World History Review Unit 4A-4b middle Ages in Europe, Asia and Africa



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World History Review Unit 4A-4B Middle Ages in Europe, Asia and Africa




Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 600 TO 1450

Including, but not limited to:


  • Spread of Christianity

    • Council of Nicea: sets basic tenets of Christianity

    • Eastern Orthodoxy develops after the schism between that church and the Catholic Church 

    • Church develops in power during the Middle Ages in Europe 

  • Decline of Rome and formation of medieval Europe



    • Invaders overrun the empire (Mongols, Huns, Franks, etc.)

    • Inflation

    • Roman army cannot defend the empire

    • People’s loyalty and service to the empire declines

    • Roman politics decay – empire is split; an additional capital established (Constantinople), but this does not save it

    • People turn to the Church and lords for security and protection

    • Development of feudalism and strong Church authority in medieval Europe

Explain

IMPACT OF FALL OF ROME ON WESTERN EUROPE

Including, but not limited to:


  • Disruption of trade that leads to collapse of businesses, destruction of economic centers, and scarcity of money as a result of invasions

  • Downfall of cities as centers of administration

  • Shift to a rural population as Roman citizens abandoned destroyed cities

  • Decline of learning since Germanic invaders could not read or write

  • Loss of a common language as Latin changes and different dialects develop

  • Change in the concept of government from one of loyalty to public government and written law shifts to governance through unwritten laws and traditions

Explain

DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIANITY AS UNIFYING SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTOR IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE AND BYZANTINE EMPIRE

Including, but not limited to:


  • Byzantine Empire

    • Constantine relocates the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople

    • Justinian constructs the Hagia Sophia along with numerous other grand churches throughout his empire to show the close connection between church and state

    • Missionary Saints Cyril and Methodius Christianize Slavs to the north of the empire and develop the Cyrillic language to promote religion to the Slavs

  • Medieval Europe

    • Missionaries spread Christianity

    • Authority in medieval Europe based on the Church

    • Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III, which shows the close connection between church and state

    • Shared beliefs in Christianity bond the people of medieval Europe

    • Church provided stability and security in times of frequent wars

    • Middle Ages seen as the “Age of Faith”

    • Church creates a system of justice (canon law) to regulate people’s conduct

Explain

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM AND EASTERN ORTHODOXY

Including, but not limited to:


  • Great Schism of 1054 divides the Eastern and Western Churches into Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church

  • Roman Catholicism

    • Pope has authority over all other bishops, kings, and emperors

    • Services conducted in Latin

    • Priests cannot marry

    • Divorce is not permitted

  • Eastern Orthodoxy

    • Patriarch and other bishops lead the church as a collective group

    • Services conducted in Greek or local languages

    • Priests may marry

    • Divorce is allowed under certain circumstances

Describe

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FEUDALISM (POLITICAL AND SOCIAL) AND MANORIALISM (ECONOMIC)

Including, but not limited to:


  • Feudalism – Reciprocal military obligations between members of the warrior nobility in Medieval Europe

    • Characteristics – Lords grant parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide military service to the lord. Chivalry and fealty between a lord and the vassal relationship

    • Contributing factors – Fall of the Roman Empire leaves a gap in protection and services to people, invaders overrun communities, people turn to lords for their protection

  • Manorialism – Smallest economic, social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services. Land = wealth

    • Characteristics – Manors were self-sufficient where serfs raised and produced nearly everything needed for that community. The open field system allowed several families of serfs to farm strips of the same parcel of land. Living conditions for serfs were generally harsh on manors.

    • Contributing factors – Model of villas in the Roman Empire used to manage rural economies; decline in overland and sea trade after the fall of the Roman empire as well as threats from invaders also promoted the self-sufficiency of a manor

Explain

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA

Including but not limited to:

Europe


  • Moors occupy Spain for over 700 years and promote a golden age in art, literature, science, and mathematics

  • Defeat by the Franks at Tours in 732 stops the Muslim invasion of Europe

Describe

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA

Including but not limited to:


  • Europe

    • Muslim invasion of Spain in the 700s leads to a golden age in scientific and artistic achievements

    • Creation of the Muslim state of al-Andalus

    • Córdoba had eclectic mix of Muslim, Jewish and Christian populations that by 1100 resulted in a population of 500,000

    • Reconquista drives out the Muslims in the late 1400s

    • Muslim invasions of Eastern Europe between 600s and 900s lead disorder and suffering that forces people to look to local rulers for security.  Leads to the rise of feudalism.

