Content as a New Growth Industry).

Table 5: Japanese Film Market: Releases and Annual Revenue

Year

Number Films

Revenue

Total Revenue




Domestic

Western

Domestic

Western




1983

317

181

41 442

37 331

78 773

1984

333

232

33 120

35 086

68 206

1985

319

264

35 295

34 080

69 375

1986

311

289

36 182

36 454

72 636

1987

286

351

30 638

33 098

63 736

1988

265

485

32 532

32 993

65 525

1989

255

522

31 272

35 883

67 155

1990

239

465

29 407

41 675

71 082

1991

230

467

27 847

38 687

66 534

1992

240

377

28 134

34 227

62 361

1993

238

352

25 692

46 119

71 811

Source: Cinema Almanac, Jijeigatsuushinshah, Inc. Information provided by the Japan Information Network (as found in OECD, Content as a New Growth Industry).

Table 6: Australian Federal Government Film Industry Expenditure

Year

Australian Film Commission

Film Australia

Australian Film, TV and Radio School

Australian Children's TV Foundation

National Film and Sound Archive

Australian Film Finance Corporation

Total




SM

SM

SM

SM

SM

SM




94-95

18.7

6.4

10.7

2.1

9.1

54.0

101.0

93-94

17.9

6.5

10.5

2.0

9.1

57.0

103.1

92-93

17.0

5.9

10.7

1.2

8.3

61.9

105.0

91-92

16.6

6.8

10.3

1.2

8.2

68.0

111.1

90-91

16.1

5.6

16.6

1.2

9.3

66.0

114.8

89-90

16.1

5.9

9.0

0.6

8.6

54.8

85.0

88-89

15.5

15.9

10.7

0.6

7.6

70.0

120.3

87-88

20.6




23.0

0.5

4.5




48.6

86-87

21.1




16.4

0.5

4.2




42.2

85-86

20.2




8.7

0.5

3.4




32.8

Source: Australian Film Commission (as found in OECD, Policy and Regulatory Issues for Network-Based Content Services).

Table 7: Main Support Measures in Canada for Individual

Cultural Industries at the Federal Level

Sector (main programmes)

Direct financial assistance (incl. grants)

Tax measures

Local content requirements

Foreign investment provisions

All sectors (Cultural Industries Development Fund)a


Can$2.8b in federal and Can$3.0b in sub-federal funds (1994).




Throughout the cultural sector.

Investment Canada Act requires that any investment in new or existing businesses meets a "net benefit" test.

Broadcasting

Can$1.5b in 1994 (federal funding of CBC radio and television network).

Tax breaks for advertisers purchasing advertising time on Canadian TV.

- 60 per cent of Canadian content for conventional TV;

- 20 per cent Canadian content for cable-TV

- 30 per cent Canadian content for radio broadcasts (music) at federal level;

- 65 per cent French content for radio broadcasts in Quebec.



Ownership limitations of 20 per cent per individual investor and 33.3 per cent for holding companies.

Film and video (funds administered by Telefilm Canada and the National Film Board)

Can$240 million in 1994 (federal funding for Telefilm Canada and the National Film Board).

Canada Film and Video Production Tax Credit.

See above.

Acquisition of existing Canadian distributors not permitted; investment in new distribution companies only under certain conditions.

Sound recording

(Sound Recording Development Program)



Can$5.5 million in 1994 (federal funds).




See above.

Music productions must fulfil specified criteria to qualify as Canadian works.






Publishing of books and magazines (Book Publishing Industry Development Program; Publications Distribution Assistance Program)

Postal subsidy for Canadian magazines.

Tax breaks for advertisements placed in Canadian magazines. Excise tax on advertisements in split-run editions.




Acquisition of Canadian controlled businesses not permitted.

New businesses must be in the form of a Canadian-controlled joint venture.




a The Fund grants financial support and provides advice to Canadian cultural industries.

Source: WTO Secretariat on the basis of information provided by the Government of Canada (as found in WTO, Trade Policy Review -Canada 1996, February 1997, Geneva, p. 122).

Table 8: European Public Support for Film and Video, 1994

(in million ECUs)

Country

Total Subsidies

Support Production

Support Distribution

Support Exploitation1










%




%




%

Germany

76 440

59 272

77.54

7 794

10.20

9 374

12.16

Austria

14 902

14 041

94.22

861

5.78

-

-

Belgium

8 150

7 847

96.28

303

3.72

-

-

Denmark

10 470

9 860

94.17

239

2.28

371

3.55

Spain

21 703

19 997

92.14

636

2.93

1 070

4.93

Finland

6 204

5 289

85.25

727

11.72

188

3.03

France

124 950

50 572

40.47

8 234

6.59

66 144

52.94

Greece

4 921

4 504

91.53

417

8.47

ND

-

Ireland

1 673

1 673

100.00

-

-

-

-

Italy

74 408

31 330

42.10

19 581

26.32

23 497

31 58

Netherlands

9 090

8 963

98.60

127

1.40

-

-

Portugal

5 489

4 727

86.12

338

6.16

424

7.72

United Kingdom

1 888

1 888

100.00

-

-

-

-

Sweden

16 304

15 443

94.72

608

3.73

253

1.55

Total EU

376 592

235 406

62.51

39 865

10.59

101 321

26.90

Iceland

5 356

5 356

100.00

-

-

-

-

Norway

7 929

7 929

100.00

-

-

-

-

Switzerland

7 897

7 589

96.10

308

3.90

-

-

Eurimages

21 139

21 139

100.00

ND

-

-

-

EFDO

11 245

-

-

11 245

100.00

-

-

Nordic Film F.

6 439

6 002

93.21

437

6.79

-

-

Gen. TOTAL

10 219

6 887

64.92

3 909

11.88

422

23.21

1Support to distribution and exhibition.

Source: International Federation of Film Producers Association (FIAPF), "Film Funds 1994" (Paris: April 1996), as found in OECD, Policy and Regulatory Issues for Network Based Content Services).

Table 9: Summary of Specific Commitments - Audiovisual Services

Countries

02.D.a

02.D.b

02.D.c

02.D.d

02.D.e

02.D.f

Total

Central African Rep.

X

X

X

X

X

X

6

Dominican Republic










X




X

2

El Salvador










X




X

2

Gambia

X

X

X

X







4

Hong Kong

X










X

X

3

India

X
















1

Israel

X
















1

Japan

X

X







X




3

Kenya

X

X













2

Korea RP

X










X




2

Lesotho

X

X

X

X







4

Malaysia

X







X







2

Mexico

X

X













2

New Zealand

X

X

X

X




X

5

Nicaragua

X

X













2

Panama

X

X

X




X




4

Singapore

X










X




2

Thailand

X




X










2

USA

X

X

X

X

X

X

6

Total

17

10

7

8

7

6

55

Legend:

02.D.a. Motion Picture and Video Tape Production and Distribution

02.D.b. Motion Picture Projection Service

02.D.c. Radio and Television Services

02.D.d. Radio and Television Transmission Services

02.D.e. Sound Recording

02.D.f. Other

Table 10: No. of Countries by Mode of Supply


Mode of Supply

Market Access

National Treatment




Full



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