The Mexican reformer Benito Juarez criticized the continuing inequality in Mexico:
44 The constitution of 1824 was a compromise between progress and reaction, and [that compromise was a] seedbed of the incessant convulsions [disorders] that the Republic has suffered, and that
it will still suffer while society does not recover its
balance by making effective the equality of rights and duties of all citizens and of all persons who inhabit the national territory, without privileges, without exemptions [exceptions], without monopolies, and without odious distinctions . .99
Focus Question How did Latin American nations struggle for stability, and how did industrialized nations affect them?
n Latin America
Describe the political problems faced by Mexico and other new Latin American nations.
List the ways industrialized nations affected Latin America.
Terms, People, and Places
caudillo Monroe Doctrine
Benito Juarez Panama Canal La Reforma
Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes As you read, record the causes of instability in Latin America in a chart similar to this one. Then give an example of how each cause affected Mexico.
Instability in Latin America Causes Mexican Example
Despite bright hopes, democracy failed to take root in most of the newly independent nations of Latin America in the 1800s. Instead, wealth and power remained in the hands of the few. At the same time, new technology such as refrigerated ships helped to intertwine the economies of nations that were thousands of miles apart. Latin American economies became increasingly dependent upon those of more developed countries. Britain, and later the United States, invested heavily in Latin America.
Lingering Political Problems
Simon Bolivar had hoped to create strong ties among the nations of Latin America. But feuds among leaders, geographic barriers, and local nationalism shattered that dream of unity. In the end, 20 separate nations emerged.
These new nations wrote constitutions modeled on that of the United States. They set up republics with elected legislatures. However, true democracy failed to take hold. During the 1800s, many succumbed to revolts, civil war, and dictatorships.
The Colonial Legacy Many of the problems in the new nations had their origins in colonial rule. The existing social and political hierarchy barely changed. Creoles simply replaced peninsulares as the ruling class. The Roman Catholic Church kept its privileged position and still controlled huge amounts of land.
For most people—mestizos, mulattoes, blacks, and Indians—life did not improve after independence. The new constitutions guaranteed equality before the law, but deep-rooted inequalities remained. Voting rights were limited. Many people felt the effects of racial prejudice. Small groups of people held most of the land. Owners of haciendas ruled their great estates, and the peasants who worked them, like medieval European lords.
The Search for Stability With few roads and no tradition of unity, regionalism, or loyalty to a local area, weakened the new nations. Local strongmen, called caudillos (kaw DEE yohs), assembled private armies to resist the central government. At times, popular caudillos, occasionally former military leaders, gained national power. They looted the treasury and ruled as dictators. Power struggles led to frequent revolts that changed little except the name of the leader. In the long run, power remained in the hands of a privileged few who had no desire to share it.
As in Europe, the ruling elite in Latin America were divided between conservatives and liberals. Conservatives defended the traditional social order, favored press censorship, and strongly supported the Catholic Church. Liberals backed laissez-faire economics, religious toleration, greater access to education, and freedom of the press. Liberals saw themselves as enlightened supporters of progress but often showed little concern for the needs of the majority of the people.
Checkpoint What factors undermined democracy in post-independence Latin America?
Mexico's Struggle for Stability
During the 1800s, each Latin American nation followed its own course. Mexico provides an example of the challenges facing many Latin American nations. Large landowners, army leaders, and the Catholic Church dominated Mexican politics. However, bitter battles between conservatives and liberals led to revolts and the rise of dictators. Deep social divisions separated wealthy creoles from mestizos and Indians who lived in poverty.
Santa Anna and War With the United States Between 1833 and
1855, an ambitious and cunning caudillo, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, gained and lost power many times. At first, he posed as a liberal reformer.
Soon, however, he reversed his stand and
crushed efforts at reform.
In Mexico's northern territory of Texas, dis
content grew. In 1835, settlers who had
moved to Texas from the United States and
other places revolted. After a brief struggle
with Santa Anna's forces, the settlers gained
independence from Mexico. They quickly set up
an independent republic. Then in 1845 the United
States annexed Texas. Mexicans saw this act as a declaration of war. In the fighting that followed, the United States invaded and defeated Mexico. In the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which ended the war, Mexico lost almost half its territory. The embarrassing defeat triggered new violence between conservatives and liberals.
