— What were the causes and effects of the development of major world religions such as Islam and Sikhism?
— How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Asia and North Africa interact?
— How did Muslim and Hindu societies in South Asia interact?
— What are the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism?
— What were the causes and effects of the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia (600-1450)?
— What were the major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China and what was their impact on Eastern Asia?
— How did the slave trade develop?
— How did the Silk Road and the African gold-salt trade facilitate the spread of ideas and trade?
— How did geography influence the development of civilizations such as in the Middle East?
— Can you locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to this era and turning point in world history, such as, the Sahara Desert, Ghana, Mali, Arabia, Mecca, Baghdad, Cairo, Spain, the Iberian Peninsula, Mongolia, Moscow, Istanbul, Anatolia (Asia Minor), Korea, Japan, Angkor Wat, Beijing, China, the Silk Road, Pax Mongolia, West Africa and the Indian Ocean?
— What was the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history? (Include trade in the Indian Ocean)
— How did new ideas in mathematics, science, and technology begin and then spread throughout the world? (Include ideas from the Tang to Ming dynasties.)
— What were the causes and effects of the development of Islamic caliphates and their impact on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia and Africa?
— What was the political, economic, and social impact of Islam on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia, and Africa?
— How did Islam influence law and government in the Muslim world?
— What were the changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world?
— What shared factors contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty?
Identify, Describe --THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS
Shah Jahan – construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife
Aurangazeb – expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the Indian subcontinent
Harsh policies against Hindus including bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positions
Militant Hindus known as Marathas establish a breakaway state in southern India
Sikhs break away and establish a separate state in Punjab
Summarize --MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TANG AND SONG CHINA AND IMPACT ON EASTERN ASIA
Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.)
Emperor Taizong extends China’s boundaries north to Manchuria, south to Vietnam, and east to the Aral Sea
Empress Wu Zhao extends Chinese influence to the Korean Peninsula
Restoration of bureaucracy to manage the empire
Scholar-officials take competitive civil service exams to work in government offices
Foreign trade on the Silk Roads grows
Arrival of tea from Southeast Asia
New inventions: porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder all increase trade and spread to Japan and Korea
Spread of Buddhism through trade networks to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
Greater social mobility and movement to cities
Decline in the status of women including the beginning of binding the feet of upper class girls
Song China (960-1279)
Rule limited to Southern China after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria
Introduction of a fast-growing rice from Vietnam that lead to faster growing population
Movable type spreads to Japan and Korea
Paper money contributes to a large-scale economy
Advances in sailing technology such as the magnetic compass lead to the growth of ocean trade
New height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black ink
China’s population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million people
Explain -- DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE
First major development occurs in 7th century when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport them to Southwest Asia
Muslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims on the Islamic belief that they could be bought and sold as slaves
4.5 million Africans transported as slaves to Southwest Asia between 650 and 1000 AD
Slaves in African and Muslim societies had legal rights and opportunity for social mobility
Analyze --HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE
Silk Road – long-distance trade route from China to Rome; products from the east such as spices and silk transported west, Roman ideas taken to their eastern provinces; Indian traders act as middlemen and grow wealthy; promotion of cultural diffusion between regions that come into contact with each other
African Gold-Salt Trade – Arab and Berber traders took salt from the Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold; African traders also crossed the Sahara to trade gold for salt in North Africa; cloth and weapons from Mediterranean ports taken to West Africa; powerful rulers in Ghana and Mali regulated the gold trade in West Africa
Summarize -- CHANGES RESULTING FROM MONGOL INVASIONS OF RUSSIA, CHINA, AND ISLAMIC WORLD
Fall of Kiev (1240)
Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid
Isolation from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions
Moscow emerges as a major city
Ivan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols
Northern China conquered by Ogadi (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234
Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)
China united for the first time in 300 years
Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)
Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killed
End of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern day Turkey)
Poor administration of captured regions leads to dissolution of Mongol empire and rise of the Ottoman Turks
Analyze, Compare --GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, AND MODELS
How did geography influence the development of civilizations?