Windows on the Past William claimed Harold Godwinson was his

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Windows on the Past
1. William claimed Harold Godwinson was his

a. lord.

b. heir.

c. comrade.

d. vassal.
2. Harold claimed the throne of England because

a. Edward the Confessor was his father.

b. Edward the Confessor offered it to him on his deathbed.

c. he wished to annoy William.

d. the Anglo-Saxon nobles forced him to accept it.
3. In battle, the English soldiers fought

a. on foot using a shield-wall.

b. on foot using archers.

c. on horseback.

d. both on foot and horseback
4. In battle, the Norman soldiers fought

a. on foot using a shield-wall.

b. on foot using archers.

c. on horseback.

d. both on foot and horseback.
5. The person who recorded the Battle of Hastings was

a. William.

b. Edward the Confessor.

c. Harold.

d. Odo.
6. A tapestry is a

a. kind of painting

b. sculpture

c. woven and painted cloth

d. woven and embroidered cloth
Time Line
1. Which event is not in the correct chronological order?

a. William of Normandy conquers England.

b. The First Crusade begins.

c. King John signs the Magna Carta.

d. Thomas Becket is murdered.
2. Which event is not in the correct chronological order?

a. The Domesday Book is written.

b. Thomas Becket is murdered.

c. Saladin becomes Sultan.

d. The Third Crusade begins.
3. Which of the following events took place first?

a. The First Crusade begins.

b. Chinggis Khan dies.

c. Eleanor of Aquitaine dies.

d. Saladin becomes Sultan.

4. Which of the following events took place first?

a. Innocent III becomes pope.

b. The Third Crusade begins.

c. King John signs the Magna Carta.

d. Thomas Becket is murdered.

5. Which of the following events took place last?

a. Innocent III becomes pope.

b. Chinggis Khan dies.

c. The Second Crusade begins.

d. The Domesday Book is written.
6. Which of the following events took place last?

a. Saladin becomes Sultan.

b. The Second Crusade begins.

c. Eleanor of Aquitaine dies.

d. William of Normandy conquers England.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Feudalism was introduced into England by the

a. Anglo-Saxons.

b. Normans.

c. Romans.

d. Irish.
2. The person who received a fief was called a

a. serf.

b. freeholder.

c. lord.

d. vassal.
3. The best definition of a fief is

a. a grant of land given by a noble

b. a type of mediaeval musical instrument

c. land given by a lord to a serf

d. land given by a noble to the Church
4. How many days of military service did a vassal owe his lord per year?

a. 20 days

b. 40 days

c. 60 days

d. 100 days
5. Which of the following was not a service a lord gave his vassal?

a. defence from attack

b. mediation in disputes between vassals

c. justice

d. serfs to farm the vassal's land
6. Vassals swore an oath of _______ to their lord.

a. loyalty

b. allegiance

c. duty

d. military obligation
7. Most land owned by nobles was organized into

a. farms.

b. villages.

c. manors.

d. towns.

8. Manors were self-sufficient. This meant they

a. relied on imported goods to survive.

b. relied on trade to survive.

c. produced nearly all they needed on the manor.

d. were at the mercy of other lords.

9. Most lords relied on managers to run their manors. These managers were called

a. sheriffs.

b. managers.

c. bailiffs.

d. supervisors.
10. The manor land reserved for the lord's personal use was called the lord's

a. desmesne.

b. preserve.

c. land.

d. privilege.
11. In order to increase crop yields, mediaeval farmers introduced the

a. two-field system.

b. use of natural fertilizer.

c. fallow system.

d. three-field system.
12. The term fallow refers to a field that is

a. planted every year.

b. planted every other year.

c. left unplanted once every three years.

d. farmed until it is no longer productive.
13. Peasants who actually owned their land were called

a. serfs.

b. villiens.

c. rich.

d. freeholders.
14. Most people in the Middle Ages slept on mattresses stuffed with

a. cotton.

b. feathers.

c. straw.

d. horse hair.
15. Grandparents did not usually not help with peasant duties because

a. manor laws prevented them from helping.

b. most people died before they could become grandparents.

c. most people moved away from the manor of their birth.

d. most old people were too feeble to help.
16. How many days per week were serfs required to work on the lord's desmesne?

a. one

b. two or three

c. three or four

d. five
17. Most adult male serfs consumed about 5000 calories of food per day. Most of this was in the form of

a. bread.

b. meat.

c. porridge.

d. vegetables.

18. If a noble woman's husband died, she

a. lost all rights to her husband's property.

b. was forced to enter a convent.

c. was forced to remarry and turn over her dead husband's property.

d. gained rights to her husband's property.

