World History and Geography Assessments



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World History and Geography Assessments

4.1.1 Crisis in the Classical World – Explain the responses to common forces of change that led to the ultimate collapse of classical empires and discuss the consequences of their collapse.
1. After the western Roman Empire fell to Germanic invaders in the 5th century A.D., the eastern part of the empire eventually became known as the
A. Byzantine Empire.

B. Carthaginian Empire.

C. Islamic Empire.

D. Persian Empire.


Answer: A

4.1.2 World Religions – Using historical and modern maps and other documents, analyze the continuing spread of major world religions during this era and describe encounters between religious groups including

  • Islam and Christianity (Roman Catholic and Orthodox) – increased trade and the Crusades

  • Islam and Hinduism in South Asia

  • Continuing tensions between Catholic and Orthodox Christianity


Answer: A
1. …Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived together in peace. Because several Christian and Jewish prophets, including Adam, Abraham, and Moses, are named in the Qur’an and because the Jewish Torah and Christian gospels are recognized as revelations from Allah, the Muslim rulers called Christians and Jews “people of the Book” and permitted them much religious and personal freedom. Jews, especially, enjoyed many liberties, and many Jews distinguished themselves in science, the arts, and government. Convivencia, a Spanish word meaning “living together,” helped make tenth-century al-Andalus the most civilized country in Europe… .
What is the main idea of this passage?
A. The Torah and the Bible were rejected in Muslim Spain.

B. Arabs, Jews and Christians shared houses and places of worship in Muslim Spain.

C. Religious tolerance in Muslim Spain encouraged the growth of a rich and diverse culture.

D. Spain was trouble by deep-rooted religious conflict.


Answer: C
2. What was one direct result of the Crusades?
A. Trade increased between Europe and the Middle East.

B. Islamic kingdoms expanded in Europe.

C. Arabs and Christians divided the city of Jerusalem between them.

D. Alexander the Great became a powerful leader in Eurasia.


Answer: A

4.1.3 Trade Networks and Contacts – Analyze the development, interdependence, specialization, and importance of interregional trading systems both within and between societies including

  • land-based routes across the Sahara, Eurasia, and Europe

  • water-based routes across Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, South China Sea, Red and Mediterranean Seas


1. Based on the map, which conclusion can best be drawn about this region?
A. The Sahara Desert acted as a barrier to trade.

B. Rivers served as the primary trade routes for the entire region.

C. The economy of the region was influenced by extensive trade connections.

D. Goods from the Gulf of Guinea were exchanged directly with English cities.


Answer: C

2. Based on the information provided by this map, which body of water was most likely the center of Roman trade?




A. Red Sea

B. Black Sea

C. Atlantic Ocean

D. Mediterranean Sea
Answer: D

4.2.1 Growth of Islam and Dar al-Islam [A country, territory, land, or abode where Muslim sovereignty prevails] – Identify and explain the origins and expansion of Islam and the creation of the Islamic Empire including


  • The founding geographic extent of Muslim empires and the artistic, scientific, technological, and economic features of Muslim society

  • diverse religious traditions of Islam- Sunni, Shi’a/Shi’ite, Sufi

  • role of Dar al-Islam as a cultural, political, and economic force in Afro-Eurasia

  • the caliphate as both a religious and political institution, and the persistence of other traditions in the Arab World including Christianity

1. Which practice is most closely associated with a person of the Islamic faith?


A. Refraining from eating meat on Fridays

B. Praying five times a day

C. Following the Eightfold Path

D. Worshipping many gods


Answer: B

4.2.2 Unification of Eurasia under the Mongols – Using historical and modern maps, locate and describe the geographic patterns of Mongol conquest and expansion and describe the characteristics of the Pax Mongolica (particularly revival of long-distance trading networks between China and the Mediterranean world).

1. One similarity between the Mongols of Central Asia and the Incas of South America was that both societies


A. develop cash-crop farming.

B. based their wealth on the slave trade.

C. adapt to difficult physical environments.

D. practiced monotheistic religions.


Answer: C
2. Some historians suggest that as a result of the Mongol invasions of Russia, the Russian people were
A. united with the Ottomans.

