World History Mr. Sadow Chapter 23 Notes and All Work Chapter 23- Growth of Western Democracies (1815–1914)
In Britain, France, and the United States, reformers struggled for an extension of democratic rights and social change. Although many inequalities persisted, these efforts paved the way for great improvements in the quality of life.
Section 1- Britain Becomes More Democratic
In 1815, Britain had a monarch. It also had a parliament with two political parties. Still, Britain was not democratic. Parliament was made up of the House of Lords (nobles, wealthy industrialists, and high-ranking church leaders) and the House of Commons (men elected by the five percent of the population who could vote). The House of Lords could veto, or reject, any bill passed by the House of Commons.
Reformers wanted more democracy. In the 1820’s, they ended laws that banned some religious groups from voting. Then they turned to another problem. The growth of cities had left some rural boroughs, or towns, with few voters. These “rotten boroughs” had more than their fair share of seats in Parliament. The Reform Act of 1832 gave more seats to large towns. It also gave the vote to men who owned a certain amount of property.
Queen Victoria ruled the British Empire from 1837 to 1901. The Victorian age was a time for manners, hard work, honesty, and reform. In the 1860’s, political parties changed. Nobles and landowners of the Tory party joined the new Conservative party. The mostly middle-class Whig party grew into the Liberal party. Both parties wanted democracy. A Conservative bill granted the vote to many working-class men. Later, Liberals won the vote for farm workers and most other men. Eventually, suffrage was extended to all male citizens, prompting women to seek the vote as well. This enlarged the electorate (the body of people allowed to vote). A key feature of voting was the secret ballot (the right to vote without having to announce it). A Liberal bill limited the veto of the House of Lords and gave more power to the House of Commons.
Section 2- A Century of Reform
From 1815 to 1914, British reformers called for change. New laws improved working conditions, allowed trade unions, and protected children. They also provided free elementary schools, reduced harsh punishments for crimes, and ended slavery. Trade reforms lowered then repealed (to cancel) tariffs (taxes on imported goods). Confident in its future, England supported free trade (trade between countries without restrictions).
In 1900, the trade unions founded a new political party, the Labour party. By the 1920’s, the Labour party was stronger than the Liberal party. It pushed through more laws to protect workers.
British women called for the right to vote. They held huge rallies and marches. When peaceful demonstrations failed, some protesters smashed windows and burned buildings. A few went on hunger strikes. In 1918, Parliament gave the vote to women over age 30. Younger women won the right to vote in 1928.
Throughout the 1800’s, nationalists in Ireland fought British rule. They demanded change. No longer would the Irish pay high rents to British landlords. No longer would Irish Catholics turn over money to the Church of England. No longer would Irish crops go to England while Irish families starved. In the 1870s, Irish nationalists called for home rule, or local self-government. Finally, in 1914, Parliament passed a home rule bill. Counties in the South of Ireland became independent in 1921.
Section 3- Division and Democracy in France
After the French Revolution of 1848, Louis Napoleon was elected president of the Second Republic. He was nephew to Napoleon Bonaparte, and his famous name won votes. The working class liked his talk of social reform. In 1852, he declared himself Napoleon III, ruler of the Second Empire. He ruled like a dictator, censoring the press and choosing officials. However, he did keep his word to workers. He allowed unions and set up free health care and worked to end poverty.
While Napoleon III made reforms at home, he made mistakes in foreign policy. He tried to take power in Mexico but failed. In 1870, a crushing defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and his capture ended the Second Empire.
The Third Republic arose. It had a more democratic two-house legislature. All men could vote for members of the lower house. The two houses elected a president, set up a provisional (temporary) government, and gave real power to the premier, or prime minister. A constitution separated church and state and guarded human rights.
In 1894, a scandal shook the Third Republic. Captain Alfred Dreyfus was jailed for spying for the Germans. Some people thought the army blamed Dreyfus because he was a Jew. In the end, he was freed. The Dreyfus affair, along with anti-Semitism (prejudice against Jews) across Europe, worried Jewish leaders. Some began to call for a separate state where Jews would have the rights and freedoms denied to them in European countries.
Section 4- Expansion of the United States
The United States grew and changed greatly in the 1800’s, expanding from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans by war, making treaties, purchasing, and taking land. Many Americans felt it was their right to settle all the land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, a belief called manifest destiny. They moved west, taking lands from the Native Americans, who they then put on reservations (land controlled by the government). America’s growth in industry, communication, and transportation coupled with the massive numbers of immigrants and the growth of its cities made America boom.
