razor blade, dwarf blade, a mixture of powdered myrrh and sugar or vegetable extracts.
The operation always takes place in the family home, early in the morning, and involves one or more daughters. A number of girls are operated on at the same time. Along with the mother, other female relatives, friends and neighbours are invited. They take an active part in the proceedings, and act as witnesses to the mothers' respect for tradition. No men, not even the father or brother, are admitted. Pharaonic circumcision, which is deeply rooted in the cultural system, affects young girls both physically by blocking their vulva opening, psychologically by inhibiting their sexuality.