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French Indochina Seized The French, meanwhile, were building an empire on the Southeast Asian mainland. In the 1500s, Portuguese trad­ers had set up a trading center in what today is Vietnam. Christian mis­sionaries from France and other European countries moved into Vietnam and won some converts. Threatened by growing Western influence, Viet­namese officials tried to suppress Christianity by killing converts and missionary priests. Partly in response, France invaded Vietnam in 1858. The French also wanted more influence and markets in Southeast Asia.

The Vietnamese fought fiercely but could not withstand superior Euro­pean firepower. By the early 1860s, France had seized a portion of south­ern Vietnam. Over the next decades, the French took over the rest of Vietnam and all of Laos and Cambodia. The French and other Western­ers referred to these holdings as French Indochina. (Mainland South­east Asia was known during this period as "Indochina.")

Siam Survives The kingdom of Siam (present-day Thailand) lay bet­ween British-ruled Burma and French Indochina. The king of Siam, Mongkut (mahng KOOT), who ruled from 1851 to 1868, did not underesti­mate Western power. He studied foreign languages and read widely on modern science and mathematics. He used this knowledge to negotiate with the Western powers and satisfy their goals in Siam by making agree­ments in unequal treaties. In this way, Siam escaped becoming a Euro­pean colony.

Mongkut and his son, Chulalongkorn, (CHOO lah lawng kawrn) set Siam on the road to modernization. They reformed the government, mod­ernized the army, and hired Western experts to teach Thais how to use the new technology. They abolished slavery and gave women some choice in marriage. As Siam modernized, Chulalongkorn bargained to remove the unequal treaties.

Colonial Southeast Asia During this period, many Chinese people

migrated to Southeast Asia to take advantage of the economic opportuni 

ties there. They left China to escape hardship and turmoil. Despite local

resentment, these communities formed vital networks in trade, banking, and other economic activities.

By the 1890s, Europeans con­trolled most of Southeast Asia. They introduced modern technol­ogy and expanded commerce and industry. Europeans directed the mining of tin, the harvesting of rubber, and the building of har­bors and railroads. But these changes benefited the European colonizers far more than they did the Southeast Asians.

Checkpoint How did the Burmese and the Vietnamese respond to attempts to

colonize them?

Geography intercaivet

For: Audio guided tour Web Code: nbp-2521

Map Skills Spices first attracted Euro­peans to Southeast Asia. Later, the Indus­trial Revolution encouraged the search for raw materials and new markets.

Locate (a) the Dutch East Indies (b) French Indochina (c) Siam (d) the Philippines

Regions Which Europeans claimed territory on the mainland?

Draw Inferences According to the map, which Europeans controlled the widest variety of resources?

The United States and the Philippines

In the 1500s, Spain had seized the Philippines. Catholic missionaries spread Christianity among the Filipinos. As the Catholic Church gained enormous power and wealth, many Filipinos accused the Church of abus­ing its position. By the late 1800s, their anger fueled strong resistance to Spanish rule.

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1860 helped the economy of the Phil­ippines by making trade with European countries easier. Some upper class Filipinos gained access to better education. Leaders such as Jose Rizal inspired Filipinos to work to gain better treatment from Spain.

The Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 between Spain and the United States over Cuba's attempts to win independence from Spain. During the war, American battleships destroyed the Spanish fleet, which was stationed in the Philippines. Encouraged by American naval officers, Filipino rebel leaders declared independence from Spain. Rebel soldiers threw their support into the fight against Spanish troops.

In return for their help, the Filipino rebels expected the Americans to recognize their independence. Instead, in the treaty that ended the war with Spain, the United States agreed to give Spain $20 million in return for control of the Philippines. Within the United States, debate raged over the treaty's ratification. American imperialists wanted to join the European competition for territory. Anti-imperialists wanted the United States to steer clear of foreign entanglements. The United States Senate ratified the treaty by only one vote over the required two-thirds majority.

Bitterly disappointed, Filipino nationalists renewed their struggle. From 1899 to 1901, Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo (ah gee NAHL doh) battled American forces. Thousands of Americans and hundreds of thou­sands of Filipinos died. In the end, the Americans crushed the rebellion.

Chapter 13 Section 2 431

Western imperialism had an enormous impact around the world. It affected different places in different ways. Some common effects are listed below.


Missionaries spread Christianity and European languages to colonized people as they established schools and hospitals. Above, a missionary works with children in Seoul, Korea.

Some colonized peoples came to believe in Western superiority and lost confidence in their own culture.

Pre-colonial traditions were

weakened by economic and political disruption in some areas, especially where family members were forced to travel long distances to find work.


New colonial administrations changed traditional political units. In India, British rulers worked with local rulers to meet their goals. In the painting above, the British King Edward VII greets Indian leaders.