    • Inquisition in Spain leads to torture and expulsion of Muslims and Jews

Explain

HOW THE CRUSADES, THE BLACK DEATH, THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR, AND THE GREAT SCHISM CONTRIBUTED TO END OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE

Including but not limited to:


  • Crusades

    • Failure lessened the power of the Pope

    • Casualties weakened the feudal nobility

    • Trade in spices and other goods from Southwest Asia lead to European desire for new trade routes that begins the Era of Exploration

  • Black Death

    • Collapse of manorial system as productivity ends and serfs leave in search of work; peasant rebellions grow in response to nobles’ refusal to increase wages

    • Church loses prestige as it is unable to stop the plague through prayer and intervention

  • Hundred Years War

    • Emergence of nationalism and monarchs as national leaders in England and France

    • Instability in England after the Hundred Years War leads to the War of the Roses, which strengthens Parliament since it is called frequently by King Edward III to increase taxes to finance this new war; democracy advanced as Parliament gains greater “power of the purse”

  • Great Schism

    • Split in the Catholic Church as two popes claim authority – one in Avignon and the other in Rome; both excommunicate each other from the Church

    • Authority of the pope as head of the Church challenged by John Wycliffe, who believes that God is sole authority, and Jan Huss, who believes the authority of the Bible is higher than the pope’s authority.  Beginning of challenges to the authority of the Catholic Church that leads to the Reformation.

Identify

IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:


  • Justinian's Code of Laws

    • Byzantine Law code (529 AD) influenced European laws

    • The eastern Byzantine Empire carries on the Roman law while the western part of the empire goes through a rather lawless time.

  • Magna Carta

    • 1215

    • Political ideas – Limited power of the nobility

    • Legal ideas – No one is above the law

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINT

Including, but not limited to:


  • Byzantine Civilization – Byzantium/Constantinople,  Black Sea

  • Middle Ages – France, Normandy, Charlemagne’s Empire, England, Hastings, Jerusalem, Holy Land, Paris, London, Holy Roman Empire

Explain

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHIES OF SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS

Including, but not limited to:


  • Thomas Aquinas: (1225-1274) Truth is known through reason and faith

Describe

ORIGINS/IDEAS/SPREAD OF RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS

Including, but not limited to:


  • Christianity – Through the Middle Ages, the Church becomes the centralizing force of the Western culture.

Identify

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Including, but not limited to:


  • The Medieval Church as a unifying force:

  • Shared beliefs in the teachings of the church

  • Provided Christians with a sense of security and a religious community to which they belonged

  • At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, social gatherings and festive celebrations.

  • Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals

  • Performed social services such as caring for the sick and the poor.

  • The church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe.

Identify, Describe

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS

 Including, but not limited to:


  • Islam – Historical origins, central ideas, and the spread of the religion

    • Muhammad – Born in or about 570 and is considered the founder of Islam

      • Muslims – Those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last Prophet

      • Mecca – The Holy City of the Islamic faith

      • Allah – Monotheistic deity; also recognized as the God of Abraham (Yahweh)

      • Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required (health permitting) to take within their lifetime

      • Koran (Qu’ran) – Book or writings of the prophet Muhammad

      • Jihad (Holy Struggle) – The expansion of the Islamic state and control

      • Trade and spread of religion – Silk roads, European exploration

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 600 TO 1450

Including, but not limited to:


  • Development of Islamic caliphates

    • Abbasid caliphate:  Baghdad

    • Fatimid caliphate:  Cairo

    • Umayyad caliphate: Damascus

    • Shi’a movement begins as a reaction to Umayyad rule

    • Expansion of Islam into North Africa and Spain

    • Golden age in mathematics and science, including chemistry, empirical scientific method, and medical care

  • Mongol invasions

    • 13th century:  spread across Eurasia to create one of the world’s largest empires

    • Brutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities

    • “Pax Mongolia” that supported trade along the Silk Road

    • Kublai Khan (Yuan dynasty) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place

Compare

FACTORS THAT LED TO COLLAPSE OF ROME AND HAN CHINA

Including, but not limited to:


  • Corrupt governments in both empires

  • Infighting among political elites

  • Empires too large in area to manage

  • Invasions from hostile nomadic tribes

  • Social inequality among the classes with tax burdens on lower classes

  • Inequitable distribution of lands

  • Decline in morals and values

  • Public health and urban decay

  • Unemployment and inflation

Explain

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA

Including but not limited to:


  • Asia

    • Ottoman Empire established in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) and lasts until the end of World War I

    • Mongol invasions of Baghdad:  Islam grew from a religious community focused on the core Arab lands to one in which new developments arose within Persian, Turkic, Indian, and other non-Arab cultures.

