— What political factors from classical Greece have impacted the beliefs and values of
societies over time?
— What social factors from classical Greece have impacted the beliefs and values of societies over time?
— What geographic factors impact the beliefs and values of societies over time?
— What were the causes and effects for the development of classical civilizations (Greece)?
— What were the major political influences of Greece?
— What are the characteristics of a democracy and an oligarchy?
— How did the Greek legal traditions contribute to the development of contemporary political systems?
— What were the rights and responsibilities of citizens and noncitizens in classical Greek city-states?
— What was the role of women, children and family in classical Greek city-states?
— What are some institutions in contemporary society that are derived from classical Greece?
— What are some examples of art and architecture that demonstrate an artistic ideal or visual principle of classical Greece?
— What mathematics, science and technology originated from classical Greece and how were these ideas diffused?
— What were the contributions of Pythagoras and Archimedes?
— What beliefs and values are reflected by the Romans?
— What political systems are reflected by the Romans?
— How did a democratic-republican government develop in Rome?
— How does a democratic-republican government trace its beginnings to Judeo-Christian legal tradition?
— How did the Roman Republic influence later societies?
— How did the Roman Republic influence religion and culture?
— How did the role of women, children and family change during this major era?
— Which fundamental ideas and institutions found in western civilizations originated from the Romans?
— Which styles of Roman art and architecture demonstrated artistic ideals or visual principles?
— What major ideas in mathematics, science and technology originate in Rome?
— What were the causes and effects of Christianity during this era?
— Civilizations may spread their culture to other regions through cultural diffusion. — In what ways do civilizations spread their culture to other regions of the world?
— What were the causes and effects of the development of Persia, India and China from 500 BCE to 600 CE?
— What were the major political, religious/philosophical and cultural influences of Persia, India and China?
— Which places and regions have historical significance directly related to this time period, and where are they located?
— What are some of the fundamental ideas and institutions of Eastern civilizations that originated in China and India?
Empire – a major political unit having a territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples under a single sovereign authority
Dynasty – a succession of rulers of the same line of descent
Democracy – government controlled by its citizens, either directly or indirectly
Diffusion – the spread of cultural elements from one area or group of people to others by contact
Justinian Law Code
Civil Service Exams
Edict of Milan
Identify, Describe --MAJOR CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC EVENTS BETWEEN 500 BC AND AD 600
Establishment of the early Greek city-state (polis)
Greek political structures include monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy
Limited democracy in Athens
The Persian Wars (490 BC – 479 BC)
Effects of the Persian War – New confidence and freedom for Greek city-states; Athens begins a golden age and becomes leader of the 140 city-state Delian League
Pericles and Democracy in Athens leads to a golden age – Establishment of direct democracy, strengthening of navy and overseas trade, wealth used to create great works including the Parthenon
Development of Greek art – Classical art that addresses order, balance, and proportion
Growth of philosophy
Empire under Alexander the Great (336 BC – 323 BC)
Inherits throne of Macedonia; conquers Greece, Babylon, Persia, and Egypt; boundaries extend east to India
Conquests bring about end of independent Greek city-states and blend Greek cultures with eastern cultures to establish the Hellenistic Age.
Hellenistic Era brings about advancements in trade, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and art; Alexandria in Egypt is center of Hellenistic world, which is conquered by Rome in 150 BC
Established in 750 BC along Tiber River
Religious and cultural ideas borrowed from Greeks and Etruscans
Roman Republic established in 509 BC; voting rights extended only to free-born male citizens
Roman society divided into patricians (aristocracy) and plebeians (farmers and artisans)
Persian empire founded by Cyrus the Great
Darius divides the empire into provinces that are parallel to the homelands of the different people within the empire – These people live by their own laws within the Persian empire
Royal Road connects the empire for over 1500 miles
Use of standardized metal coins promote trade and unify the empire
India (Maurya and Gupta)
Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta and Asoka (302 BC – 232 BC) – Bureaucracy, improved roads, spread of Buddhism
Gupta Empire (300 AD) – Chandra Gupta I, India’s Golden Age through literature, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics
China (Zhou, Qin, and Han)
Zhou Dynasty (1027 BC – 256 BC) – Mandate of Heaven justifies royal authority and establishes dynastic cycles
Qin Dynasty (256 BC – 202 BC) – Ruled by Shi Huangdi, who uses Legalist ideas to unify China through autocracy
Centralized system of highway and irrigation networks
Great Wall of China built
Han Dynasty (202 BC – 9 AD) – Centralized government, complex bureaucracy, civil service jobs, promotion of Confucianism, invention of paper
Development of Major World Religions
Jesus – Rejected by the Jews as messiah, crucified
Spread of Christianity throughout the Roman empire
Peter, Paul, Pax Romana make the spread of Christianity possible
312 AD, Edict of Milan declares Christianity to be an approved religion by the emperor. A Church hierarchy is established and Rome is made the official center of the Christian Church.