La Reforma Changes Mexico In 1855, Benito Juarez (WAHR ez), a liberal reformer of Zapotec Indian heritage, and other liberals gained power and opened an era of reform known as La Reforma. Juarez offered hope to the oppressed people of Mexico. He and his fellow reformers revised the Mexican constitution to strip the military of power and end the special privileges of the Church. They ordered the Church to sell unused lands to peasants.
Conservatives resisted La Reforma and began a civil war. Still, Juarez was elected president in 1861 and expanded his reforms. His opponents turned to Europe for help. In 1863, Napoleon III sent troops to Mexico and set up Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor.
For four years, Juarez's forces battled the combined conservative and French forces. When France withdrew its troops, Maximilian was captured and shot. In 1867, Juarez returned to power and tried to renew reform, but opponents resisted. Juarez died in office in 1872, never achieving all the reforms he envisioned. He did, however, help unite Mexico, bring mestizos into politics, and separate church and state.
Growth and Oppression Under Diaz After Juarez died, General Porfirio Diaz, a hero of the war against the French, staged a military coup and gained power. From 1876 to 1880 and 1884 to 1911, he ruled as a dictator. In the name of "Order and Progress," he strengthened the army, local police, and central government. He crushed opposition.
Under his harsh rule, Mexico made tangible economic advances. Railroads were built, foreign trade increased, some industry developed, and mining expanded. Growth, however, had a high cost. Capital for development came from foreign investors, to whom Diaz granted special rights. He also let wealthy landowners buy up Indian lands.
The rich prospered, but most Mexicans remained poor. Many Indians and mestizos fell into peonage to their employers. In the peonage system, hacienda owners would give workers advances on their wages and require them to stay on the hacienda until they had paid back what they owed. Wages remained low, and workers were rarely able to repay the hacienda owner. Many children died in infancy. Other children worked 12-hour days and never learned to read or write.
Checkpoint What struggles did Mexico go through as it tried to find stability in the 1800s?
Remember the Alamo!
Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (above) is well-known for his ruthless decision to give no quarter to the Texan defenders of the Alamo, a fort in San Antonio, Texas, during the Texas Revolution. The illustration above shows Texan defenders of the Alamo bravely fighting against overwhelming odds. In what light does this illustration present the defenders of the Alamo?
Vocabulary Builder tangible—(TAN juh bul) adj. real or concrete
Chapter 13 Section 4 441
Reading Skill: Identify Effects Use a chart like the one below to record how foreign influence, including that of the United States, affected Latin America.
The Economics of Dependence
Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. Colonies sent raw materials such as cash crops or precious metals to the parent country and had to buy manufactured goods from them. Strict laws kept colonists from trading with other countries and possibly obtaining goods at a lower price. In addition, laws prohibited the building of local industries that would have competed with the parent country. In short, the policies prevented the colonies from developing their own economies.
The Cycle of Economic Dependence After independence, this pattern changed very little. The new Latin American republics did adopt free trade, welcoming all comers. Britain and the United States rushed into the new markets, replacing Spain as Latin America's chief trading partners. But the region remained as economically dependent as before.
Foreign Influence Mounts In the 1800s, foreign goods flooded Latin America, creating large profits for foreigners and for a handful of local business people. Foreign investment, which could yield enormous profits, was often accompanied by local interference. Investors from Britain, the United States, and other nations pressured their own governments to take action if political events or reform movements in a Latin American country seemed to threaten their interests.
Some Economic Growth After 1850, some Latin American economies did grow. With foreign capital, they were able to develop mining and agriculture. Chile exported copper and nitrates, and Argentina expanded
Effects of Foreign Influence
Imperialism in Latin America, 1898-1917
For: Audio guided tour Web Code: nbo-2541
Map Skills In the early 1900s, European 1. powers held possessions in Latin Amer
ica. The United States often intervened to 2. protect business interests there.
Locate (a) Cuba (b) Canal Zone (c) British Guiana (d) Honduras Location Why did the United States have a particularly strong interest in Latin American affairs?
