What did the British feared after almost losing to Germany in World War 1? That the Indians might take advantage of this new weakness

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Road To Independence 2

  1. What did the British feared after almost losing to Germany in World War 1? That the Indians might take advantage of this new weakness.

  2. What was the post of Rowlatt? Justice Rowlatt was a Judge.

  3. What new powers did Rowlatt recommended to be made permanent in India?

  1. What was the reaction of Indians towards the new rules, & how did Jinnah react? The Indians were against it and Jinnah resigned from the council in protest.

  2. When did ‘Rowlatt Act’ become law? 1919.

  3. What were the two main effects of the Rowlatt Act of 1919?

  • Gandhi emerged as a nationalist leader.

  • The Amritsar Massacre

  1. Who was Mohandas Gandhi? Gandhi was a nationalist leader who was lawyer by profession. In the World War I he didn’t know in which political direction to head, and then the Rowlatt act gave him a vision for India without Britishers. He believed in peace and justice.

  2. What was Gandhi’s profession? Lawyer.

  3. Where did Gandhi spent early years of his life? South Africa.

  4. When did Gandhi come to India, and what was his take on British? After 22 years, World War I and to rule without British in India.

  5. What were Gandhi’s beliefs? Non-Violence.

  6. What kind of system did Gandhi introduce against Britain? Satyagraha- non-violent, with truth and love.

  7. What does ‘Satyagraha’ means? Truth and Love.

  8. In which way did Gandhi start to dress? In cotton clothes, like Hindu Holy Men.

  9. What was Gandhi’s take on ‘Industrial Development’? He believed that in a simple peasant life in which machines, factories were not to give true happiness.

  10. For whom did Gandhi show a lot of concern? The bottom of India’s structure, ‘the untouchables’.

  11. Who were the ‘untouchables’? The poor ones, the lowest caste in the people.

  12. What was the name given to the ‘untouchables’ by Gandhi? Harijans-little brothers.

  13. What did Gandhi urge Congress to do in reference to the ‘untouchables’? Improve their conditions.

  14. What did Gandhi organize to protest against the British rule in 1919? Strikes and demonstrations.

  15. Was Gandhi able to protest against the British rule in peace? No.

  16. What was the significance of the city of Amritsar? A sacred Sikh city.

  17. What violence took place in Amritsar? Bank managers were murdered and British lost control.

  18. What did the British do after the violence in the city of Amritsar? Banned meetings and demonstrations.

  19. How many Indians gathered on April 13? About 10,000.

  20. Where and why did Indians gather on April 13? Jallianwala Bagh against the British for banning.

  21. Who was the Governor-general of Punjab at that time? Colonel O’Dawyer.

  22. Who did the Governor-general call to deal with the crowd of Indians gathered on April 13? He called Brigadier General, 50 troops, 25 Gurkhas and 25 Baluchis.

  23. What happened when the troops blocked the exit of Jallianwala Bagh? The troops opened fired killed 1 or 2 thousand people.

  24. How many people lost their lives at Jallianwala Bagh? 1,000 or 2,000.

  25. What was the outcome the next day of the incident at Jallianwala Bagh? List the incidents in different parts of India. In Lahore: Crowd took control over the city for 2 days, stoning the police and burning the railway station. Martial law was later announced and punishments were given to people. Then on 18th April Gandhi called of all the protests.

  26. What law was announced in Punjab when the riots started after the incident of Jallianwala Bagh? Martial Law.

  27. When did Gandhi call off the protests? April 18th.

  28. Who was the final causality of Amritsar Massacre? Governor General- O’Dawyer.

  29. How did Governor-general O’Dwyer die? Murdered by a Sikh nationalist.

  30. What did the Sikh nationalist called himself, and why? Ram Muhammad Singh Azad, to show unity amongst Sikh, Muslims, and Hindus.

  31. How did the Sikh nationalist die? He was executed for killing the governor.

  32. What happened to the relationship between the Indians and British after the Amritsar Massacre? Permanently Damaged.

  33. What did Gandhi declare about the British after the massacre of Amritsar? ‘From now on, co-operation in any shape or form with this satanic government is sinful.

  34. What was the situation of Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century? There was little left of the Great Empire.

  35. Who overthrew Caliph Abdulhamid? A group of nationalists called, Young Turks.

  36. Who succeeded after Caliph Abdulhamid, and who had the real power? By his brother, Mehmed V.

  37. What was the reason for the final collapse of Ottoman Empire? World War I.

  38. Who did Turkish support in First World War? Central Powers.

  39. What happened to Turkey when Allies won the war? Ottomans were defeated.

  40. What was Turkey forced to sign in 1920? Treaty of Sevres.

  41. What did the Caliph Mehmed declare during the First World War, and what invitation was given to all Muslims? Jihad was declared, and Muslims were invited to support Ottomans.

  42. How did the Khilafat Movement begin? To support the Ottomans, Indian Muslims began Khilafat Movement.

  43. Who were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement? Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, and Abul Kalam Azad.

  44. When and where did the first Khilafat Movement meeting take place? Delhi, November 1919.

  45. What did the Turkish Khalifa’s Khilafat include? Mecca and Medina & Jerusalem.

  46. What were the aims of the Khilafat Movement?

  • To give power back to the Caliph

  • Gain independence for Muslims.

