Guns captured from Ticonderoga used to drive the British out of Boston.
May 1775 Lake Champlain region in upstate NY
Capturing fort would help prevent British invasion from North.
Fort captured by Ethan Allen & the Green Mountain Boys and Benedict Arnold.
(Recaptured by British John Burgoyne on his way to Saratoga)
BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL
First major battle of the revolution.
Demonstrates supply problem for Americans.
Americans attempt to hold high ground outside of Boston. From there, artillery could be used to attack British ships to drive them out of Boston.
British attack Americans in a direct assault. Americans are entrenched on Breeds Hill, so British must attack uphill.
Americans are told “Don’t Fire until you see the whites of their eyes” in order to conserve ammo and make their shots count. British attack in three waves—Americans have to flee hill only after they run out of ammo.
INVASION OF CANADA
Americans fail to capture Canada. British can use Canada as a base to launch attacks from North. After war, Canada still British territory.
Montreal & Quebec
Americans believed a successful invasion of Canada would add a fourteenth colony and deprive the British a base for striking America from the North
Montreal is captured by the Americans but Quebec is not. Benedict Arnold, who led his men through a grueling march to Quebec, is wounded seriously in the leg . Without Quebec, Montreal cannot be defended, so the Americans retreat and the invasion fails.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Made war about independence, not just protest movement or about respecting us as colonists
*JULY 4, 1776
Colonies declared independence from Britain and formed the U.S.A., but still had to win a war against the most powerful army, navy and economy in the world
Disastrous defeat for the Americans. New York captured by the British and occupied by them for the entire war.
Came close to losing the war in the first Battle. Months that follow are the darkest and most desperate for the Continental Army and it approaches verge of disintegration.
*SUMMER of 1776
British plan to invade NYC.
Americans hold high ground in Brooklyn and wait for British to attack
--Before the battle, Washington offered a full pardon from British commander if he won’t fight ( he refuses).
Americans inexperienced and are out-flanked by the British (via the Jamaica pass, which the y left unguarded.)
Americans are surrounded and flee, many are pursued and slaughtered as they chaotically retreat. Washington escapes with the remnant of his army over the East River into Manhattan --keeps his campfires burning throughout the night, making it appear as if he is encamped , but ferries his men over the river. NYC is captured by British as Washington retreats through Manhattan, then Westchester before crossing the Delaware River and hiding out in New Jersey.
AMERICAN CRISIS PUBLISHED
Inspires Americans to keep fighting during darkest days of war.
*WINTER of 1776
Written by Thomas Paine. Army on verge of disintegration and many are losing hope, encourages Americans to not be “Summer Soldier and Sunshine Patriot” Says victory will be difficult, but “the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph “
BATTLE OF TRENTON
American victory which restores faith in the revolution and Washington’s command. Also, Washington captures badly-needed supplies.
*Decem-ber 26, 1776
Washington plans to start ferrying his army over the Delaware River on Christmas night, while the Hessians in Trenton are celebrating, march to Trenton and attack them at dawn. He wants to use the element of surprise to keep them from achieving their European-style formations in which they most effective.
Washington successfully ferries his men over the river and (crossing commanded by Col John Glover of Massachusetts) avoids detection though it takes him longer than expected. He attacks them after dawn & wins -- no Americans killed or captured-- takes over 900 Hessians prisoners and captures the supplies he needed (blankets, guns, ammunition, cannons, carts, etc.)
--Days later (1/3/1776) he attacks the British at Princeton, NJ , winning another battle before he encamps for the winter.
WINTER AT VALLEY FORGE
Americans suffer greatly because of lack of supplies and food. But, they are trained by Baron Von Steuben
Valley Forge, PA
In the 18th century armies usually did not fight in the winter. Continental Army soldiers encamped Valley Forge froze, starved and many died from disease. They were poorly supplied as Congress had no power to tax. Prussian-born Baron Von Steuben trains troops ,improving combat effectiveness of Continental Army.
BATTLE OF SARATOGA
Considered turning point in Revolution.
American victory results in French Alliance. Also, blocks British attempt to capture Hudson River.
British want to capture Hudson River so they can divide colonies. Three British armies are to meet at Hudson.
Burgoyne sails w/army down St. Lawrence to Lake Champlain and will march to Albany, first planning to capture Ft. Ticonderoga on the way.
Burgoyne initially has success--captures Ft. Ticonderoga .But march becomes slow as agonizing as terrain more difficult than anticipated and American militia harass British by hit-and-run raids, felling trees and diverting waterways to flood path of army. Burgoyne’s forces diminished by the time he arrives at Saratoga. Never receives support from NYC as British General William Howe goes off to capture Philadelphia and engage Washington in two battles (which Washington loses, but succeeds in delaying Howe). **Battle of Saratoga actually series of battles (Freeman’s Farm, Bemis Heights ) fought in different times and locations around Saratoga. ***Factors contributing tot American victory: -Burgoyne weakened by march and received no help from other generals -- ---American forces bigger and better fighters than Burgoyne expected --- at outset of first battle, American sharpshooters attack British by targeting officers. -- Benedict Arnold leads heroically and rallies troops at critical moment in battle
TREATY OF ALLIANCE w/FRANCE
French military and financial assistance helps America win war and makes Britain change their strategy. They have to be more cautious and consolidate their resources as France is within striking distance of Britain. British come up with new strategy and focus on the American South.
Ben Franklin is American Diplomat in France, courting French public opinion with his frontiersman-philosopher persona. British do not want to help Americans until they can prove they are not lost cause. American victory at Saratoga demonstrates American revolutionary effort is viable.
French send supplies, money and troops to U.S.
French Navy blockade and attack British at Yorktown, helping American win that battle (and the war).
British capture Charleston, SC and Savannah, GA. Patriot and Loyalist militias clash at Battle of Kings Mountain and armed partisans clash in the bloodiest and most personal fighting of the war. Nathaniel Greene and Daniel Morgan wear British down as they chase the Americans all over the south. Daniel Morgan brilliantly wins the Battle of Cowpens, and remainder of British army goes to Yorktown, Va. for resupply
Effectively ends war and ensures American victory.
*FALL of 1781
Combined French and American infantry and French navy want to trap British at Yorktown, Va.
French Navy drives off British Navy in battle off of Chesapeake Bay. Americans and British lay siege to Yorktown and bombard it with heavy artillery. British General Henry Cornwallis surrenders his entire army.
TREATY OF PARIS (1783)
Peace Treaty that ends American Revolution.
American negotiators: John Jay, John Adams, Ben Franklin. Key provisions: Britain recognizes U.S. as independent and will evacuate troops from U.S. territory. Boundaries of U.S. agreed on and Americans will not persecute loyalists and will return their property.