Colonizers often defined the borders of their new colonies without an understanding of the local political or ethnic situations.

Colonized people took on European ideas of nationalism and agitated for their own independence.


To meet the export goals of their colonial rulers, colonized people often grew cash crops instead of food. This man (above) worked on a Malayan rubber plantation.

As they became part of a money economy, some colonized people were forced to work for their colonial rulers so that they could pay their taxes.

Imports of machine-made

goods destroyed indigenous cottage industries.

A German collector's card (left) showing a Sumatran plantation. A carved stool from Gabon, Africa, (right) depicts a European


Thinking Critically

Categorize How is migrating to find work a cultural as well as an economic effect of imperialism?

Predict Consequences How might grouping several rival ethnic groups into one political unit cause friction when that region gains


The United States set out to modernize the Philippines through edu­cation, improved health care, and economic reforms. The United States also built dams, roads, railways, and ports. In addition, the United States promised Filipinos a gradual transition to self-rule some time in the future.

Checkpoint How did the United States gain control of the Philippines?

Western Powers Seize the Pacific Islands

In the 1800s, the industrialized powers also began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific. The thousands of islands splashed across the Pacific include the three regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

At first, American, French, and British whaling and sealing ships looked for bases to take on supplies in the Pacific. Missionaries, too, moved into the region and opened the way for political involvement.

In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa, a group of islands in the South Pacific. The United States gained rights such as extraterritoriality and a naval station. Other nations gained similar agreements. As their rivalry increased, the United States, Ger­many, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa.

Beginning in the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in the Hawaiian Islands. When the Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani (lih lee uh oh kuh LAH nee) tried to reduce foreign influence, American planters overthrew her in 1893. They then asked the United States to annex Hawaii, which it finally did in 1898. Supporters of annexation argued that if the United States did not take Hawaii, Britain or Japan might do so. By 1900, the United States, Britain, France, and Germany had claimed nearly every island in the Pacific.

Checkpoint Why did some Americans think the United States should control Hawaii?

Vocabulary Builder

transition—(tran ZISH un) n. passage from one way to another

Progress Monitoring Online

For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2521

Terms, People, and Places

For each term, person, or place listed at 3. the beginning of the section, write a sentence explaining its significance. 4.

Note Taking

Reading Strategy: Identify Causes 5. and Effects Use your completed chart to answer the Focus Question: How did industrialized powers divide up South- 6. east Asia, and how did the colonized peoples react?

Comprehension and Critical Thinking

summarize What steps did Siam take :o preserve its independence?

)raw Conclusions Why were Filipino ebels disappointed when the United itates took control of the Philippines? synthesize Information How did -lawaii become part of the United itates?

Vlake Comparisons Compare the Dartition of Southeast Asia to the parti­:ion of Africa. How was it similar? How was it different?

1111 Writing About History

Quick Write: Examine the Question To answer a short answer or extended-response question effectively, first examine the question. Look for key words like explain, compare, or persuade, which will tell you what type of answer to provide. Then look for words that signal the topic. Identifying key words will help you focus and organize your response. Copy the prompt below and underline its key words. • Compare Siam's relationship with

imperial powers to that of Vietnam.

Chapter 13 Section 2 433


0 Canada!

In the early 1860s, the separate

colonies of British North America considered whether they should join together to create one powerful confederation—Canada. George Brown, an influential politician who helped bring about the confederation, shared his dream for Canada:

64 Sir, it may be that some among us will live to see the day when, as the result of [the confederation], a great and powerful people may have grown up in these lands—when the boundless forests all around us shall have given way to smiling fields and thriving towns—and when one united govern­ment, under the British flag, shall extend from shore to shore."

Focus Question How were the British colonies of

Canada, Australia, and New Zealand settled, and how did they win self-rule?

Self-Rule for Canada, Australia,

and New Zealand


Describe how Canada achieved self-rule.

Analyze how European settlement changed the course of Australian history.

Summarize how New Zealand was settled and
how it emerged as an independent nation.

Terms, People, and Places

confederation indigenous

dominion penal colony

métis Maori

Nate Taking

Reading Skill: Identify Cause and Effects As

you read, record the causes and effects of the events you read about in a chart like this one.

Cause Event Effect

Loyalist Up to 30,000 Ethnic tensions arise Americans flee loyalists settle between English- and

to Canada. in Canada. French-speaking Canadians.


Canada, Australia, and New Zealand won independence faster tnd easier than other British colonies in Africa or Asia. The lan­;uage and cultural roots they shared with Britain helped. Racial attitudes also played a part. Imperialists in nations like Britain felt that whites, unlike non-whites, were capable of governing themselves.

