What political factors from classical Greece have impacted the beliefs and values of



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UNIT 3 SPECIFICITIES

Lesson 1


—    What political factors from classical Greece have impacted the beliefs and values of

societies over time?

—    What social factors from classical Greece have impacted the beliefs and values of societies over time?

—    What geographic factors impact the beliefs and values of societies over time?

—    What were the causes and effects for the development of classical civilizations (Greece)?

—    What were the major political influences of Greece?

—    What are the characteristics of a democracy and an oligarchy?

—    How did the Greek legal traditions contribute to the development of contemporary political systems?

—    What were the rights and responsibilities of citizens and noncitizens in classical Greek city-states?

—    What was the role of women, children and family in classical Greek city-states?

—    What are some institutions in contemporary society that are derived from classical Greece?

—    What are some examples of art and architecture that demonstrate an artistic ideal or visual principle of classical Greece?

—    What mathematics, science and technology originated from classical Greece and how were these ideas diffused?

—    What were the contributions of Pythagoras and Archimedes?

Lesson 2

—    What beliefs and values are reflected by the Romans?


—    What political systems are reflected by the Romans?
—    How did a democratic-republican government develop in Rome?
—    How does a democratic-republican government trace its beginnings to Judeo-Christian legal tradition?
—    How did the Roman Republic influence later societies?
—    How did the Roman Republic influence religion and culture?
—    How did the role of women, children and family change during this major era?
—    Which fundamental ideas and institutions found in western civilizations originated from the Romans?
—    Which styles of Roman art and architecture demonstrated artistic ideals or visual principles?
—    What major ideas in mathematics, science and technology originate in Rome?
—    What were the causes and effects of Christianity during this era?

Lesson 3


— Civilizations may spread their culture to other regions through cultural diffusion.
— In what ways do civilizations spread their culture to other regions of the world?
— What were the causes and effects of the development of Persia, India and China from 500 BCE to 600 CE?
— What were the major political, religious/philosophical and cultural influences of Persia, India and China?
— Which places and regions have historical significance directly related to this time period, and where are they located?
— What are some of the fundamental ideas and institutions of Eastern civilizations that originated in China and India?
Focus Vocabulary

  • Empire – a major political unit having a territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples under a single sovereign authority

  • Dynasty – a succession of rulers of the same line of descent

  • Democracy – government controlled by its citizens, either directly or indirectly

  • Diffusion – the spread of cultural elements from one area or group of people to others by contact

  • Missionary

  • Classical Civilization

  • Justinian Law Code

  • Oligarchy

  • Civil Service Exams

  • Edict of Milan

Identify, Describe -- MAJOR CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC EVENTS BETWEEN 500 BC AND AD 600

  • Greece

    • Establishment of the early Greek city-state (polis)

    • Greek political structures include monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy

    • Limited democracy in Athens

    • The Persian Wars (490 BC – 479 BC)

    • Effects of the Persian War – New confidence and freedom for Greek city-states; Athens begins a golden age and becomes leader of the 140 city-state Delian League

    • Pericles and Democracy in Athens leads to a golden age – Establishment of direct democracy, strengthening of navy and overseas trade, wealth used to create great works including the Parthenon

    • Development of Greek art – Classical art that addresses order, balance, and proportion

    • Greek drama

    • Growth of philosophy

    • Empire under Alexander the Great (336 BC – 323 BC)

      • Inherits throne of Macedonia; conquers Greece, Babylon, Persia, and Egypt; boundaries extend east to India

      • Conquests bring about end of independent Greek city-states and blend Greek cultures with eastern cultures to establish the Hellenistic Age.