B. converted to Christianity.

C. freed from serfdom.

D. cut off from most of Western Europe.


Answer: D

3. Which statement about the Mongol Empire is accurate?


A. The Mongols developed a highly technological society that emphasized formal education.

B. European monarchies became a model for the early Mongol governments.

C. Pax Mongolia led to regional stability, increasing trade on the Silk Road.

D. The Mongols adopted Roman Catholicism as the official religion of the empire.


Answer: C

4.2.3 The Plague – Using historical and modern maps and other evidence, explain the causes and spread of the Plague and analyze the demographic, economic, social, and political consequences of this pandemic.
1. What conclusion can be made based on these statements?

  • 1340s - Mongols, merchants, and other travelers carried disease along trade routes west of China.

  • 1346 - The plague reached the Black Sea ports of Caffa and Tana.

  • 1347 - Italian merchants fled plague-infected Black Sea ports.

  • 1348 - The plague became an epidemic in most of Western Europe.

A. The plague primarily affected China.

B. The interaction of people spread the plague.

C. Port cities were relatively untouched by the plague.

D. The plague started in Western Europe.
Answer: B
2. What conclusion about the effects of the Black Death can be drawn from this map?


A. It did not spread beyond Europe.

B. It was most severe in Europe, but was also found in North Africa and Asia.

C. It affected only crowded, urban areas.

D. It spread rapidly throughout the Russian states.
Answer: B

3. What pattern can be deduced from the information on the chart?




A. The plague spread primarily from the north to the south.

B. The plague spread primarily from the west to the east.

C. The plague spread primarily from coastal areas to inland ones.

D. The plague spread primarily from Christian countries to Muslim countries.
Answer: C

4.3.1 Africa to 1500 – Describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies and the significant changes in African society by


  • comparing and contrasting at least two of the major states/civilizations of East, South, and West Africa (Aksum, Swahili Coast, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Mali, Songhai) in terms of environmental, economic, religious, political, and social structures

  • using historical and modern maps to identify the Bantu migration patterns and describe their contributions to agriculture, technology and language

  • analyzing the African trading networks by examining trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt and connect these to interregional patterns of trade

  • analyzing the development of an organized slave trade within and beyond Africa

  • analyzing the influence of Islam and Christianity on African culture and the blending of traditional African beliefs with new ideas from Islam and Christianity

1. What generalization can be made on the basis of these statements?



  • Timbuktu is known as a great center of learning and trade.

  • Walls of Great Zimbabwe reveal a powerful and rich society.

  • Complex culture produces brass sculptures in Benin.

A. Religious beliefs were the most important element in many African societies.

B. Some African societies achieved a high level of economic and cultural development.

C. North African societies were more advanced than South African societies.

D. Most African societies were hundreds of years behind Asian societies in using. technology
Answer: B

2. Which civilization best completes the heading of the partial outline below?


I. ______________________________

A. Spread of Islam

B. Gold and salt trade

C. Growth of Timbuktu

D. Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa
A. Benin

B. Kush


C. Mali

D. Egyptian


Answer: C
3. One way in which the Silk Roads and the West African trade routes are similar is that along both routes
A. the main items exchanged were ivory and tobacco.

B. concrete was used to improve the surface of the roads.

C. a single currency was used to make transactions easier.

D. ideas were exchanged as merchants interacted with each other.


Answer: D

4.3.2 The Americas to 1500 – Describe the diverse characteristics of early American civilizations and societies in North, Central, and South America by comparing and contrasting the major aspects (government, religion, interactions with the environment, economy, and social life) of American Indian civilizations and societies such as the Maya, Aztec, Inca, Pueblo, and/or Eastern Woodland peoples.
1. One similarity of the Aztec, Maya, and Inca empires is that they
A. developed in fertile river valleys.

B. maintained democratic political systems.

C. coexisted peacefully with neighboring empires.

D. created complex civilizations.


Answer: D
2. Which statement about the Aztec and Incan civilizations is a fact rather than an opinion?
A. The Incas had a culture that was superior to the Aztec culture.

B. Incan temples and Aztec calendars are the best examples of advanced science and technology.

C. Religion, art, and science were better in Aztec and Incan cities than they were in European cities.

D. Both the Incas and the Aztecs had large urban areas with governmental and religious buildings.


Answer: D
3. The Aztec use of the calendar and the Maya writing system both illustrate that pre-Columbian cultures in the Americas
A. traded extensively with Africa.

