Where water wells up from the earth: excavations at the findspot of the Late Bronze Age Broadward hoard, Shropshire



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Captions

Fig 1. The location of the Broadward hoard.


Fig 2. The Roman vessel discovered with the Late Bronze Age hoard. After Barnwell108
Fig 3. The better-preserved spearhead from the hoard whose shaft has been dated by radiocarbon. After Burgess et al109
Fig 4. General view of the area in which the Broadward hoard was discovered, showing a nineteenth century pumphouse in the background.
Fig 5. The microtopography of the areas studied, showing the location of the hoard and the position of the earthwork enclosure.
Fig 6. The area excavated around the findspot of the hoard. The shaded area shows the disturbed area around the former spring, and the symbol marks the position of the pit.
Fig 7. The pit interpreted as the findspot of the hoard cut by the remains of a nineteenth century well.
Fig 8. Profile of the pit interpreted as the context of the metalwork hoard. The drawing also indicates the position of the post-medieval wooden ‘knife’ or ‘dagger’.
Fig 9. The topography of the circular enclosure, showing traces of rig-and-furrow and the extent of excavation.
Fig 10. Details of the ditch terminal (context 3004) and the partly excavated pit (context 3008).
Figs 11a and b. Pollen diagrams for the palaeochannel sampled at Broadward.
Fig 12. The wooden ‘knife’ or ‘dagger’ deposited from the spring deposit.
Fig 13. The shale bracelet (upper) and the stone macehead (lower) from deposits around the spring disturbed during nineteenth century land reclamation.
Fig 14. The bone gouge from the Bronze Age pit on the edge of the spring deposit.
Fig 15. The clay weight from the pit in the entrance to the circular enclosure.

1 Strang 2014.

2 Vandkilde 2014.

3 Vandkilde 2014, 618–23.

4 Cunliffe and Davenport 1985; Cunliffe 1988.

5 Andrews et al 2011.

6 Allason-Jones and McKay 1985.

7 Deyts 1994.

8 Yates and Bradley 2010a.

9 Jacques and Phillips 2014.

10 Leary and Field 2012.

11 Darvill et al 2004, 106; Darvill et al 2006, 102–3.

12 Stjernquist 1997.

13 Wilkinson 2010.

14 Jackman 1868; Rocke and Barnwell 1872; Banks 1873; Barnwell 1873.

15 Banks 1873, 202.

16 Rocke and Barnwell 1872, 343.

17 Ibid, 343.

18 Ibid, 343.

19 Burgess et al 1972.

20 Rocke and Barnwell 1872, 344.

21 Barnwell 1873, 80.

22 Rocke and Barnwell 1872, 343.

23 Jackman 1868, 64.

24 Rocke and Barnwell 1872, 343.

25 Barnwell 1873, 82.

26 Rocke and Barnwell 1872, 343.

27 Ibid, 343.

28 Banks 1873, 204.

29 Burgess, Coombs and Davies 1972, 212.

30 Burgess et al 1972, 241, no. 1, fig 4, 1.

31 Burgess et al 1972, 241, no. 50, fig 7, 50.

32 Needham et al 1997.

33 Rocke and Barnwell 1872.

34 Rocke and Barnwell 1872, 343.

35 Ibid, 343.

36 See Hardy 1939; Beales 1980; Twigger and Haslam 1991.

37 Toghill and Chell 1984; British Geological Survey.

38 Troels-Smith 1955.

39 Bengtsson and Enell 1986.

40 Branch et al 2005.

41 Moore et al 1991.

42 Reille 1992.

43 Stace 1997.

44 Grimm 1991–2011; see also Birks and Gordon 1985.

45 See Clark 1982; Clark 1988; see also Finsinger and Tinner 2005.

46 Stuiver and Reimer 1986.

47 Bronk Ramsey 1995, 2001, 2008, 2009.

48 Reimer et al 2009.

49 Bronk Ramsey 2008; Blockley et al 2007.

50 Toghill and Chell 1984.

51 Beales 1980.

52 Eg Hardy 1939; Beales 1980; Twigger and Haslam 1991.

53 Twigger and Haslam 1991.

54 Turner 1962; Grant et al 2011.

55 Parker et al 2002.

56 Turner 1964; Beales 1980; Twigger and Haslam 1991.

57 Eg Twigger and Haslam 1991.

58 Beales 1980.

59 See also Brown 1988.

60 Grant et al 2011.

61 Ibid; see also Waller 1994.

62 Grant et al 2011.

63 See also Turner 1962.

64 Beales 1980.

65 Twigger and Haslam 1991.

66 Turner 1964.

67 Twigger and Haslam 1991.

68 Groves et al 2012.

69 Twigger and Haslam 1991, 750.

70 Silver 1969.

71 Levine 1982.

72 See Pluskowski 2011.

73 McKinley 2000.

74 Walker et al 2008, 133.

75 Roe 1979, 30 and fig 9.

76 Ibid, 30 and fig 10.

77 Needham and Woodward 2008, 24–5.

78 Roe 1979, 30 and fig 10, B.

79 Mortimer 1905, 6 and fig 9.

80 Gerloff 1975, 71, no.111 and pls. 10 and 45A

81 Needham and Woodward 2008, 26 and 51.

82 Needham et al 2010, 365, table 1.

83 Roe 1979, 30 and fig 10, F.

84 Needham and Woodward 2008, 26, table 5.

85 Needham et al 2010, 365, table 1.

86 Needham et al 2010, 367.

87 Ibid, 369.

88 Needham and Woodward 2008, 25.

89 Ibid.

90 Barfield 1997, 67.

91 Cunliffe and Phillipson 1968.

92 Stanford 1982.

93 Ellis 1993.

94 Best and Woodward 2012, 231–4.

95 Brück 1995.

96 Burgess 1976.

97 Rocke and Barnwell 1872, 343.

98 Whimster 1989, ch 5.

99 Mullin 2012.

100 Gwilt et al 2005, 44–5.

101 Yates and Bradley 2010a and b.

102 Jaques et al 2012.

103 Stanford 1980, 136–8; Welfare and Swan 1995, fig 51.

104 Fulford 2001.

105 Thomas 1971.

106 Gilchrist 2012, 228–31; Hutton 2013, 382–91; cf. Merrifield 1987.

107 Wood 2011; for further discussion see Hutton 2013, 390–1.

108 Barnwell 1873.

109 Burgess et al 1972.




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