What might account for sectional differences of Americans in the early nineteenth century (1800’s)?

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What might account for sectional differences of Americans in the early nineteenth century (1800’s)?

Differences of customs that emerged from different educational and democratic experiences

What two groups of immigrants came to the U. S. during the 1800’s? Which one came first?

Irish and German…Irish first

What would rapidly increase with investment capital, growing population, improved transportation, and plentiful natural resources and where?

Industrialization in the North

What is the result of Thomas Jefferson issuing a patent to Eli Whitney for the cotton gin?

Growth of southern plantations and an expansion of slavery

How do the portraits of the early American leaders reflect American attitudes at that time?

Leaders were shown as honorable leaders and demonstrated the nobility of American character

How did the Embargo act of 1807 impact American trade?

Both imports and exports fell causing the Embargo to be repealed

What about Washington caused the unanimous election of him as President?

Washington felt that the well-being of the country was more important than his own personal well-being as evidenced by his patriotic actions

Name the first five Presidents in order

Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe

What was an economic impact of the War of 1812?

A greater reliance on U. S. manufacturing and the introduction of the Industrial Revolution in the U. S.

What happened to cause Marbury to sue Madison?

Last minute presidential appointments of judges by Adams were rejected by newly elected President Jefferson

How did Marbury vs. Madison expand the Supreme Courts power?

It created judicial review and could declare laws unconstitutional

In 1770, how did the actions of John Adams defending the British soldiers accused of the Boston Massacre represent civic virtue?

Citizens should allow a court of law determine justice

What was the central issue of the XYZ affair?

The seizure of American shipping by French government

What was the outcome of the XYZ affair?

President John Adams creating the U. S. navy

How did Washington demonstrate leadership qualities when he chose not to serve a third term (wasn’t part of the constitution yet) ?

Personal restraint from seeking power

What did Washington warn against in his Farewell Address?

Political parties and foreign involvement were a bad idea

How did President James Monroe expand the territory of the U. S.?

He acquired Florida from Spain in 1819

What stated that the U. S. would not tolerate European involvement in Latin America or the Western Hemisphere?

Monroe Doctrine

What was the central issue contributing to the development of political parties in the U. S.?

The power of the federal government

Why are the years of President Monroe’s terms called the Era of Good Feelings?

The U. S. desired unity (politically) and had a sense of national purpose

Why is the year 1803 significant?

The size of the U. S. double and the U. S. gained control of the Mississippi

Which controversial legislation did President Adam’s administration restrict citizens from criticizing the government?

Alien and Seditious Act

What was the result of the passage of the Judiciary Act?

The creation of the Supreme Court as final mediator

Why did Northern states favor tariffs during the early years of the republic?

Northern manufactures would benefit from less foreign competition

How did the War of 1812 affect the standing of the U. S. in world affairs?

The U. S. was viewed as being the leader of the Western Hemisphere

How did Washington’s Farewell Address influence foreign policy?

The U. S. attempted to remain neutral with foreign powers through the nineteenth century (1800’s)

How did Federalist interpret the text of the Constitution?

The constitution should be interpreted loosely according to historical and social changes

How did the Anti-federalist interpret the text of the Constitution?

The Constitution should be interpreted strictly following the text closely

How did President James Monroe contribute to U. S. foreign policy?

The U. S. would resist any nation attempting to interfere in the affairs of the nations in the Western Hemisphere

What contributed to the beginning of the War of 1812?

Impressment of American sailors into the British navy

Which President was a federalist, wanted a strong national government, and was supported by northern merchants and industry?

John Adams (he was the only federalist)

What accomplishment in territory growth is attributed to Thomas Jefferson?

Louisiana Purchase

Article I, II, and III of the Constitution illustrate what constitutional principle?

Separation of powers

How did Chief Justice John Marshall exhibit leadership in Marbury vs. Madison?

Persuading others to respect the decisions of the Supreme Court with judicial review

The grievance of depriving of trial by jury is addressed in which amendment?

6th amendment

The grievance of quartering of troops is addressed in which amendment?

3rd amendment

The grievance of right to bear arms is addressed in which amendment?

2nd amendment

The grievance of speech, religion, assembly, petition, and press is addressed in which amendment?

1st amendment

The grievance of no cruel and unusual punishment is addressed in which amendment?

8th amendment

The Equal Rights Amendment was introduced to Congress every year between 1923 and 1972. Which part of the amendment process has not been met in order for the amendment to be ratified?