Canada Achieves Self-Rule

When France lost Canada to Britain in 1763, thousands of French-speaking Catholic settlers remained. After the American Revolu­tion, about 30,000 British loyalists fled to Canada. They were English-speaking Protestants. In addition, in the 1790s, several groups of Native American peoples still lived in eastern Canada. Others, in the west and the north, had not yet come into contact with European settlers.

Unrest in the Two Canadas To ease ethnic tensions, Britain passed the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act created two prov­inces: English-speaking Upper Canada (now Ontario) and French-speaking Lower Canada (now Quebec). French traditions and the Catholic Church were protected in Lower Canada. English tradi­tions and laws guided Upper Canada.

434 New Global Patterns

During the early 1800s, unrest grew in both colonies. The people of Upper Canada resented the power held by a small group of elites who controlled the government. Lower Canada had similar problems. In 1837, discontent flared into rebellion in both places. Louis Joseph Pap­ineau, the head of the French Canadian Reform party, led the rebellion in Lower Canada. William Lyon Mackenzie led the revolt in Upper Canada, crying, "Put down the villains who oppress and enslave our country!"

Britain Responds The British had learned from the American Revolu­tion. While they hurried to put down the disorder, they sent an able poli­tician, Lord Durham, to compile a report on the causes of the unrest. In 1840, Parliament acted on some of Durham's recommendations by pass­ing the Act of Union. The act joined the two Canadas into one province. It also gave them an elected legislature that determined some domestic pol­icies. Britain still controlled foreign policy and trade.

Canada Becomes a Dominion In the mid-1800s, thousands of English, Scottish, and Irish people immigrated to Canada. As the coun­try grew, two Canadians, John Macdonald and George Etienne Cartier, urged confederation, or unification, of Britain's North American colo­nies. These colonies included Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and British Columbia, as well as the united Upper and Lower Canadas. The two leaders felt that confederation would strengthen the new nation against American ambitions and help its economic development.

Britain finally agreed, passing the British North America Act of 1867. The act created the Dominion of Canada. A dominion is a self-governing nation. As a dominion, Canada had its own parliament, modeled on that

Vocabulary Builder

compile—(kum PYL) vt. to put together from several sources

GeOgraPhVinterdirtive For: Audio guided tour

Web Code: nbo-2531

nada, 1867-19114

Map Skills Canada grew throughout the latter half of the 1800s.

1. Locate: (a) Quebec (b) Ontario

(c) British Columbia (d) Saskatchewan2. Movement Why did British Colum­bia become a part of Canada before Alberta and Saskatchewan?

3. Make Comparisons Compare Nova Scotia's natural resources to those of Manitoba.

Life in Australia

Australian Aborigines used boomerangs, like this one

decorated with traditional motifs,

to hunt and in battles. The first British settlers in Australia were convicted criminals. The convicts in the illustration

below are being forced to

carry heavy loads of shingles as part of their hard labor. What happened to Aborigines

as British settlement


of Britain. By 1900, Canada also had some control over its own foreign policy. Still, Canada maintained close ties with Britain.

Canada Grows Like the United States, Canada expanded westward in the 1800s. In 1885, the Canadian Pacific Railway opened, linking eastern and western Canada. Wherever the railroad went, settlers followed. It moved people and products, such as timber and manufactured goods across the country. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, more immigrants flooded into Canada from Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, China, and Japan. They enriched Canada's economy and culture.

As in the United States, westward expansion destroyed the way of life of Native Americans in Canada. Most were forced to sign treaties giving up their lands. Some resisted. In central Canada, Louis Riel led a revolt of the metis, people of mixed Native American and French Canadian descent, in 1869 and again in 1885. Many metis were French-speaking Catholics who believed that the government was trying to take their land and destroy their language and religion. Government troops put down both uprisings. Riel was executed in 1885.

By 1914, Canada was a flourishing nation. Still, French-speaking Canadians were determined to preserve their separate heritage, making it hard for Canadians to create a single national identity. Also, the cul­tural and economic influence of the United States threatened to domi­nate Canada. Both issues continue to affect Canada today.

Checkpoint How did the British respond to the Canadians' desire for self-rule?

Europeans in Australia

The Dutch in the 1600s were the first Europeans to reach Australia. In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. For a time, however, Australia remained too distant to attract European settlers.

The First Settlers Like most regions claimed by imperialist powers,

Australia had long been inhabited by other people. The first settlers had

reached Australia perhaps 40,000 years earlier, probably from Southeast Asia, and spread across the continent. These indigenous, or original, people were called Aborigines, a word used by Europeans to denote the earliest people to live in a place. Today, many Australian Aborigines call themselves Kooris. Iso­lated from the larger world, the Aborigines lived in small hunting and food-gathering bands, much as their Stone Age ancestors had. Aboriginal groups spoke as many as 250 distinct languages. When white settlers arrived in Australia, the indigenous population suffered disastrously.

