Why was Jewish monotheism a significant development in the religious history of early civilization?

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Why was Jewish monotheism a significant development in the religious history of early civilization?

What advantages does an agriculturally based society have over a hunter-gatherer based society?

Compare the main features of Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. What did the two civilizations have in common as early civilizations? What were their main differences in values and organization?

Why is the development of writing important in the history of the river valley civilizations?

Compared to non-civilized societies, what are the major drawbacks of civilization?

Paleolithic Age The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 B.C.E.; typified by use of evolving stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence.

Homo sapiens The species of humanity that emerged as most successful at the end of the Paleolithic.

Neolithic Age The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.

hunting and gathering Means of obtaining subsistence by humans before the mastery of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of tribal social organization.

Bronze Age From 4000 to 3000 B.C.E.; increased use of plow, metalworking; development of wheeled vehicles, writing.

slash and burn agriculture System of agriculture that allows farmers to grow grain in places it does not naturally grow. It involves cutting the forestation of an area which is burned for the purposes of using the ashes as fertilizer for the deforested area.

Çatal Hüyük Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; had greater degree of social stratification.

nomads People with no permanent home but who roam from place to place searching for pasture lands.

Mesopotamia Literally “between the rivers”; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris Euphrates river valleys.

Sumerians People who migrated into Mesopotamia circa 4000 B.C.E.; created the first civilization within the region; organized area into city states.

Indus River valley A prosperous urban civilization emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E. Indus River peoples had trading contacts with Mesopotamia, but they developed a distinctive alphabet and artistic forms.

Harappa Major urban complex of Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern.

Shang dynasty First Chinese dynasty, the Shang ruled over the Huanghe River valley by about 1500 B.C.E.

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