Ratification by 3/4th of the state legislatures

To ensure against the absolute power of a king the Constitution includes provisions for both houses of Congress to do what?

Override a veto of a president

How does “We the People” in the opening of the Constitution reflect what principle?

Popular sovereignty by the people deciding

How does the Bill of rights reflect the constitutional principle?

Individual rights

The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote and reflects what constitutional principle?

Republicanism by people voting

How does the constitution establish limits on the U. S. government?

Defines the powers of elected leaders

How does the 10th amendment reflect the idea of division of power and constitutional principle?

Federalism is the division of power between state and national govt.

Why would Alexander Hamilton argue the side of the federalist?

He supported a strong national government that would avoid and resolve conflicts between the states

How does the Establishment Clause in the first amendment influence American lives?

Americans are assured that no state religion can be created

What writings were published anonymously, argued for strong central government and advocated ratification?

Federalist papers

How did the Constitution divide the trust between the bodies of men?

Separation of powers

Who would object the ratification of the Constitution because of the lack of a Bill of Rights?

Alexander Hamilton

What was the result of the ninth state ratifying the Constitution?

The states now operate under a new federal constitution

Why did the Anti-Federalist argue against ratification of the Constitution?

State’s rights and individual rights were not being protected

What era did the publication of the Federalist and Anti-federalist papers occur?

Constitutional Era

Why did the delegates at the Second Continental Congress write the Articles of Confederation?

To establish a government framework separate from Great Britain

The 17th of September is Constitution Day and is observed to recognize the writings by delegates in Philadelphia in what year?


What was the purpose of the Federalist Papers?

To ratify the U. S. Constitution

Why did the Anti-federalist finally agree to ratify the U. S. constitution?

Addition of amendments that protect individual rights

The 5th Amendment specifically protects the rights of what individuals?

People accused of crimes

What was the result of the Great Compromise?

A bicameral legislature

What were the people opposed to the Virginia Plan worried about?

Use of a single legislature based on population

How did the delegates of the Constitutional Convention account for the practice of slavery when calculating representation in Congress?

The number of free people were added to 3/5 the number of enslaved people

Which freedom is guaranteed by the 4th Amendment?

Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures

Why did many Congressional representatives call for replacing the Articles of Confederation?

It created a government too weak to manage relations between states and foreign governments

Why did Anti-federalist argue against the ratification of the Constitution?

The revolution was fought to end the tyranny of a strong central government

What plan was supported by large states during the Constitutional Convention and based on population?

Virginia Plan

What plan was supported by small states and based on equal representation?

New Jersey Plan

Why is the freedom of the press significant and necessary?

Limits the power of the government by keeping people informed

How did the framers of the Constitution design the government to reflect representation and differences in population?

Created one legislative body based on statehood (Senate) and one legislative body based on population (House)

How did Abigail Adams support the issue of women’s rights during the Constitutional Era?

She encouraged her husband (John Adams) to support women’s rights in the Constitution

Paul Revere created an engraving depicting what event?

Boston Massacre

Who spied for the Patriots, fundraised for the Revolutionary Army, took control of cannons at the Battle of Monmouth, and wrote pamphlets to encourage support for the Patriots?

Women patriots

Paintings during the Revolutionary Era had what common characteristics?

Paintings usually depicted portraits and were very popular for the time

How did salutary neglect cause the Colonist to violate British policy on Mercantilism?

Colonist were ignored and laws were not enforced so colonist traded with whomever they wished

What era includes Lexington, Boston Tea party, Intolerable Acts, and Saratoga?

Revolutionary Era

How did James Armistead contribute to the American victory at Yorktown>?

He passed along information he had discovered while spying (he was a slave spying on the British)

How did French aristocrat the Marquis de Lafayette contribute to the American Revolutionary War?

He brought money, troops, military experience, and commanded the American troops against the British

What is considered unalienable rights according to the authors of the Declaration of Independence?

Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness (John Lock originally put property instead of Happiness)

Who was a naval hero during the American Revolution and had the first ship for the U. S. Navy?

John Paul Jones

Which group opposed the Declaration of Independence?

Loyalists (Tories) were loyal to England

Where did General Washington camp the Continental Army for training over the bitter and harsh winter of 1777-1778?

Valley Forge

What was a grievance listed in the Declaration of Independence and addressed with Amendment 3?

Quartering of soldiers

What did colonists do after the Stamp Act and Intolerable Act that would be considered Civil Disobedience?

