Adverse medical and health consequences of female circumcision In the Sudan a variety of complications of female circumcision have been reported in the medical literature. Usually immediate and late complication such as immediate shock, bleeding, infection, tetanus, difficulty in passing urine and urinary retention, where as late complications include, among others, vulval swelling, difficulties during labour and delivery, and coital difficulties such as severe pain at penetration and lack of orgasm or sexual gratification. In a nation-wide and cross-sectional survey, Asma El Dareer traced the incidence of both immediate and late complications of female circumcision and their frequency for each of the major types of circumcision among circumcised Sudanese women. The following is a summary of the main findings. The immediate complications of all three forms of circumcision numbered 790 cases (25 %) of all circumcised females. The frequency for each type of circumcision alone was: Pharaonic 26 %, Intermediate 24 %, and Sunna 8 %. Of all the immediate complications, difficulty in passing urine, wound infection, and bleeding were the most common. On the other hand, the delayed complications amounted to 1023 (32 %) of all circumcised cases. The frequency of each type of circumcision alone was: Pharaonic (33 %), Intermediate (31 %), and Sunna (15%). The most common delayed complications were recurrent urinary tract infections, chronic pelvic infection and results of tight circumcision, namely difficulty in penetration, pain during sexual intercourse, and difficulty in menstruation. An interesting result of Asma El Dareer's study is that the pattern of complications of Pharaonic and Intermediate forms of circumcision was found to be the same.