    • Hellenistic Era brings about advancements in trade, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and art; Alexandria in Egypt is center of Hellenistic world, which is conquered by Rome in 150 BC

  • Rome

    • Established in 750 BC along Tiber River

    • Religious and cultural ideas borrowed from Greeks and Etruscans

    • Roman Republic established in 509 BC; voting rights extended only to free-born male citizens

    • Roman society divided into patricians (aristocracy) and plebeians (farmers and artisans)

  • Persia

    • Persian empire founded by Cyrus the Great

    • Darius divides the empire into provinces that are parallel to the homelands of the different people within the empire – These people live by their own laws within the Persian empire

    • Royal Road connects the empire for over 1500 miles

      • Use of standardized metal coins promote trade and unify the empire

  • India (Maurya and Gupta)

    • Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta and Asoka (302 BC – 232 BC) – Bureaucracy, improved roads, spread of Buddhism

    • Gupta Empire (300 AD) – Chandra Gupta I, India’s Golden Age through literature, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics

  • China (Zhou, Qin, and Han)

    • Zhou Dynasty (1027 BC – 256 BC) – Mandate of Heaven justifies royal authority and establishes dynastic cycles

    • Qin Dynasty (256 BC – 202 BC) – Ruled by Shi Huangdi, who uses Legalist ideas to unify China through autocracy

      • Centralized system of highway and irrigation networks

      • Great Wall of China built

    • Han Dynasty (202 BC – 9 AD) – Centralized government, complex bureaucracy, civil service jobs, promotion of Confucianism, invention of paper

  • Development of Major World Religions

    • Christianity

      • Jesus – Rejected by the Jews as messiah, crucified

      • Spread of Christianity throughout the Roman empire

      • Peter, Paul, Pax Romana make the spread of Christianity possible

      • 312 AD, Edict of Milan declares Christianity to be an approved religion by the emperor. A Church hierarchy is established and Rome is made the official center of the Christian Church.

      • Through the Middle Ages the Church becomes the centralizing force of the Western culture.

Explain -- HOW MAJOR RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS INFLUENCED CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS

  • Lay the foundations for political centralization and organization

  • Monument building

  • Written articulation of legal codes

  • Social classes

Describe -- MAJOR POLITICAL, RELIGIOUS/PHILOSOPHICAL, AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS

  • Persia

    • Royal Road connects the empire for over 1,500 miles

    • Use of standardized metal coins promote trade and unify the empire

    • Zoroaster establishes a religion in which people’s own choices determine their fate

    • Zoroastrianism – monotheistic worship of Ahura Mazda and sacred writings known as the Avesta; establishes early beliefs in heaven, hell, and a final judgment

  • India

    • Development of Buddhism in India by Siddhartha Gautama (530 BC)

    • Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta and Asoka (302 BC-232 BC) – bureaucracy, improved roads, spread of Buddhism

    • Gupta Empire (300 AD) – Chandra Gupta I; India’s Golden Age through literature, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics

  • China

    • Zhou Dynasty (1027 BC-256 BC) – Mandate of Heaven justifies royal authority and establishes dynastic cycles; nobles rule through feudalism

      • Chinese philosophies established under the Zhou

        • Confucianism – reform in society including social order of family and government

        • Daoism – philosophy established by Laozi that addresses order and harmony

        • Legalism – stressed punishment over rewards

    • Qin Dynasty (256 BC-202 BC) – ruled by Shi Huangdi, who uses Legalist ideas to unify China through autocracy

      • Centralized system of highway and irrigation networks

      • Mass murder of Confucian scholars

      • Great Wall of China built

    • Han Dynasty (202 BC-9 AD) – centralized government, complex bureaucracy, civil service jobs, promotion of Confucianism, invention of paper

  • Israel

    • Hebrews are monotheistic and worship Yahweh, who establishes a covenant of protection with them

    • Sacred writings are the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible

    • Ten Commandments become the basis for civil and religious laws in Judaism

  • Greece

    • Establishment of direct democracy

    • Development of Greek art – classical art that addresses order, balance, and proportion

    • Greek drama

    • Growth of philosophy

  • Rome

    • Political influences

      • Executive powers

      • Legislative powers

      • Judicial powers

      • Legal code – Twelve Tables (written list of rules based on the Roman legal system)