3. Identify Point of View What natural resources drew the Dutch to Dutch Guiana?
its livestock and wheat production. Brazil exported the cash crops coffee and sugar, as well as rubber. By the early 1900s, both Venezuela and Mexico were developing important and lucrative oil industries.
Throughout the region, foreigners invested in modern ports and railroads to carry goods from the interior to coastal cities. European immigrants poured into Latin America. The newcomers helped to promote economic activity, and a small middle class emerged.
Thanks to trade, investment, technology, and migration, Latin American nations moved into the world economy. Yet internal development was limited. The tiny elite at the top benefited from the economic upturn, but very little trickled down to the masses of people at the bottom. The poor earned too little to buy consumer goods. Without a strong demand, many industries failed to develop.
Checkpoint How did foreign influence and investment affect Latin America?
The Influence of the United States
As nations like Mexico tried to build stable governments, a neighboring republic, the United States, expanded across North America. Latin American nations began to feel threatened by the "Colossus of the North," the giant power that cast its shadow over the entire hemisphere.
The Monroe Doctrine In the 1820s, Spain plotted to recover its American colonies. Britain opposed any move that might close the door to trade with Latin America. British leaders asked American President James Monroe to join them in a statement opposing any new colonization of the Americas.
Monroe, however, wanted to avoid any "entangling alliance" with Britain. Acting alone, he issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. "The American continents," it declared, "are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." The United States lacked the military power to enforce the doctrine. But with the support of Britain's strong navy, the doctrine discouraged European interference. For more than a century, the Monroe Doctrine would be the key to United States policy in the Americas.
The United States Expands Into Latin America As a result of the
war with Mexico, in 1848 the United States acquired the thinly populated regions of northern Mexico, gaining all or part of the present-day states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. The victory fed dreams of future expansion. Before the century had ended, the United States controlled much of North America and was becoming involved in overseas conflicts.
For decades, Cuban patriots had battled to free their island from Spanish rule. As they began to make headway, the United States joined their cause, declaring war on Spain in 1898. The brief Spanish-American War ended in a crushing defeat for Spain. At the war's end, Cuba was granted independence. But in 1901, the United States forced Cubans to add the Platt Amendment to their constitution. The amendment gave the United States naval bases in Cuba and the right to intervene in Cuban affairs.
Analyzing Political Cartoons
Uncle Sam Takes Off This cartoon represents the entry of the United States into competition with European powers over new territory in the Eastern Hemisphere in the early 1900s.
0 Uncle Sam represents the United States. The horse wears a saddle that reads "Monroe Doctrine."
ruropean powers watch in frusation.
What do the wheels on Uncle Sam's bicycle represent?
Why are the European powers shouting at Uncle Sam?
Chapter 13 Section 4 443
AN EPIC UNDERTAKING:
The Panama Canal was a massive undertaking. The sheer scale of the project astounded engineers, politicians, and tourists. Building the canal cost the American government $352 million (about $7 billion in today's money). Workers excavated about 232 million cubic yards of dirt, rocks, and debris from the Canal Zone—enough debris to create a pyramid
seven times the height of the Washington Monument, as
one newspaper writer noted. Nearly six thousand
workers died from industrial accidents or disease
in the ten years it took to build the canal.
Despite many challenges, the builders
would not give up. They completed the canal
;n 1914. The beginning of World War I in the
ummer of 1914, however, overshadowed
what was to be its grand opening.
Playing cards featuring scenes from the canal's construction (above) helped to feed Americans' fascination with the canal.
Two men (below) stand inside one of the canal lock's enormous gates. The gates allow water to flow in and out of the lock, raising or lowering ships to different levels.
The tropical diseases malaria and yellow fever killed many workers. Quinine (below right) was used to treat some cases of malaria. The canal builders' massive efforts to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes, using methods, such as spraying swampy areas with oil (below left), were more effective.
Draw Conclusions Based on the map, why did Americans want to build a canal in Panama?
Draw Inferences Why was it important to control disease during the building of the canal?
The United States Interferes American investments in Latin America grew in the early 1900s. Citing the need to protect those investments, in 1904 the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this policy, the United States claimed "international police power" in the Western Hemisphere. When the Dominican Republic failed to pay its foreign debts, the United States sent in troops. Americans collected customs duties, paid off the debts, and remained for years.