In 1803, President Jefferson bought land from France. His Louisiana Purchase almost doubled the size of the United States and moved the western boundary from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. In 1848, Mexico was forced to give up California and much of the Southwest after losing the Mexican-American War.
During the 1800’s, two movements brought greater democracy. Abolitionists worked to end slavery. Women who worked in the abolitionist movement began to organize a women’s rights movement. They called for equality under the law, at work, and in schools, and eventually won the right to vote under the 19th Amendment.
By 1860, economic conflicts split the nation. The South relied on farming. The North was more industrialized. The regions also disagreed on the issues of power in government and slavery. Southern plantations felt they needed slave labor. The South worried when newly elected President Abraham Lincoln opposed extending slavery into new territories (land not yet states). Ultimately, more laws made in Washington benefitted the North and not the South, and the South began to believe that their way of life was being threatened by those in Washington D.C. In 1860 and 1861, eleven southern states seceded, or separated, from the Union (the country). The Civil War began shortly after.
The North’s advantages during the war were 1) a white population over 19 million, the Confederacy (the South) only 5.5 million, 2) better transportation (railroads and roads), 3) better industry, and 4) could raise money because it had a central government vs. the South’s weak central government. The South’s advantages were 1) they only had to hold out until the North got tired of fighting to win, 2) most of the battles were fought in the South, so they not only knew the land better but were fighting for their land, and 3) they had better military training and officers at first. The North won the war in 1865, mainly because the North surrounded and suffocated the South on land with troops and on sea with warships (called the Anaconda Plan). The nation was reunited, and slavery was outlawed. It had been the bloodiest war in United States history, a war that President Lincoln continued to fight until the country was one single nation again.
During and after the war, the U.S. passed Homestead Acts (laws that sold land very cheaply) to encourage Americans to move west. At the same time, there were those in Congress that wanted to make the South suffer for the war and also give African-Americans the same rights as white people had. These Radical Republicans in Congress worked to pass the 13th Amendment (the outlawing of slavery), the 14th Amendment (making African-Americans U.S. citizens with rights), and the 15th Amendment (giving African-Americans the right to vote).
The time after the Civil War (1865-1876), when the North and South began to work together again as one country, was called Radical Reconstruction. Ulysses S. Grant was President for most of that time. However, segregation (the separation of people by race) continued after the war, and in the South, Jim Crow laws (laws specifically targeting African-Americans) were created to keep African-Americans from gaining power and rights. The Ku Klux Klan also rose up at that time in the South and began its open discrimination of African-Americans.
Still, American began to move towards greater equality. The term carpetbagger refers to Northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War, during Reconstruction. Many carpetbaggers moved south for their own financial and political gains. Scalawags were white Southerners who cooperated politically with black freedmen and Northern newcomers. After Radical Reconstruction ended in 1876, to protect itself from the outside world, America became more isolated (limited involvement) with the rest of the world.
In 1867, the United States bought Alaska from Russia. In 1898, it took Hawaii. War with Spain in 1898 during the Spanish-American War gave the United States control of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. By 1900, the United States had become the world’s leading industrial giant, a global power, and a magnet for immigrants seeking freedom and opportunity.
World History Mr. Sadow Chapter 23 Homework Assignments Section 1, Due by in complete sentences in your own words
1. Who gained most from reforms in Britain in the early 1800’s?
2. Define electorate.
3. Define secret ballot.
4. Who was Queen Victoria?
Section 2, Due by in complete sentences in your own words
1. Define free trade.
2. Define repeal.
3. How did England feel about slavery in the 1800’s?
4. What did the British government do for the working class by the early 1900’s?
5. What were some of the reforms passed by the turn of the century in England?
Section 3, Due by in complete sentences in your own words
1. How did poor people in France feel about Napoleon III?
2. How did Napoleon III support economic growth in France?
3. How effective was France’s policies in foreign affairs? Give at least 2 examples.
4. What was the fate of Napoleon III?
5. Define provisional.
6. Define premier.
7. Define anti-Semitism.
Section 4, Due by in complete sentences in your own words
1. Define Manifest Destiny.
2. Define reservations.
3. What was America’s western boundary when it became a country?
4. What was America’s western boundary by 1850?
5. Define abolitionists.
6. Define segregation.
7. Define isolationism.
8. What led to America growing rapidly in numbers and strength in the 1800’s?
9. What did the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution do?
10. What advantages did the North have in the American Civil War?
11. What advantages did the South have in the American Civil War?
12. What was the name of the plan the North used to win the war? Explain how the plan worked.
13. What were the Homestead Acts?
14. What did the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution do?