Shiites insist that true leaders of Islam must be descendants of Ali, Mohammed's son-in-law. Objectives: Students will be able to describe the rise of the Mughal Empire by analyzing the policies and achievements of Akbar. Akbar:
1. Like Mehmet II of Constantinople/ Istambul, he encouraging citizens of many cultures to come to helped build the Mughal Empire.
2. Akbar was also a liberal ruler, practiced religious toleration, governed through a bureaucracy made up of natives and foreigners.
8. Khusrau turned the Sikhs for aid when he rebelled against his father. As a result, this group became the target of the Mughals’ particular hatred.
9. Nur Jahan was a Persian princess who married a son of Akbar’s and became a brilliant politician. When her husband proved weak, she took the opportunity to rule India in his name.
2.3 The Mughals Establish anEmpire in India
9. h BCR. It could noted that Akbar was a defender of religious freedom, abolished taxes on non- Muslims and adopted a fairer method of taxation similar to the U.S. graduated income tax, increased the quality of government by opening government service to all of the peoples of the empire. He initiated policies that prevent - ed the growth of a strong aristocracy at the expense of other groups in society. e. conquered many lands, adding significantly to the wealth of the empire, welcomed influences from many cultures, which encouraged the arts, literature, and architecture to flourish. GEOGRAPHY APPLICATION
8. The products mentioned were found mostly in the upper interior of India, requiring the long distance shipment of these goods over rivers and land to reach the southern port cities.
Summary: We examined maps and were able to describe the rise of the Mughal Empire by analyzing the policies and achievements of Akbar. Homework: Mughals & Sikhs
Mughals –Muslems who establish an empire in India
Sikhs- belived in a mixture of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism.
2.3 The Mughals Establish anEmpire in India A. Terms and Names Write the letter of the term or name that matches the description. Not all terms will be used.
a. Sikhs f. Mughals
b. Babur g. Muslims
c. Akbar h. Nur Jahan
d. Hindus i. Aurangzeb
e. Jahangir j. Shah Jahan
______ 1. This is the religious group to which the Mughal emperors belonged.
______ 2. This Mughal emperor built the Taj Mahal in memory of his beloved wife.
______ 3. Their religious beliefs are a mixture of the doctrines of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism.
______ 4. Although this son of Akbar was an extremely weak ruler, he wisely left the affairs of state to his more capable wife.
______ 5. Known as the “Great One,” he added more territory to the lands conquered by Babur than did any other Mughal emperor.
______ 6. It was under this Mughal emperor that the empire expanded to its greatest size. Even so, the power of the empire weakened greatly during his reign.
______ 7. His kingdom was stolen from him when he was a boy. As a young man, he regained it along with other lands, thus laying the foundation for the vast Mughal Empire.
______ 8. This is the group to whom Khusrau turned for aid when he rebelled against his father. As a result, this group became the target of the Mughals’ particular hatred.
______ 9. She was a Persian princess who married a son of Akbar’s and became a brilliant politician. When her husband proved weak, she took the opportunity to rule India in his name.
BCR. Critical Thinking Briefly answer the following question on the back of this paper.
Why is the reign of Akbar considered a golden age of the Mughal Empire?
Europe Discovers the Riches of India Directions: Read the paragraphs below and study the map carefully. Then answer the questions that follow.
In 1498 the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama was the first European to reach India by sea. In contrast to most outsiders reaching India, he was interested only in the country’s natural resources, not in conquering territory. Da Gama landed at Calicut, the richest of several Indian port cities. He was totally unprepared, however, to encounter shops and warehouses stocked with such items as cotton textiles and diamonds. Europeans had underrated India’s sophistication.
Da Gama had brought as gifts to his Indian hosts only striped cloths, hats, strips of coral, sugar, oil, and honey. These items had impressed the African kings he had met but now were considered an insult to the lord of Calicut. The gifts were refused. Da Gama was told that his presents should have been made of gold. The failure of the Portuguese to offer the proper respect angered the Mughals, and so da Gama returned home only with stories of what he’d seen—and some spices he had bought himself.
The spices, however, were sold in Europe at 27 times their cost, and the scramble for Indian products was under way. Most of the European trading posts were located on the west cost.
Pepper from southern India became the most desired of India’s spices. Indian dyes were sought
everywhere. Sugar and opium were the main products of the Bengal region of India at this time. Most
popular of all were textiles—especially rugs— as weaving had been done in India for centuries especially in the Afghanistan and Kashmir regions of India. Dyes were the only product found in both the northern and southern regions. Cinnamon was the major product of Ceylon
During the 1500s Portuguese traders controlled sea routes to India and seized several trading forts along the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal. However, the Portuguese traders eventually lost their Indian strongholds to the Dutch, who took over trading posts in Colombo in 1641, Negapatam in 1658, and Cochin in 1663. Soon thereafter French and English traders took over Dutch trading claims. Mughal rulers were still relatively strong during these years, and they never permitted Europeans to capture anything more than an economic toehold on the subcontinent. That power ended when Aurangzeb’s death broke up the Mughals’ central state.
Interpreting Text and Visuals
1. On which coast of India were most of the European trading posts located? ________________
2. What were the main products of the Bengal region of India at this time?__________________
3. What is the only product found in both the northern and southern regions? ______________
4. What was the sole major product of Ceylon, which is modern Sri Lanka? ________________
5. From which country did Vasco da Gama come and where in India did he land? ____________
6. Look at the product symbols for the Afghanistan and Kashmir regions of India. What was the main economic activity in those regions?____________________________________________
7. What was Europe’s most desired Indian spice and where did it come from? ______________
8. Explain why the export of carpets, woolens, most dyes, and gold from India to Europe was probably more difficult than that of the other products found on the map. ________________