Under the Roosevelt Corollary and then President William Howard Taft's policy of Dollar Diplomacy, American companies continued to invest in the countries of Latin America. To protect those investments, the United States sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, and other countries in Central America and the Caribbean. As a result, like European powers in Africa and Asia, the United States became the target of increasing resentment and rebellion.
Building the Panama Canal From the late 1800s, the United States had wanted to build a canal across Central America. Panama was a proposed site. However, Panama belonged to Colombia, which refused to sell the United States land for the canal. In 1903, the United States backed a revolt by Panamanians against Colombia. The Panamanians quickly won independence and gave the United States control of the land to build the canal.
Construction began in 1904. Engineers solved many difficult problems in the course of building the canal. The Panama Canal opened in 1914. The canal cut the distance of a sea journey between such cities as New York and San Francisco by thousands of miles. It was an engineering marvel that boosted trade and shipping worldwide.
To people in Latin America, however, the canal was another example of "Yankee imperialism." Nationalist feeling in the hemisphere was often expressed as anti-Americanism. Panama did not gain complete control over the canal until 2000. It now forms a vital part of the Panamanian economy.
Checkpoint How did the United States act as an imperialist power in Latin America?
Progress Monitoring Online For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice
Web Code: nba-2541
Terms, People, and Places Cr
For each term, person, or place listed at 3. the beginning of the section, write a sentence explaining its significance.
Note Taking 4.
Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes Use your completed charts to 5. answer the Focus Question: How did
Latin American nations struggle for sta
bility, and how did industrialized 6. nations affect them?
itical Thinking and Comprehension
Express Problems Clearly What problems faced new nations in Latin America?
Recognize Cause and Effect How did the cycle of economic dependence continue after independence? Synthesize Information Describe two ways the United States influenced Latin America.
Draw Conclusions Why might developing nations encourage foreign investment? Do you think foreign investors should have the right to intervene in another nation's affairs to protect their investments? Explain.
Writing About History
Quick Write: Support Your Ideas As you respond to a short-answer or extended-response question on a test, keep in mind that each sentence or paragraph should support your main idea. Omit information, no matter how interesting, that is not central to your argument. To practice, write an outline of an argument responding to the following extended-response prompt.
Explain how American interference led to the building of the Panama Canal.
Chapter 13 Section 4 445
Quick Study Guide
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-test with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2551
I Key Events in Worldwide Imperialism V,`
Southeast Asia, the
Pacific, and Japan
and Latin America
arrive in Japan.
La Reforma begins in Mexico.
grants Canada self-rule.
Csmcept I Connector
Record the answers to the question below on your Concept Connector worksheets.
1. Genocide Read about what happened to the indigenous peoples of North America when Europeans colonized Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Then learn more about the effects of colonization on the Aborigines in Australia and the Maori in New Zealand. Compare the experiences of these indigenous groups. Consider the following:
population and way of life prior to and after colonization
effects of disease
attitudes towards land ownership
Geography's Impact Location links the fate of Latin America with that of the United States. In the 1800s, ideas about independence springing from the American Revolution inspired independence leaders in Latin America, such as Simon Bolivar. However, in the late 1800s, the United States began to interfere more aggressively in the affairs of Latin American countries. Create a timeline tracking the relationship between the United States and Latin America from 1800 through 1914. Include a brief description of the significance of each event on the timeline.
Trade One of the strengths of the British empire was its commercial trading network, which touched almost every continent. As you have read, the Dutch were also far-flung traders, even maintaining ties with Japan when traders from other countries were forbidden. Learn more about the Dutch trading empire, beginning in the 1600s. Compare the two trading empires in terms of the following:
types of colonies
relations with other industrialized countriesConnections To Today
Conflict: Unrest in Quebec Although French-Canadian leaders agreed to confederation with the rest of Canada in 1867, the French-English question was never truly put to rest. Many French-Canadians continued to feel that the English-speaking majority in Canada threatened their unique French culture. In the late 1900s, a movement for an independent Quebec arose. Research the path of this movement and create a bulleted list of significant events that occurred within the last fifty years.