B. flourished prior to European contact.

C. declined because of invasion and disease.

D. converted others to Islam.


Answer: B

4.3.3 China to 1500 – Explain how Chinese dynasties responded to the internal and external challenges caused by ethnic diversity, physical geography, population growth and Mongol invasion to achieve relative political stability, economic prosperity, and technological innovation.
1. The ancient cultures of both the Incas and the Chinese adapted to the physical geography of their region by
A. developing terrace farming on hillsides.

B. building chariots to protect their open plains against invaders.

C. becoming maritime traders.

D. constructing harbors to encourage exploration.


Answer: A
2. One way in which the Han dynasty and the Roman Empire were similar is that both
A. governed large areas around the Mediterranean Sea.

B. created democratic societies in which people elected their government officials.

C. developed a social system in which great equality existed.

D. promoted unity and communication by building a strong system of roads.


Answer: D

4.3.4 The Eastern European System and the Byzantine Empire to 1500 – Analyze restructuring of the Eastern European system including

    • the rise and decline of the Byzantine Empire

    • the region’s unique spatial location

    • the region’s political, economic, and religious transformations

    • emerging tensions between East and West

1. Which title best completes the partial outline?


I._______________________


A. Incorporation of European and Arabic ideas in architecture

B. Preservation of Greco-Roman ideas

C. Spread of Orthodox Christianity into Russia

D. Development of Justinian Code


A. Age of Discovery

B. Byzantium Empire

C. Persian Empire

D. Crusades


Answer: B
2. …For many in the contemporary Arab world, the Crusades are viewed as having begun nearly a millennium of conflict with what would become the West. The Crusades are seen as representing the constant threat of Western encroachment [trespassing]. But many scholars say that is a more recent and inaccurate view of the Crusades… .

- Mike Shuster, reporter, NPR


The Medieval Crusades were taken and then turned into something that they never


really were in the first place. They were turned into a kind of a proto-imperialism, an attempt to bring the fruits of European civilization to the Middle East, when, in fact, during the Middle Ages the great sophisticated and wealthy power was the Muslim world. Europe was the Third World. . . .

- Thomas Madden, St. Louis University, History of relations between the West and Middle East, NPR, All Things Considered, August 17, 2004


These statements indicate that the history of the Crusades
A. has been neglected by experts.

B. was of little importance.

C. is the subject of debate and interpretation.

D. illustrates the importance of tolerance and understanding.


Answer: C

4.3.5 Western Europe to 1500 – Explain the workings of feudalism, manoralism, and the growth of centralized monarchies and city-states in Europe including

  • the role and political impact of the Roman Catholic Church in European medieval society

  • how agricultural innovation and increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities

  • the role of the Crusades, 100 Years War, and the Bubonic Plague in the early development of centralized nation-states

  • the cultural and social impact of the Renaissance on Western and Northern Europe

1. The introduction of gunpowder helped bring an end to feudalism.



The printing press played an important role in causing the Reformation.
The statements above best reflect the idea that
A. environmental changes can affect human society.

B. contact with other societies can lead to conflict and war.

C. economic change can be slow and almost unnoticed.

D. technological advances can lead to major change.


Answer: D
2. Which economic concept can be inferred from this diagram?


A. Self-sufficiency

B. Inflation

C. Trade embargo

D. Competition
Answer: A

3. “The Peace of God declared that feudal warfare could not take place on church property, and it promised sanctuary in churches and abbeys to fugitives from combat. The Truce of God forbade fighting from Wednesday evening until Monday morning, on holidays, and during the religious seasons of Christmas and Lent…” - Medieval and Early Modern Times

This selection tells us that
A. the church had considerable political power during this time.

B. war was limited to religious holidays.

C. religion was dictated by feudal law.

D. landlords determined when warfare took place.


Answer: A

5.1.1 Emerging Global System – Analyze the impact of increased oceanic travel including changes in the global system of trade, migration, and political power as compared to the previous era.
1. The Age of Exploration led directly to the
A. establishment of European colonies.

B. start of the Puritan Revolution.

C. invention of the magnetic compass.

D. failure of the Congress of Vienna.


Answer: A
2. Venice in Europe, Mogadishu in Africa, and Canton in China emerged during the 13th century primarily as important centers of
A. agriculture.