19. The vassal of a king was also known as the

a. local baron.

b. bailiff.

c. tenant-in-chief.

d. warden of the manor.
20. The lord of the manor's home was

a. larger than all other houses on the manor.

b. drafty and cold.

c. without toilets and running water.

d. all of the above.
21. If a lord died without children, his manor was

a. taken back by his lord.

b. donated to the Church.

c. given to the bailiff.

d. divided among his serfs.
22. A tithe was a

a. type of wooden plough.

b. tax paid by all persons to the king.

c. tax paid by all freemen to the lord of the manor.

d. tax paid by all persons to the Church.
23. The word ecclesiastical means having to do with

a. the Church.

b. courtly manners.

c. learning.

d. buying and selling goods.
24. If a person disagreed with the Church, he or she could be excommunicated. This meant being

a. banished from one's village.

b. forced to go on a pilgrimage.

c. forced to enter a monastery.

d. banned from all Church ceremonies.
25. Many people chose to enter a monastery or convent because

a. they could spend their lives in God's service

b. they did not have to live the life of a serf

c. they could spend their lives in learned pursuits

d. all of the above
26. Which of the following, common to the medieval justice system, is not a feature of the Canadian justice system?

a. Judges tried cases.

b. People believed that God protected innocent people.

c. Juries listened to evidence presented by witnesses.

d. People could be prosecuted or sued.
27. In a "trial by ordeal," a person was found guilty if he or she

a. refused to be tried.

b. suffered no wound from carrying a red hot coal.

c. developed an infected burn.

d. died under the ordeal.

28. In a "trial by battle," the winner was judged to be innocent because

a. winners are stronger and more pure.

b. losers are evil.

c. the loser was dead.

d. God punishes the guilty.

29. Which of the following was not true of Manoral Courts?

a. Villagers decided the case.

b. Serfs could sue and be sued.

c. The lord decided the case.

d. The lord's steward decided the punishment for the guilty party.
30. Which kind of cases were heard by Royal Courts?

a. property crimes

b. serious crimes

c. minor crimes such as assault

d. crimes against the king
31. Which of the following crimes was punishable by death?

a. treason

b. theft of property worth more than a shilling

c. murder

d. all of the above
32. In medieval maps, which city was always placed at the centre?

a. Rome

b. Constantinople

c. Jerusalem

d. Paris
33. Most people in the Middle Ages

a. took annual holidays.

b. travelled at least once to Rome.

c. never travelled.

d. went on a pilgrimage.
34. The Crusades began because

a. most knights were bored and wanted new people to fight.

b. the Seljuk Turks had captured the Holy Land.

c. the pope wanted to control Jerusalem.

d. the Byzantines had captured the Holy Land.
35. The First Crusade ended

a. in failure.

b. before reaching the Holy Land.

c. with the capture of the Holy Land.

d. when it was wiped out by the Turks.
36. Overall, the Crusades were important because they

a. allowed Rome to gain permanent control of Jerusalem.

b. were such a terrible military failure.

c. stimulated trade and expanded Europeans' world knowledge.

d. allowed Europeans to make contact with China.
37. The combined battles of the Crusades

a. lasted for nearly 160 years

b. were part of one military campaign at the end of the eleventh century

c. resulted in mass conversion of Muslims to Christianity

d. lasted for just under 20 years

38. In the Middle Ages, monarchs

a. had unlimited power.

b. had to obey the feudal code

c. were more powerful than the Church.

d. were elected by the barons.

39. If barons were dissatisfied with a monarch's behaviour, they could

a. complain.

b. elect a new monarch.

c. make war on the monarch.

d. lose their fiefs if they complained.
40. In the Middle Ages, barons were often

a. peace-loving knights.

b. weaker than the king.

c. more powerful than the king.

d. forced by the Church to obey the king.
41. Eleanor of Aquitaine was

a. married to the King of France.

b. married to the King of England.

c. convinced of the equality of the sexes.

d. all of the above.
42. King John of England displeased Pope Innocent III, so the pope

a. had him removed from his throne.

b. encouraged the barons to rebel.

c. excommunicated him.

d. excommunicated him and banned all Church services in England.
43. Which of the following was not a term of the Magna Carta?

a. The king had to respect the law.

b. All persons gained freedom of speech.

c. The king could not imprison a person without a trial.

d. The king could not raise taxes without the consent of parliament.
Short Answer Questions
1. Compare and contrast serfs and free-holders.
2. Identify three services a vassal provided in exchange for a fief.
3. Explain how the three-field system improved agricultural productivity.
4. In a paragraph, compare and contrast the home of a serf with the home of the lord of the manor.
5. What were the similarities and differences among manor courts, royal courts, and Church courts?
6. The Crusades failed to secure the Holy Land. In what non-military ways can they be considered successful?
7. Which rights written into the Magna Carta are part of Canada's tradition of law and government?

