What were the causes and effects of the development of major world religions such as Islam and Sikhism?



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UNIT 4-B SPECIFICITY

Lesson 1


—    What were the causes and effects of the development of major world religions such as Islam and Sikhism?
—    How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Asia and North Africa interact?
—    How did Muslim and Hindu societies in South Asia interact?
—    What are the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism?

Lesson 2


—    What were the causes and effects of the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India and Southwest Asia (600-1450)?
—    What were the major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China and what was their impact on Eastern Asia?
—    How did the slave trade develop?
—    How did the Silk Road and the African gold-salt trade facilitate the spread of ideas and trade?
—    How did geography influence the development of civilizations such as in the Middle East?
—    Can you locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to this era and turning point in world history, such as, the Sahara Desert, Ghana, Mali, Arabia, Mecca, Baghdad, Cairo, Spain, the Iberian Peninsula, Mongolia, Moscow, Istanbul, Anatolia (Asia Minor), Korea, Japan, Angkor Wat, Beijing, China, the Silk Road, Pax Mongolia, West Africa and the Indian Ocean?
—    What was the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history? (Include trade in the Indian Ocean)
—     How did new ideas in mathematics, science, and technology begin and then spread throughout the world? (Include ideas from the Tang to Ming dynasties.)

Lesson 3


—    What were the causes and effects of the development of Islamic caliphates and their impact on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia and Africa?
—    What was the political, economic, and social impact of Islam on Europe (studied in previous unit), Asia, and Africa?
—    How did Islam influence law and government in the Muslim world?

Lesson 4


—    What were the changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world?
—    What shared factors contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty?

Identify, Describe -- THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS

 Including, but not limited to:



  • Islam – Historical origins, central ideas, and the spread of the religion

    • Muhammad – Born in or about 570 and is considered the founder of Islam

      • Muslims – Those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last Prophet

      • Mecca – The Holy City of the Islamic faith

      • Allah – Monotheistic deity; also recognized as the God of Abraham (Yahweh)

      • Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required (health permitting) to take within their lifetime

      • Koran (Qu’ran) – Book or writings of the prophet Muhammad

      • Jihad (Holy Struggle) – The expansion of the Islamic state and control

      • Trade and spread of religion – Silk roads, European exploration

Identify, Describe -- CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 600 TO 1450

Including, but not limited to:



  • Development of Islamic caliphates

    • Abbasid caliphate:  Baghdad

    • Fatimid caliphate:  Cairo

    • Umayyad caliphate: Damascus

    • Shi’a movement begins as a reaction to Umayyad rule

    • Expansion of Islam into North Africa and Spain

    • Golden age in mathematics and science, including chemistry, empirical scientific method, and medical care

  • Mongol invasions

    • 13th century:  spread across Eurasia to create one of the world’s largest empires

    • Brutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities

    • “Pax Mongolia” that supported trade along the Silk Road

    • Kublai Khan (Yuan dynasty) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place

Compare -- FACTORS THAT LED TO COLLAPSE OF ROME AND HAN CHINA

  • Corrupt governments in both empires

  • Infighting among political elites

  • Empires too large in area to manage

  • Invasions from hostile nomadic tribes

  • Social inequality among the classes with tax burdens on lower classes

  • Inequitable distribution of lands

  • Decline in morals and values

  • Public health and urban decay

  • Unemployment and inflation

Explain -- POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA

  • Asia

    • Ottoman Empire established in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) and lasts until the end of World War I

    • Mongol invasions of Baghdad:  Islam grew from a religious community focused on the core Arab lands to one in which new developments arose within Persian, Turkic, Indian, and other non-Arab cultures.

    • Safavids create a Shi’a empire in Persia (1500s-1700s)

    • Mughals establish a Muslim empire in India under Babur, Akbar, and Shah Jahan

  • Africa

    • Arab traders settle in port cities in East Africa

    • Bantu language blends with Arabic to create Swahili

    • Introduction of the slave trade in Africa

    • Growth of commerce in East Africa leads to spread of Islam to other parts of the continent

    • Gold-Salt Trade between North African Muslims and empires of West Africa lead to spread of Islam to West Africa

Describe -- INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA

  • People conquered by Muslims chose to accept Islam because they were attracted by the appeal of this religion’s message as well as not having to pay a poll tax.