A Penal Colony During the 1700s, Britain had sent convicts to its North American colonies, espe­cially to Georgia. The American Revolution closed that outlet. Prisons in London and other cities were jammed.

To fill the need for prisons, Britain made Austra­lia into a penal colony, or a place where convicted

Geography i nterestive

For: Audio guided tour St Web Code: nbp-2532

Map Skills British settlement in Australia started with penal settlements on both coasts and slowly spread into the interior of the continent. "".

Locate (a) Simpson Desert (b) Great Sandy Desert (c) Sydney (d) Perth

Regions What physical features probably slowed British settlement of Australia's interior?

Draw Inferences What types of economic activity do you think took place in the area of Australia that was settled by Europeans between 1831 and 1875?

criminals are sent to be punished. The first British ships, carrying about 700 convicts, arrived in Botany Bay, Australia, in 1788. The people who survived the grueling eight-month voyage faced more hardships on shore. Many were city dwellers with no farming skills. Under the brutal discipline of soldiers, work gangs cleared land for settlement.

The Colonies Grow In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citi­zens to emigrate to Australia by offering them land and tools. A prosper­ous wool industry grew up as settlers found that the land and climate suited sheepherding. In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom. Many gold hunters stayed on to become ranchers and farmers. They pushed into the rugged interior known as the Outback, carving out huge sheep ranches and wheat farms. As the newcomers set­tled in, they thrust aside or killed the Aborigines.

Achieving Self-Government Like Canada, Australia was made up of separate colonies scattered around the continent. Britain worried about interference from other European powers. To counter this threat and to boost development, it responded to Australian demands for self-rule. In 1901, Britain helped the colonies unite into the independent Common­wealth of Australia. The new country kept its ties to Britain by recogniz­ing the British monarch as its head of state.

The Australian constitution drew on both British and American models. Unlike Britain and the United States, Australia quickly granted women the right to vote. In 1856, it also became the first nation to intro­duce the secret ballot.

Checkpoint What effect did colonization have on Australia's indigenous population?


Watch Australia: The Story of a Penal Colonyon

the Witness History Discovery SchoolTM video program to learn more about life in an Australian penal colony.

DI ouery S COL

Maori Traditions

The portrait below shows a Maori leader in 1882. Many Maori men of high social standing commissioned tattoos on their faces. Maori war canoes, like the one below, often carried distinctive carving.

New Zealand's Story

To the southeast of Australia lies New Zealand. In 1769, Captain Cook claimed its islands for Britain. Missionaries landed there in 1814 to con­vert the indigenous people, the Maori (mAii oh ree), to Christianity.

The Maori Struggle Unlike Australia, where the Aborigines were spread thinly across a large continent, the Maori were concentrated in a smaller area. They were descended from seafaring people who had reached New Zealand from Polynesia in the 1200s. The Maori were set­tled farmers. They were also determined to defend their land.

White settlers, who were attracted by New Zealand's mild climate and good soil, followed the missionaries. These settlers introduced sheep and cattle and were soon exporting wool, mutton, and beef. In 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand.

As colonists poured in, they took over more and more of the land, lead­ing to fierce wars with the Maori. Many Maori died in the struggle. Still more perished from disease, alcoholism, and other misfortunes that fol­lowed European colonization. By the 1870s, resistance crumbled. The Maori population had fallen drastically, from about 200,000 to less than 45,000 in 1896. Only recently has the Maori population started to grow once more.

Settlers Win Self-Government Like settlers in Australia and Can­ada, white New Zealanders sought self-rule. In 1907, they won indepen­dence, with their own parliament, prime minister, and elected legislature. They, too, preserved close ties to the British empire.

Checkpoint Compare and contrast the European settlement of Australia and New Zealand.

Terms, People, and Places

For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence explaining its significance.

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Use your completed chart to answer the Focus Question: How were the British colonies of Canada, Austra­lia, and New Zealand settled, and how did they win self-rule?

Comprehension and Critical Thinking

Sequence What steps led to Canadian self-rule?

Compare Compare the European settlement of Australia with that of Canada.

Identify Causes Why did the Maori fight colonists in New Zealand?

Synthesize Information What eth­nic tensions did Australia, Canada, and New Zealand face?

Progress Monitoring Online

For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2531

Writing About History

Quick Write: Focus Your Time To stay focused as you respond to a short answer or extended-response question on a test, plan to spend a quarter of the allotted time

on prewriting, half on drafting, and the

remaining quarter on revising. Write a short answer response to the following prompt using a 20-minute time limit. Time yourself to practice staying within the appropriate time limit during each stage.

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