World history 1 (to 1500) – vocabulary grading period 4 name: directions



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WORLD HISTORY 1 (to 1500) – VOCABULARY GRADING PERIOD 4 NAME:
DIRECTIONS: Study the words regularly. Be prepared to take quizzes on ten to fifteen words at a time. Keep this sheet in your notebook. You may wish to make review cards.

WORDS DEFINITIONS

1. Axum


East African kingdom and trade center near present-day Ethiopia, it was a Christian area surrounded by Islamic territory


2. Great Zimbabwe



Southeastern African trading kingdom that encountered merchants from the Middle East and Asia and is identified by a large fortified enclosure.


3. West African Kingdoms


The civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai that were important areas for trade.


4. Timbuktu


West African trade center and city with a university and Islamic center.


5. Trans-Saharan

Trade

Extensive trade networks that crossed northern African and focused on the trade of gold and salt.


6. Animism



Belief that spirits inhabit everything; Tribal/indigenous religions of North Africa


7. Griot



Highly trained speakers and entertainers in West Africa who memorized the oral traditions.


8. Bantu



Root language in Africa that eventually spread east and south as the people migrated in search of arable land


9. Swahili



An African language that developed in Zimbabwe and was known as the language used for trade.


10. Shintoism



A religion that began in Japan and focused on the importance of nature, ancestors, and worshipping the emperor.


11. Zen

Sect of Buddhism that stresses meditation as a means of enlightenment.

12. Shogun


Chief military and government office in feudal Japan.


13. Samurai


Japanese warriors hired for protection by wealthy landlords in feudal Japan.


14. Bushido



“Way of the Warrior;” Code of behavior of the Japanese warrior that stressed bravery, loyalty, and honor.


15. Mayas



The indigenous people of the Yucatan Peninsula who built cities in the jungles like Chichen Itza and Palenque.


16. Aztecs



Indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico who built causeways and cities; practiced human sacrifice; and were conquered by the Spanish in 1521.


17. Incas



Indigenous people of western South America (Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador) who used terrace farming and built the city of Machu Picchu.





18. Tenochtitlan



Aztec capital city that was an engineering accomplishment since it was constructed on a lake with causeways.


19. Yucatan Peninsula



Geographical location for the first civilizations in the Americas including the Olmecs and the Mayas.


20. Andes Mountains



Geographical location for the Incan and Moche civilizations in South America.



21. Chinampas

The Aztec method of farming on floating islands that were made from mud and grass piled in lakes

22. Terrace Farming



Mountain farming that uses flat steps cut into the side of the mountain; used in China as well as in South America.


23. Islam



The third monotheistic religion to arise in the Middle East; it began in Mecca with the actions of Muhammad.


24. Hinduism



A religion that arose in India that combined Dravidian and Aryan beliefs and also believed that one god was represented in many forms; the goal is to reach moksha through reincarnation, karma, and dharma.


25. Buddhism



A religion that began in ancient India by Siddhartha Gautama that focused on the Four Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path to reach nirvana.


26. Judaism


First monotheistic religion; developed in the Middle East by the Hebrews.


27. Zoroastrianism



A Persian religion that focused on good versus evil; Sacred text was the Zend Avesta


28. Reincarnation



A belief shared by Hindus and Buddhist that when one person dies he/she will be reborn into a new life (cycles of rebirth)


29. Karma



A belief shared by Hindus and Buddhists that a person’s actions and behavior determine how that person will be reborn in his/her next life.


30. Caste System



A hereditary, rigid social class hierarchy brought to India by the Aryan invaders and used with the Hindu religion.


31. Mecca



Located in Saudi Arabia, it is the holy city for Muslims; pilgrimage location for the Hajj.


32. Mandate of Heaven


In China, power from the gods that was given to the ruler; justification for the dynastic cycle in China.


33. Silk Road


A trade route that connected China and Asia to Rome and Europe.


34. Cuneiform


Sumerian pictographic writing (Mesopotamia) that used wedge shaped marks made on clay tablets and resembled geometric designs.


35. Polis


The name for a city-state in ancient Greece.





36. Acropolis



The elevated portion of a Greek city-state where the temples were usually located.


37. Athens


A Greek city-state known for culture.


38. Sparta


A Greek city-state known for military training.


39. Democracy



Type of government that originated in Greece and involved active citizen participation; rule by the people


40. Persian War



Conflicts that the united Athens and Sparta to gain control of the Aegean Sea; occurred from 499 BC - 449 BC


41. Peloponnesian War


A conflict that occurred between Athens and Sparta from 431 BC to

404 BC; Sparta wins

42. Alexander the Great


Macedonian king who conquers Greece to the Indus River valley and was instrumental in spreading Greek culture.


43. Patricians


The upper class or powerful nobles (few in number) in Rome.


44. Plebeians


The lower class and majority of the population in Rome.


45. Twelve Tables


Roman laws


46. Pax Romana


A time of peace and prosperity (roughly 200 years) during the Roman Empire that began with Augustus


47. Feudalism



A system of government during the Middle Ages where a greater lord granted land and some power to lesser lords in exchange for loyalty, service, and military assistance.


48. Fief



Land granted by a feudal lord to a noble.


49. Vassal



A Medieval noble who pledged loyalty and services to a feudal lord in exchange for a grant of land.


50. Serf


Medieval peasant legally bound to live and work on a specific piece of land.





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