  • Qur’an forbade forced conversions so Muslims allowed conquered people to retain their own religions.

  • Christians and Jews served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states.

  • Muslims set up an extensive trade network between Europe, Asia and North Africa. 

  • Cultural blending leads to achievements in art and science in Muslim-controlled cities in Asia, Europe, and North Africa

  • Asia

    • Crusades lead to conflicts between Christians and Muslims

    • Muslims conquer Constantinople in 1453 and establish the Ottoman Empire

  • North Africa

    • Fatimid dynasty set up in North Africa

    • Muslims control the Maghrib  (North Africa) along the Mediterranean coast by 670

    • Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, convert to Islam in the 600s. 

Describe -- INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA

  • Muslim tribes from Central Asia invade northwestern India in the 600s

  • Turkish warlords invade India in 1000 and establish the Delhi Sultanate, where Hindus were treated as conquered people

  • Mughal ruler Akbar establishes a golden age in India

    • Religious freedom for Hindus and non-Muslims

    • Taxation on Hindu pilgrims and on non-Muslims abolished

    • Mingling of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu cultures that lead to new developments in art and literature and the Urdu language in army camps

  • Shah Jahan – construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife

  • Aurangazeb – expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the Indian subcontinent

    • Harsh policies against Hindus including bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positions

    • Militant Hindus known as Marathas establish a breakaway state in southern India

    • Sikhs break away and establish a separate state in Punjab

Summarize -- MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TANG AND SONG CHINA AND IMPACT ON EASTERN ASIA

  • Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.)

    • Political developments

      • Emperor Taizong extends China’s boundaries north to Manchuria, south to Vietnam, and east to the Aral Sea

      • Empress Wu Zhao extends Chinese influence to the Korean Peninsula

      • Restoration of bureaucracy to manage the empire

      • Scholar-officials take competitive civil service exams to work in government offices

    • Economic developments

      • Foreign trade on the Silk Roads grows

      • Arrival of tea from Southeast Asia

      • New inventions:  porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder all increase trade and spread to Japan and Korea

    • Cultural developments

      • Spread of Buddhism through trade networks to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

      • Greater social mobility and movement to cities

      • Decline in the status of women including the beginning of binding the feet of upper class girls

  • Song China (960-1279)

    • Political developments

      • Rule limited to Southern China after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria

    • Economic developments

      • Introduction of a fast-growing rice from Vietnam that lead to faster growing population

      • Movable type spreads to Japan and Korea

      • Paper money contributes to a large-scale economy

      • Advances in sailing technology such as the magnetic compass lead to the growth of ocean trade

    • Cultural developments

      • New height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black ink

      • China’s population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million people

Explain -- DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE

  • First major development occurs in 7th century when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport them to Southwest Asia

  • Muslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims on the Islamic belief that they could be bought and sold as slaves

  • 4.5 million Africans transported as slaves to Southwest Asia between 650 and 1000 AD

  • Slaves in African and Muslim societies had legal rights and opportunity for social mobility

Analyze -- HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE

  • Silk Road – long-distance trade route from China to Rome; products from the east such as spices and silk transported west, Roman ideas taken to their eastern provinces; Indian traders act as middlemen and grow wealthy; promotion of cultural diffusion between regions that come into contact with each other

  • African Gold-Salt Trade – Arab and Berber traders took salt from the Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold; African traders also crossed the Sahara to trade gold for salt in North Africa; cloth and weapons from Mediterranean ports taken to West Africa; powerful rulers in Ghana and Mali regulated the gold trade in West Africa

  • Cultural diffusion

Summarize -- CHANGES RESULTING FROM MONGOL INVASIONS OF RUSSIA, CHINA, AND ISLAMIC WORLD

  • Russia

  • Fall of Kiev (1240)

    • Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid

    • Isolation from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions

    • Moscow emerges as a major city

    • Ivan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols

  • China

    • Northern China conquered by Ogadi (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234

    • Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)

    • China united for the first time in 300 years

    • Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)

  • Islamic World

    • Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killed

    • End of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern day Turkey)

    • Poor administration of captured regions leads to dissolution of Mongol empire and rise of the Ottoman Turks

Analyze, Compare -- GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, AND MODELS

  • How did geography influence the development of civilizations?