    • Religious and philosophical influences

      • Philosophy based on Greek Stoicism that emphasizes virtue, duty, and moderation

        • Christianity develops in the Roman province of Judea and spread throughout the empire by missionaries

        • Nicene Code written in 325 AD defines Christian beliefs

    • Cultural Influences – many of these borrowed from Classical Greeks; Greco-Roman culture develops

      • Frescoes painted on walls

      • Literature follows Greek forms and models, but address Roman themes

      • Latin – remains language of learning after fall of Rome and becomes official language of the Roman Catholic Church

        • Develops in vernacular Romance languages in the former empire – French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian

        • Architecture – spectacular wonders like the Coliseum created with elaborate arches; domes and concrete also are key features of Roman architecture.

        • Aqueducts used to transport water to urban areas

        • Roman law becomes basis for laws in the western world

Locate -- PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

  • Classical Civilizations: Persia, Greece, Athens, Sparta, Alexandria, Alexander the Great’s Empire, Italian peninsula, Silk Road, Roman Empire

Identify -- POLITICAL SYSTEMS

  • Democracy – Government controlled by its citizens, either directly or indirectly (Ancient Athens)

  • Republic  – Power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by the people (Roman Republic; United States)

  • Oligarchy  – Rule by a few, especially when rule is based on wealth (Greek city-states)

Explain -- PROCESS BY WHICH DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT EVOLVED

  • Judeo-Christian beliefs – Ten Commandments; Mosaic Law

  • Greece

    • Direct democracy in Athens (male citizens – one person, one vote)

    • Written codes of laws (begun by Solon)

    • Pericles extends democracy

    • Public trial (e.g., Socrates)

  • Rome

    • Early republic (power rests with citizens who have right to vote to select their leaders. In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens)

    • Patricians (aristocratic landowners) and plebeians (common farmers, artisans, merchants)

    • Twelve tables state that all free citizens should be protected by the law

    • Government by two consuls, a senate, and council of assemblies

    • Executive, legislative, and judicial branch

    • Veto (Latin for “I refuse”)

    • Jury trials – trial by jury of your peers

Identify -- IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

  • Justinian's Code of Laws

    • Byzantine Law code (529 AD) that influenced European laws

    • The eastern Byzantine Empire carries on the Roman law, while the western part of the empire goes through a rather lawless time.

Describe -- RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CITIZENS AND NONCITIZENS

Roles of citizens and noncitizens, especially their role in civic participation, in Greece and Rome



  • Greece (because Greece was not united, this varies from city-state to city-state)

    • Citizens – free born men who owned property

    • Non-citizens – women, slaves, and foreigners

    • Rights for citizens included

    • Voting

    • Passing laws

    • Speaking at public meetings

  • Responsibilities included

    • Participating in the government

    • Paying taxes

    • Serving in the military (Sparta – life-long career)

    • Following (obeying) laws

Identify -- INFLUENCE OF LEGAL IDEAS FROM JUDEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS, GREECE, AND ROME

  • Trial by a jury of your peers

    • Greece – a jury of peers

    • Rome – yearly selection of judices who resolved disputes; tribunals were judges who were like juries since they were civilians and not professional judges

  • Innocent until proven guilty

    • Judeo-Christian – Moses decreed that testimony could be found in the testimony of two or three witnesses

    • Greece – included in the laws of Sparta and Athens

    • Rome – Twelve Tables – “Accusers are to understand that they are not to prefer charges unless they can be proven by proper witnesses or by conclusive documents.”

  • Equality before the law

    • Greece – equal justice to all

    • Judeo-Christian – universal God to whom all people are equally his children

    • Rome – Twelve Tables called for the fair administration of laws

Identify -- RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

  • The Medieval Church as a unifying force

  • Shared beliefs in the teachings of the church

  • Provided Christians with a sense of security and a religious community to which they belonged

  • At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, social gatherings, and festive celebrations.

  • Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals

  • Performed social services such as caring for the sick and the poor

  • The church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe.

