• partial disinfibulation in marriage
• giving birth
• gynaecological complications of disfibulation
• obstetrical problems of infibulation
At marriage in Somali areas disinfibulation consists of a partial incision with a razor of the closed vulva, followed by forcible penetration with the penis. Among the Afar, defloration is achieved by the use of the penis alone. Fortunately, urban dwellers frequently request medical disinfibulation, wherein a doctor reverses the infibulation process under local anaesthetic. Sexual relations are established after the wound is healed. A median incision of the closed vulva is essential at childbirth. This only takes place in the final stages of labour, as the women do not permit it to occur earlier.