    • Middle East remote from Europe (long distance)

    • Terrain and climate of the Middle East

    • Trade and spread of religion: silk roads

    • Compare geographic distributions that impacted trade on the Silk Road

Locate -- PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

  • African Civilizations:  Sahara Desert, Ghana, Mali

  • Rise of Islam:  Arabia, Mecca, Baghdad, Cairo, Spain, Iberian Peninsula

  • Mongol Empire:  Mongolia, Moscow

  • Seljuk and Ottoman Turks:  Istanbul, Anatolia, Asia Minor,

  • Medieval East Asia:  Korea, Japan, Angkor Wat, Beijing, China

Analyze -- EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON MAJOR EVENTS

  • Trade in the Indian Ocean: 

    • Arab traders spread Islam to East Africa

    • Arab slave trade along East African coast; later influences the European slave trade

    • Piracy (both historic and contemporary)

    • European voyages of exploration bring spices from the East Indies and contribute to the Commercial Revolution in Europe

Describe -- ORIGINS/IDEAS/SPREAD OF RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS

  • Islam – historical origins, central ideas, and the spread of the religion

    • Muhammad – born in 570(?) and is considered the founder of Islam; he is considered the last prophet of God

    • Muslims – those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last Prophet

    • Mecca – The Holy City of the Islamic faith

    • Allah – monotheistic deity; also recognized as the God of Abraham (Yahweh)

    • Hijrah – pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required (health permitting) to take within their lifetime

    • Five Pillars of Faith

      • Profession of faith

      • Prayer (5 times a day)

      • Paying of alms (charity to the poor)

      • Fasting (Ramadan)

      • Hajj or Pilgrimage to Mecca (the Holy City)

    • Koran (Qur’an) – book or writings of the prophet Muhammad

    • Jihad (Holy Struggle) – the expansion of the Islamic state and control

    • Arabian focus – Middle Eastern/North Africa Location, Spain, Southeast Asia

    • Trade and spread of religion – Silk roads, European exploration

  • Sikhism: 

    • Founded in 15th century Punjab

    • Based on teachings of Guru Nanak Dev

    • Sikh teaching emphasizes the principle of equality of all humans and rejects discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, and gender.

    • Monotheistic

    • Spiritual union with God results in salvation

    • Diwali – Celebration commemorating the release of Guru Hargobind’s release from the Gwalior    Fort in 1619

    • Khalsa – all Sikhs who have been baptized

    • The Five K’s that all Sikhs must wear as articles of faith

Explain -- THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON LAW AND GOVERNMENT IN THE MUSLIM WORLD

  • Islamic law – Shari’a; regulates family life, moral conduct, and business matters

    • Religious matters are not separate from criminal or civil matters

    • Islamic judges (qadis) apply the law and imams interpret the law

    • Regulation of human behavior – pray 5 times daily, fasting, articles of faith, mandatory charity, hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

    • Dietary and clothing restrictions

    • Requirement of paying a tax (zakat) to help the poor

    • Interpretation of Shari’a varies between Sunni and Shi’a sects of Islam

Identify -- ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200

  • Islamic caliphates

    • Baghdad – House of Wisdom preserves and translates scientific and medical documents into Arabic

    • Astrolabe

    • Algebra

    • Optics

  • Tang and Ming China

    • Tang China

      • Porcelain

      • Movable type

      • Gunpowder

      • Mechanical clock

      • Paper money

      • Magnetic compass

    • Ming China

      • Spurred by contact with Europe, i.e., telescope

      • Trigonometry

      • Hydraulic powered devices for irrigation and agriculture

      • Snorkeling gear for pearl divers



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