Cooperation: Japan as a World Power After its rapid modernization in the late 1800s, Japan took its place among the leading powers of the world. It asserted that power throughout the 1900s, with varying results. Today, Japan's economy is second in size only to that of the United States. Conduct research on Japan and write a paragraph describing its role in international affairs today.
Britain annexes Burma.
The Philippines declares independence
Japan annexes Korea.
For: Interactive timeliTTe Web Code: nbp-2562
The Canadian Pacific Railway opens.
The United States issues the Roosevelt Corollary.
The Panama Canal opens.
Terms, People, and Places
In what ways did Matthew Perry's opening of Japan lead to the Meiji Restoration?
How did the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars spring out of Japan's new strength as a modernized nation?
What steps did King Mongkut take to help Siam avoid the fate of French Indochina?
How did Canada become a dominion?
Describe how the Spanish-American War affected both the Philippines and Cuba.
How did regionalism and caudillos weaken the stability of Latin American countries in the 1800s?
Section 1 (pp. 422-428)
How did Japan change course in the late 1800s?
Section 2 (pp. 429-433)
Why were imperialist nations drawn to Southeast Asia and the Pacific?
How did the colonized peoples of Southeast Asia react to Western attempts to dominate the region?
Section 3 (pp. 434-438)
Describe settlement in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
How did these colonies gain independence?
Section 4 (pp. 439-445)
What factors caused instability in Latin America after independence?
How did the United States influence Latin America?
Chapter Focus question:
How did political and economic imperialism influence nations around the world?
Compare Compare Japan's response to Western imperialism to that of China. How were the two responses similar? How were they different?
Identify Causes In the image below, a Japanese woman wears Western clothing. What role did westernization play in helping both Japan and Siam avoid colonization by European nations?
Connect to Geography How did the creation of the Dominion of Canada encourage expansion?
Synthesize Information What principle did the United States express in the Monroe Doctrine? How did the Roosevelt Corollary alter the Monroe Doctrine?
Draw Conclusions List the benefits and disadvantages brought about by colonial rule. Do you think subject people were better or worse off as a result of the Age of Imperialism? Explain.
Writing About History
Writing for Assessment The effects of imperialism are still being felt around the world today. Write an answer to one of the following extended response essay prompts. Spend only 40 minutes on the writing process. Consult page SH2O of the Writing Handbook for additional help.
Analyze the effects of Japanese imperialism in Korea.
Analyze the effects of American intervention in Latin America.
Read both prompts and determine what you know about each. Choose the one whose topic you recall the most information about.
Look for key words that will tell you what kind of answer to provide, such as "explain."
Focus your time by allowing 10 minutes for prewriting, 20 minutes for drafting, and 10 minutes for revising your response.
Develop a thesis for your essay and make sure each piece of information supports it.
Check that you open and close your response strongly, that each point supports your main idea, and that you've answered all aspects of the question.
The Imperialism Debate and the Philippines
After defeating Spain in Manila Bay in May 1898, American forces remained in the Philippines. In February 1899, the United States Senate voted to annex the Philippines. The Philippines were one aspect of the United States' efforts to compete with Europe in the scramble for new foreign markets, investment opportunities and raw materials. A great debate took place in the United States over the issue of imperialism, as the documents below show.
"I have been criticized a good deal about the Philippines, but don't deserve it. The truth is I didn't want the Philippines, and when they came to us, as a gift from the gods, I did not know what to do with them.... And one night late it came to me this way—I don't know how it was, but it came: (1) That we could not give them back to Spain—that would be cowardly and dishonorable; (2) that we could not turn them over to France and Germany—our commercial rivals in the Orient—that would be bad business and discreditable; (3) that we could not leave them to themselves—they were unfit for self-government—and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain's was; and (4) that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them ..."
—From remarks to a visiting delegation of Methodist church leaders made by President William McKinley on November 21, 1899
"We hold that the policy known as imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism, an evil from which it has been our glory to be free.... We maintain that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. We insist that the subjugation of any people is "criminal aggression" and open disloyalty to the distinctive principles of our government.
We earnestly condemn the policy of the present National Administration in the Philippines. It seeks to extinguish the spirit of 1776 in those islands.... We denounce the slaughter of the Filipinos as a needless horror."
—From the Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899
"Isn't Every American proud of the part that American soldiers bore in the relief of Pekin [i.e., Beijing, where some U.S. citizens were held hostage by the Boxers]? But that would have been impossible if our flag had not been in the Philippines.
Gen. Chaffee led two infantry regiments, the Ninth and the Fourteen, and one battery of the Fifth Artillery to Pekin. They did not come direct from the United States; there was not time.... But for these men and the marines from Manilla barracks, Minister Conger and his American comrades in the besieged legation would not have seen their country's flag, and would OWE THEIR RELIEF TO BRITISH, JAPANESE AND RUSSIANS.
When Mr. Bryan [Democratic candidate for president] tells you that the Philippines are worth nothing to America, you tell him to 'REMEMBER PEKIN!"'
Use your knowledge of this chapter and Documents A, B, and C to answer questions 1-4.
1. In Document A, which of McKinley's four reasons for the takeover of the Philippines explained that important business interests were at stake?
C 3 D4
2. In Document B, what is the meaning of "It seeks to extinguish the spirit of 1776 in those islands"?
A The U.S. vowed never to give the Philippines its freedom.
B The U.S. is undermining an independence movement that is like the American Revolution.
C Self-government in the Philippines is inevitable.
D The U.S. has the ability and the duty to educate Filipinos about self-government.
3. According to Document C, the Philippines are necessary to the United States as a(n)
A source for raw materials.
B outpost for Christian missionaries.
C base for military actions.
D market for U.S. goods.
4. William Jennings Bryan considered imperialism which he opposed, to be the top issue in the 1900 presidential campaign. Who would have received your vote, the Democratic candidate, Bryan, or the Republican, William McKinley? Give your reasons, using these documents and information from the chapter.