Skills Questions

Use the copy of Figure 2-3 provided to identify these features of a medieval manor by placing the correct letter in each blank.
1. Church ______

Mill ______

Well ______

Orchard ______

Common Pasture ______

Field 2 (Fallow) ______

Lord's Desmesne ______

Blacksmith ______

Use the copy of Figure 2-7 provided to answer the following questions.
2. What two forms of the mediaeval judicial process are illustrated here?
3. How can you tell that this trial is still in process?
4. What evidence is there to suggest that the person has been held against his will?

Use the copy of Figure 2-11 provided to answer the following questions.

5. Which Crusade captured Jerusalem?
6. What was the destination of the Fourth Crusade?
7. Through which European kingdom did all four Crusades travel?

(c) 1999 Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc. All rights reserved.

Windows on the Past
1. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 1

2. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 2

3. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 3

4. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 4

5. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 5

6. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 6

Time Line
1. c (d)

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 1

2. b (c)

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 2

3. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 3

4. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 4

5. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 5

6. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 6

Multiple Choice Questions
1. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 1

2. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 2

3. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 3

4. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 4

5. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 5

6. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 6

7. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 7

8. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 8

9. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 9

10. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 10

11. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 11

12. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 12

13. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 13

14. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 14

15. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 15

16. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 16

17. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 17

18. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 18

19. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 19

20. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 20

21. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 21

22. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 22

23. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 23

24. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 24

25. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 25

26. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 26

27. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 27

28. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 28

29. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 29

30. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 30

31. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 31

32. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 32

33. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 33

34. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 34

35. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 35

36. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 36

37. a

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 37

38. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 38

39. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 39

40. c

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 40

41. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 41

42. d

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 42

43. b

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 43

Short Answer Questions
1. Serfs were considered to be the property of the landowner and were not allowed to come and go as they pleased, as were freeholders. Serfs could pass on their strips of land to their heirs and also had a personal garden plot for their own use. Serfs had to donate two or three days of labour to the landowner a week, whereas freeholders paid a fee to the local lord but did not have to donate labour. Serfs had their own strips of farmland and were required to hand over a portion of their produce to the landowner, whereas freeholders owned their land.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 1

2. Vassals were expected to serve in the military (usually 40 days a year), provide extra knights to the monarch in time of war, serve in the monarch's court and provide political advice, and give gifts on special occasions, such as the marriage of a monarch's child.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 2

3. By allowing one-third of the land to lie fallow, the three-field system allowed for: soil regeneration; animals to graze on fallow land, and fertilize it with their manure; ploughing, which further encouraged soil regeneration; and the planting of nitrogen-rich crops, which further improved the soil.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 3

4. A serf's house was small, usually with a dirt floor, and with two roomsÄÄone for people, the other for animals. A manor house was large, with several rooms, none for animals. Serf's house were constructed of wattle and roofed with thatch, and were sparsely furnishedÄÄthey often teemed with lice and other vermin. Manor houses were dominated by a great hall, and the walls were hung with tapestries, to keep out the cold; rooms were filled with furniture. There was little privacy in a manor house, and floors were often covered with rushes. Neither serfs' houses nor manor homes had running water or indoor toilets.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 4

5. All three courts administered justice, followed specific procedures, and handed out punishments for wrong-doers. A manor court dealt with disputes between individuals, would hear witnesses to arrive at its verdict, and would usually hand out fines as punishment. Villagers decided the verdict, which a representative of the lord would read out. A royal court dealt with crimes against society, such as treason, murder, rape, and burglary, and only it could impose a death sentence. Royal courts applied common law in determining verdicts and sentences, and they could also confiscate the property of those found guilty. Church courts, which dealt only with crimes committed by Church official, handed out sentences that were usually less severe than the other two courts. Only educated people could be tried in a Church court, which lead to literacy tests for the accused.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 5

6. The Crusades brought back to Europe the learning and sophistication of the Muslim world, thereby leading to the introduction of luxury goods, an increase in trade, and a better knowledge of the world. The Crusades also led to a lessening of feudal warfare within Europe.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 6

7. The Magna Carta guaranteed that the rights of the people would be respected, that the people would not be preyed upon by their own ruler, that taxes could not be raised without the consent of parliament, and that no person could be arrested or imprisoned without a proper trial. All of these rights are recognized in Canada's legal tradition.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 7

Skills Questions
1. Answers will vary, depending on how the teacher labels diagram.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 1

2. trial by ordeal; a royal court

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 2

3. One of the judicial figures is taking notes.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 3

4. He has been disrobed; he is tied to a stretcher; his mouth is being held open.

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 4

5. Jerusalem

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 5

6. Constantinople

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 6

7. the Holy Roman Empire

Chapter:2 QUESTION: 7

(c) 1999 Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc. All rights reserved.

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