Who originally colonized Haiti?



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Haitian Revolution

  1. Who originally colonized Haiti? ___________________________________________________

  2. Who took Haiti from Spain in 1697? _______________________________________________

  3. What did they name Haiti?_______________________________________________________

  4. What was Haiti’s primary cash crop? _______________________________________________

  5. Slave population of Haiti in 1681: _______________________

  6. Slave population of Haiti in 1789: _______________________

  7. What was the turn over rate for slave populations on sugar plantations? _________________

  8. What types of communities popped up on the margins of Haitian society? ________________

  9. What did these communities do? ________________________________

  10. Who was the most popular of these bandits? ________________________________________

  11. In what two ways was importing slaves more likely to cause rebellion as opposed to using domestic slaves? _______________________________________________________________________________________

  12. Why are the French slave owners frightened of the National Assembly? _________________________________

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  1. What foreign power is interested in taking Haiti? ___________________________________________________

  2. What two reasons are Sonthonax sent to Haiti? _____________________________________________________

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  1. Who is Toussaint L’Ouverture? __________________________________________________________________

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  1. Who actually outlaws slavery in Haiti? Why does he do it? ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  2. What kind of relationship was L’Ouverture willing to have with France? _________________________________

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  1. On what conditions was L’Ouverture willing to have this relationship? __________________________________

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  1. What rumors began to swirl about the Directory and Haiti? ___________________________________________

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  1. How does Napoleon feel about the abolition of slavery in Haiti? _______________________________________

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  1. What action does Napoleon take to cement control over Haiti? ________________________________________

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  1. What action does L’Ouverture take to prevent Napoleon’s power grab? ________________________________

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  1. How does Napoleon respond to the L’Ouverture Constitution? ________________________________________

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  1. After LeClerc lands, how does the fighting go? ______________________________________________________

  2. Why does L’Ouverture agree to meet with LeClerc? _________________________________________________

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  1. What does LeClerc do when L’Ouverture arrives? ___________________________________________________

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  1. What happens to L’Ouverture in the end? _________________________________________________________

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  1. Why can Napoleon not send reinforcements to Haiti? ________________________________________________

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  1. What effect does the Louisiana Purchase have on Napoleon’s ambitions in Haiti? _________________________

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  1. What disease begins to effect the French army in Haiti? ______________________________________________

  2. Who declares Haiti to be a Free Republic? _________________________________________________________

  3. What two American Presidents support the French in re-taking the island? _______________________________

  4. Which American President supports the Haitian Revolutionaries? ______________________________________

  5. What accounts for the difference in American policy? ________________________________________________

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  1. For what two reasons do Northerners mostly support the Haitian Revolution? ____________________________

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  1. Why do Southerners most oppose the Haitian Revolution? ____________________________________________

Assessment: Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper.

“My decision to destroy the authority of the blacks in Saint Domingue (Haiti) is not so much based on considerations of commerce and money, as on the need to block for ever the march of the blacks in the world.” –Napoleon Bonaparte

“Washington and Bonaparte emerged from the womb of democracy: both of them born to liberty, the former remained faithful to her, the latter betrayed her.” -François-René de Chateaubriand



  1. Consider the above two quotes. How does Napoleon’s quote make Chateaubriand’s quote true?

  2. Considering the idealism of the French Revolution, how can Napoleon’s quote be understood relating to the Declaration of the Rights of Man?

  3. How was Napoleon “born to liberty?” How was Washington “born to liberty?”

  4. How did Napoleon betray liberty?

"What could the death of one wretched Negro mean to me?" –Napoleon on the murder of L’Ouverture

“Toussaint is a Negro and in the jargon of war has been called a brigand. But according to all accounts he is a Negro born to vindicate the claims of this species and to show that the character of men is independent of color. –London Gazette, 1798



  1. Consider the above two quotes. Why was Napoleon so dismissive of Toussaint? Do you think this worked against him? How does the London Gazette seem to feel about L’Ouverture? Who do you think was more accurate and why?



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