    • Safavids create a Shi’a empire in Persia (1500s-1700s)

    • Mughals establish a Muslim empire in India under Babur, Akbar, and Shah Jahan

  • Africa

    • Arab traders settle in port cities in East Africa

    • Bantu language blends with Arabic to create Swahili

    • Introduction of the slave trade in Africa

    • Growth of commerce in East Africa leads to spread of Islam to other parts of the continent

    • Gold-Salt Trade between North African Muslims and empires of West Africa lead to spread of Islam to West Africa

Describe

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA

Including but not limited to:


  • People conquered by Muslims chose to accept Islam because they were attracted by the appeal of this religion’s message as well as not having to pay a poll tax.

  • Qur’an forbade forced conversions so Muslims allowed conquered people to retain their own religions.

  • Christians and Jews served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states.

  • Muslims set up an extensive trade network between Europe, Asia and North Africa. 

  • Cultural blending leads to achievements in art and science in Muslim-controlled cities in Asia, Europe, and North Africa

  • Asia

    • Crusades lead to conflicts between Christians and Muslims

    • Muslims conquer Constantinople in 1453 and establish the Ottoman Empire

  • North Africa

    • Fatimid dynasty set up in North Africa

    • Muslims control the Maghrib  (North Africa) along the Mediterranean coast by 670

    • Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, convert to Islam in the 600s. 

Describe

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA

Including, but not limited to:


  • Muslim tribes from Central Asia invade northwestern India in the 600s

  • Turkish warlords invade India in 1000 and establish the Delhi Sultanate, where Hindus were treated as conquered people

  • Mughal ruler Akbar establishes a golden age in India

    • Religious freedom for Hindus and non-Muslims

    • Taxation on Hindu pilgrims and on non-Muslims abolished

    • Mingling of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu cultures that lead to new developments in art and literature and the Urdu language in army camps

  • Shah Jahan – construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife

  • Aurangazeb – expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the Indian subcontinent

    • Harsh policies against Hindus including bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positions

    • Militant Hindus known as Marathas establish a breakaway state in southern India

    • Sikhs break away and establish a separate state in Punjab

Summarize

MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TANG AND SONG CHINA AND IMPACT ON EASTERN ASIA

Including but not limited to:


  • Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.)

    • Political developments

      • Emperor Taizong extends China’s boundaries north to Manchuria, south to Vietnam, and east to the Aral Sea

      • Empress Wu Zhao extends Chinese influence to the Korean Peninsula

      • Restoration of bureaucracy to manage the empire

      • Scholar-officials take competitive civil service exams to work in government offices

    • Economic developments

      • Foreign trade on the Silk Roads grows

      • Arrival of tea from Southeast Asia

      • New inventions:  porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder all increase trade and spread to Japan and Korea

    • Cultural developments

      • Spread of Buddhism through trade networks to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

      • Greater social mobility and movement to cities

      • Decline in the status of women including the beginning of binding the feet of upper class girls

  • Song China (960-1279)

    • Political developments

      • Rule limited to Southern China after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria

    • Economic developments

      • Introduction of a fast-growing rice from Vietnam that lead to faster growing population

      • Movable type spreads to Japan and Korea

      • Paper money contributes to a large-scale economy

      • Advances in sailing technology such as the magnetic compass lead to the growth of ocean trade

    • Cultural developments

      • New height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black ink

      • China’s population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million people

Explain

DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE

Including, but not limited to:


  • First major development occurs in 7th century when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport them to Southwest Asia

  • Muslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims on the Islamic belief that they could be bought and sold as slaves

  • 4.5 million Africans transported as slaves to Southwest Asia between 650 and 1000 AD

  • Slaves in African and Muslim societies had legal rights and opportunity for social mobility

Analyze

HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE

Including, but not limited to:


  • Silk Road – long-distance trade route from China to Rome; products from the east such as spices and silk transported west, Roman ideas taken to their eastern provinces; Indian traders act as middlemen and grow wealthy; promotion of cultural diffusion between regions that come into contact with each other

  • African Gold-Salt Trade – Arab and Berber traders took salt from the Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold; African traders also crossed the Sahara to trade gold for salt in North Africa; cloth and weapons from Mediterranean ports taken to West Africa; powerful rulers in Ghana and Mali regulated the gold trade in West Africa

  • Cultural diffusion

Summarize

CHANGES RESULTING FROM MONGOL INVASIONS OF RUSSIA, CHINA, AND ISLAMIC WORLD



Including but not limited to:

  • Russia

  • Fall of Kiev (1240)

    • Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid

    • Isolation from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions

    • Moscow emerges as a major city

    • Ivan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols

  • China

    • Northern China conquered by Ogadi (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234

    • Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)

    • China united for the first time in 300 years

    • Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)

  • Islamic World

    • Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killed

    • End of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern day Turkey)

    • Poor administration of captured regions leads to dissolution of Mongol empire and rise of the Ottoman Turks






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