  • Examples of religious influence during the Renaissance including:

    • Political

    • Social

    • Economic

  • Example of religious influence in historic world events:

    • Influence of Hinduism on Gandhi’s non-violent approach to gaining independence

Describe -- ROLES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, FAMILIES IN WORLD HISTORY

  • Life and family in Greece

    • Families – social structure for most societies

    • Women and children – lack of power, influence, and inequality

    • Sparta boys sent to military school at young age

  • Life and family in Rome

    • Family at the heart of Rome society. By law and custom, the eldest man, known as the paterfamilias, or “father of the family,” had power to rule the household. He controlled all property and had authority over all family members.

    • Roman women – nearly social equals of men, ran the household and were given authority and respect. Had personal freedom, could own property, and could testify in court

Summarize -- FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS/INSTITUTIONS OF EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS THAT ORIGINATED IN CHINA AND INDIA

  • Early Civilizations

    • Group vs. individual accountability; stability vs. chaos

    • Time – cyclical (Eastern) and not linear (Western)

    • Body and mind – Western thought- separate the body (physical) from the mind (spiritual), while the Eastern thought links these two as one

    • Nature – Eastern places more importance on nature and uses it as example for how humans should live

  • Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Hinduism, including the caste system

    • Group vs. individual accountability

    • Stability vs. chaos

Summarize -- FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS/INSTITUTIONS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION THAT ORIGINATED IN GREECE AND ROME

  • Greek

    • Olympics

    • Philosophers – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

    • Influence of architecture (U.S. state buildings)

    • Democratic ideals

    • Math/science

  • Roman

    • Christianity

    • Republic

    • A person is considered innocent until proven guilty.

    • The burden of proof rests with the accuser rather than the accused.

    • A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts.

    • Any law that seems unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.

Identify -- ART, ARCHITECTURE THAT DEMONSTRATES IDEAL/VISUAL PRINCIPLES

  • Greece

    • Sculptures

    • Architecture (columns)

  • Rome

    • Roman Sculptures

    • Architecture (public U.S. buildings)

    • Arch, dome, roads, concrete (e.g., Roman Coliseum)

    • Aqueducts

    • Mosaics

Analyze -- ART, ARCHITECTURE, LITERATURE, MUSIC, DRAMA REFLECT HISTORY OF CULTURES

  • Greco-Roman World

    • Statues

    • Architecture

    • Drama and poetry

Identify -- ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200

  • Classical Greece

    • Balance and proportion in architecture – columns

    • Hellenistic empire – Alexandria center of science

    • Eratosthenes (closely calculated the Earth’s true size)

    • Aristarchus (Sun is larger than the Earth, and Earth and other planets revolve around Sun)

    • Hipparchus – latitude and longitude

    • Euclid and Pythagoras – geometry

    • Archimedes – value of pi

    • Sundial

  • Classical Rome

    • Architecture – arch, dome, and concrete

    • Aqueducts to transport water into cities

    • Stone paved roads

  • Classical India

    • Astronomy – Earth is round

    • Mathematics – modern numbers, zero, decimals, value of pi to four decimal places (Aryabhata)

    • Sophisticated medical guides and complex surgery including plastic surgery

  • Islamic caliphates

    • Baghdad – House of Wisdom preserves and translates scientific and medical documents into Arabic

    • Astrolabe

    • Algebra

  • Tang China



    • Porcelain

    • Movable type

    • Gunpowder

    • Mechanical clock

    • Paper money

    • Magnetic compass

Identify -- CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

  • Archimedes – considered the greatest thinker of his era, Archimedes was a Greek mathematician and physicist. His mathematical writings explaining mechanics (e.g., the principle of the lever) were his most important contributions to western knowledge.

  • Pythagoras (ca. 580-500 BC) – a Greek philosopher and mathematician credited with the discovery that numbers are useful for more than counting physical things. Mathematical ideas or formulas could help establish patterns in the apparently chaotic nature in which he lived. Modern scientific theory is based on mathematical ideas associated with Pythagoras

 


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