They protested and demonstrated

Why would the writings of Mercy Otis Warren be informative to a historian?

She wrote one of the earliest histories about the Revolutionary War

Who was first to give his life during the Revolutionary Era?

Crispus Attucks

Why did the Proclamation of 1763 contribute to tensions between colonists and Great Britain?

It limited colonial expansion beyond the Appalachian Mountains

What action did colonial leaders take in 1776?

Announcing Independence from Britain

What action led American colonists to claim that taxes were imposed without their consent?

Passage of the Stamp Act (first one)

How did Thomas Paine contribute to the revolutionary war?

He wrote “Common Sense” to persuade others to join the Patriots (It was Common Sense that Thomas was a PAINE to British rule)

Where were the first shots of the Revolutionary War fired?


What was a significant accomplishment of the Second Continental Congress in 1776?

Writing theDeclerat5ion of Independence (break-up letter)

How did the Treaty of Paris in 1783 recognize the newly formed U. S.?

It was seen as Independent from British rule

What battle is considered a turning point for the Americans in the Revolutionary War?

Battle of Saratoga

Why was Saratoga significant to the American Revolution?

It caused the French to support the side of the colonists with Navy, men, and money

What event led the British to tax the colonists to pay for expenses?

French and Indian War

What Act was first to anger the colonists and the last after the Boston Tea Party?

Stamp Act 1st and Intolerable Acts last

What amendment covers the grievance of quartering troops?

3rd Amendment

How did the Founding Fathers ensure no more rulers with absolute authority?

Limiting the powers of the branches of government (checks and balances)

What grievance of the colonists did the Constitution address in the fourth amendment?

Homes cannot be searched without warrants

Who has unalienable rights?

Natural rights belong to all citizens

Why are Anne Hutchinson’s ideas so upsetting to the Massachusetts Bay Colony?

She challenge the authority of men in the colony

Locate Jamestown


When was Jamestown established?


Locate Philadelphia


Locate Boston


Locate New York City


Who had the most direct influence on the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?

Thomas Hooker

Why were Montesquieu and Locke significant individuals in the colonies?

Many of their ideas influenced colonial leaders

Why did Roger Williams create Rhode Island as a colony?

To end state interference in church affairs (beginning of separation of church and state)

What was a result of the First Great Awakening?

Many religious denominations experienced a growth in numbers

Why was the creation of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut an important milestone in the development of representative government in the colonies?

It was a written constitution and considered the first in the colonies

How did religious leaders contribute to the grow3th of representative government?

Establishing self-governing bodies in the colonies

How did the lives of free blacks differ from the lives of enslaved people

Work in a small business

What could free blacks not do in the North?

Vote, own a gun, or serve on a jury

Why were the French explorers interested in claiming the Mississippi River and having access to the Great Lakes?

They were mainly fur trappers and traders

When did the transatlantic slave trade begin?

Sugar plantations in the West Indians needed cheap labor

What agriculture was grown in the south during the colonial Era?

TRIC (tobacco, rice, indigo, corn/cotton)

Which of the British colonies in North America were settled mostly by Puritans?

New England colonies

How did the practice of slavery influence colonial life in the South prior to and after the American Revolution?

It developed an agrarian economy based on a plantation system

Which of the following was a chief economic cause for colonization in America?


Maryland = Catholic: Pennsylvania = ?


Which group settler in New York primarily for economic gains?


What event happened after the founding of Jamestown in 1620?

Mayflower Compact

What conditions from England contributed to the development of a representative government in the American colonies?

British colonists were accustomed to parliamentary system (Magna Carta)

What was the primary cause for economic differences among the colonies?


What was a push factor for British Colonization in America?

Seeking religious freedom

How did William Penn help create limited government in the Pennsylvania colony?

Creating a colonial legislature (representatives make laws)

What was a characteristic of the Virginian House of Burgesses?

Representatives were elected by the people

How did physical geography influence the settlement patterns that emerged in the American colonies?

Appalachian Mountains acted as a barrier to western settlement and for a while forced colonists to stay by the Atlantic

Which of the following colonial regions had the best soil and climate for large-scale agriculture?

Southern colonies

What geographic factor contributed to the colonization and rapid development of New Jersey, Virginian, New York, and Massachusetts Bay colony?

They were located along the Atlantic Coast

What pull factor caused the establishment of Jamestown?

Economic – money off of tobacco

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