Through the Middle Ages the Church becomes the centralizing force of the Western culture.
Explain --HOW MAJOR RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS INFLUENCED CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS
Lay the foundations for political centralization and organization
Rome – Twelve Tables called for the fair administration of laws
Identify -- RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE
The Medieval Church as a unifying force
Shared beliefs in the teachings of the church
Provided Christians with a sense of security and a religious community to which they belonged
At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, social gatherings, and festive celebrations.
Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals
Performed social services such as caring for the sick and the poor
The church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe.
Examples of religious influence during the Renaissance including:
Example of religious influence in historic world events:
Influence of Hinduism on Gandhi’s non-violent approach to gaining independence
Describe -- ROLES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, FAMILIES IN WORLD HISTORY
Life and family in Greece
Families – social structure for most societies
Women and children – lack of power, influence, and inequality
Sparta boys sent to military school at young age
Life and family in Rome
Family at the heart of Rome society. By law and custom, the eldest man, known as the paterfamilias, or “father of the family,” had power to rule the household. He controlled all property and had authority over all family members.
Roman women – nearly social equals of men, ran the household and were given authority and respect. Had personal freedom, could own property, and could testify in court
Summarize --FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS/INSTITUTIONS OF EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS THAT ORIGINATED IN CHINA AND INDIA
Group vs. individual accountability; stability vs. chaos
Time – cyclical (Eastern) and not linear (Western)
Body and mind – Western thought- separate the body (physical) from the mind (spiritual), while the Eastern thought links these two as one
Nature – Eastern places more importance on nature and uses it as example for how humans should live
Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Hinduism, including the caste system
Group vs. individual accountability
Stability vs. chaos
Summarize -- FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS/INSTITUTIONS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION THAT ORIGINATED IN GREECE AND ROME
Philosophers – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Influence of architecture (U.S. state buildings)
A person is considered innocent until proven guilty.
The burden of proof rests with the accuser rather than the accused.
A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts.
Any law that seems unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
Identify -- ART, ARCHITECTURE THAT DEMONSTRATES IDEAL/VISUAL PRINCIPLES
Architecture (public U.S. buildings)
Arch, dome, roads, concrete (e.g., Roman Coliseum)
Analyze --ART, ARCHITECTURE, LITERATURE, MUSIC, DRAMA REFLECT HISTORY OF CULTURES
Drama and poetry
Identify -- ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200
Eratosthenes (closely calculated the Earth’s true size)
Aristarchus (Sun is larger than the Earth, and Earth and other planets revolve around Sun)
Hipparchus – latitude and longitude
Euclid and Pythagoras – geometry
Archimedes – value of pi
Architecture – arch, dome, and concrete
Aqueducts to transport water into cities
Stone paved roads
Astronomy – Earth is round
Mathematics – modern numbers, zero, decimals, value of pi to four decimal places (Aryabhata)
Sophisticated medical guides and complex surgery including plastic surgery
Baghdad – House of Wisdom preserves and translates scientific and medical documents into Arabic
Identify -- CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS
Archimedes – considered the greatest thinker of his era, Archimedes was a Greek mathematician and physicist. His mathematical writings explaining mechanics (e.g., the principle of the lever) were his most important contributions to western knowledge.
Pythagoras (ca. 580-500 BC) – a Greek philosopher and mathematician credited with the discovery that numbers are useful for more than counting physical things. Mathematical ideas or formulas could help establish patterns in the apparently chaotic nature in which he lived. Modern scientific theory is based on mathematical ideas associated with Pythagoras