B. trade.

C. manufacturing.

D. mining.


Answer: B
5.1.2 World Religions – Use historical and modern maps to analyze major territorial transformations and movements of world religions including the expulsion of Muslims and Jews from Spain, Christianity to the Americas, and Islam to Southeast Asia, and evaluate the impact of these transformations/movements on the respective human systems.
1. One similarity between Japanese Shintoism and African animism is the belief that
A. everything in nature has a spirit and should be respected.

B. only one God exists in the universe.

C. people’s moral conduct determines their afterlife.

D. religious statues should be erected to honor the gods.


Answer: A


  1. Buddhism is introduced into Japan around A.D. 1200.

Islam extends from the Middle East into Spain by A.D. 732.

Catholic and Protestant missionaries bring Christianity to Africa in the 1800s.
Each of the statements above reflects the concept of
A. cultural diffusion.

B. urbanization.

C. civil disobedience.

D. isolationism.


Answer: A

5.2.1 European Exploration/Conquest and Columbian Exchange – Analyze the demographic, environmental, and political consequences of European oceanic travel and conquest and of the Columbian Exchange in the late 15th and 16th centuries by

    • describing the geographic routes used in the exchange of plants, animals, and pathogens among the continents in the late 15th and the 16th centuries

    • explaining how forced and free migrations of peoples (push/pull factors) and the exchange of plants, animals, and pathogens impacted the natural environments, political institutions, societies, and commerce of European, Asian, African, and the American societies

1. What was a significant effect of the Columbian exchange?


A. The Aztec conquered a vast empire.

B. Potatoes were introduced into the diet of some Europeans.

C. Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for sailors.

D. China closed its borders to foreigners.


Answer: B
2. “They [Zheng He and his men] were directed to ... open trade contacts.... The densely populated regions of southern China were experiencing repeated epidemics ... and the herbs believed to be effective in controlling them had become impossible to obtain because of the earlier ban on foreign trade.”
The issue under discussion in this passage is
A. urbanization.

B. interdependence.

C. revolution.

D. immigration.



Answer: B


  1. Maize and potatoes were grown in Europe.

Millions of Africans suffered during the Middle Passage.

Smallpox had devastating effects on indigenous peoples.

Spanish language is used in much of Latin America.
Which global interaction is illustrated by these statements?
A. Silk Road trade

B. Crusades

C. Columbian Exchange

D. Scramble for Africa


Answer: C

5.2.2 Trans-African and Trans-Atlantic Slave Systems – Analyze the emerging trans-Atlantic slave system and compare it to other systems of labor existing during this era by

    • using historical and modern maps and other data to analyze the causes and development of the Atlantic trade system, including economic exchanges, the diffusion of Africans in the Americas (including the Caribbean and South America), and the Middle Passage

    • comparing and contrasting the trans-Atlantic slave system with the African slave system and another system of labor existing during this era (e.g., serfdom, indentured servitude, corvee labor, wage labor)

1. What was a direct result of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on African cultures?


A. Many African communities faced economic disaster.

B. European industrial factories were established throughout Africa.

C. Animism was no longer practiced in Africa.

D. Africans across the continent hired Europeans to train their military.


Answer: A
2. The success of the triangular trade system depended on increasing
A. political independence of the Caribbean nations.

B. emphasis on free trade of European nations.

C. slave trade in the Western hemisphere.

D. industrialization of South American colonies.


Answer: C

5.3.1 Ottoman Empire through the 18th Century – Analyze the major political, religious, economic, and cultural transformations in the Ottoman Empire by

    • using historical and modern maps to describe the empire’s origins (Turkic migrations), geographic expansion, and contraction

    • analyzing the impact of the Ottoman rule

1. “It would be wrong to call the Ottoman Empire a purely Islamic state.  It was not.  It was a state that claimed some kind of an attachment, some kind of allegiance to Islam, but combined it with other forms of heritage from the Byzantine tradition or from the Turkic


tradition that did not really correspond to Islam.  So they always had this very, very pragmatic approach to Islam.” - Professor Edhem Eldem,
This author is suggesting that during the Ottoman Empire
A. religion was mingled with historic traditions.

B. most people belonged to minority religions.

C. rulers tried to separate politics from religion.

D. rulers operated under a strict set of laws.


Answer: A
2. What is a major contribution of the Byzantine Empire to global history?
A. Preservation of Greek and Roman culture

B. Construction of the pyramids

C. Expansion of equal rights

D. Invention of writing




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