  1. What did the leaders of the Khilafat Movement do to achieve its first aim? Muslims went to London to protest about policies towards Muslims.

  2. What was the outcome of the attempt of leaders of the Khilafat Movement to

achieve its first aim? Explain

Muslims explained their concern to British who listened but ignored them. In India Ali announced not to obey British and Muslims began to join congress.

  1. What did the Muslims do to achieve the second aim of the Khilafat Movement? Joined the congress.

  2. Who did Maulana Muhammad Ali invite to attend Khilafat meetings? Gandhi and Annie Besant.

  3. Who did Maulana Muhammad Ali admire? Gandhi.

  4. Who did Gandhi come with to attend the Khilafat meeting? Annie Besant.

  5. What was Gandhi elected as in the Khilafat Committee? Non-Muslim member.

  6. What did the Khilafat Movement offer Gandhi? A way to unite the various groups of India against British.

  7. What did Gandhi urge Muslims to become a part of? Satyagraha.

  8. What was the motto of Satyagraha Movement?

  • Not to buy or sell british goods

  • Refused to pay taxes

  • Went on strike

  • Refused to join the army

  1. Who was Annie Besant? President of Home Rule League.

  2. Who was appointed after Annie Besant resigned? Gandhi.

  3. Why did Jinnah complain about the changes Gandhi introduced? He thought that did people what not yet ready for it.

  4. What did Jinnah do after his complaints were ignored? He resigned from the Home Rule League.

  5. Was Gandhi able to persuade Jinnah? No

  6. What party did Gandhi become a leader of in 1920? Leader for the congress.

  7. Where did the annual Congress meeting take place? Nagpur.

  8. In which year did Muslim peasants make their hijrat to Afghanistan? 1920.

  9. Where did these Muslim peasants gather from? Sindh and NWFP.

  10. What was the reason that the Muslim peasants migrated to Afghanistan? They believed British made the land unfit for Muslims.

  11. What route did the Muslim peasants take? Khyber Pass.

  12. Were they welcomed in Afghanistan, and what happened to them? The Muslims were returned and many died on the way back.

  13. What rebellion broke out in 1921 in South India? Among the Mophlas, Muslims from Arab Settlers.

  14. What did the British blame the rebellion in South India on? On the Khilafat movement

  15. What happened in the remote East Indian village of Chauri Chaura? An angry crowd burnt 22 police officers to death.

  16. Why was Gandhi arrested in 1922? For promoting disaffection.

  17. What weakened the Khilafat Movement? Gandhi’s arrest.

  18. When was the final collapse of the Khilafat Movement, and how?

  19. Did Khilafat movement achieve its aims? No.

  20. Were Muslims and Hindus united in Khilafat Movement, and what happened between them after its collapse? Both were united but the decline ended the relationship between them.

  21. Who was Mustafa Kemal? Son of a Turkish official.

  22. Where did Mustafa Kemal graduate from? Military Academy.

  23. What movement did Mustafa Kemal join after graduation? Young Turk

  24. What position was Mustafa Kemal given in First World War? Commander

  25. What did Mustafa Kemal, &other Turkish do after WWI? Provisional Government

  26. Who was the first President of the Republic of Turkey? Kemal

  27. What laws did Turkey undertake under Mustafa Kemal’s leadership?

Swiss, Italian & German

  1. What were men banned to wear in 1925, and what became fashion among Turkish men? Fenz was banned and European style hats came in fashion

  2. When were the women in Turkey given the right to vote, and eligible to join Parliament? 1934

  3. When was Kemal Ataturk given the surname of ‘Ataturk’? 1928

  4. Who gave Kemal Ataturk the surname of ‘Ataturk’? National Assembly

  5. What is the meaning of Ataturk? Father of Turks

  6. What was peoples’ reaction to Ataturk’s reforms? Mostly people welcomed.

  7. What massive reforms in Turkey did Mustafa Kemal introduce when he came into power?

  8. How did Mustafa Kemal reform religious matters? Explain in detail

  9. Who did Kemal Ataturk marry, which year, and when did he get divorced?

  10. What is believed to be the inspiration/reason behind Ataturk’s reforms?

  11. What reforms were the results of abolition of religious laws?

  12. What large change did Kemal Ataturk introduce in 1928?

  13. What was the outcome of the large change Ataturk introduced in 1928?

  14. How did Kemal Ataturk publicize the new alphabets of the new language?

  15. Who were in opposition to Ataturk? Kurds

  16. Where did Ataturk live in the later years of his life?

Dolmabahce Palace in Istanbul, once a home to Ottoman Sultans.

  1. Where did Ataturk die?

Dolmabahce Palace in Istanbul, once a home to Ottoman Sultans.

  1. What was peoples’ reaction to Ataturk’s death?

There was an enormous public display of grief.

  1. When and where was Allama Iqbal born? 1877 at Sialkot in Punjab

  2. Where did Iqbal get his early education?

  • Scottish Mission College Sialkot

  • Government College Lahore

  1. Where did Iqbal start to write poetry? Government College Lahore

  2. What did he teach at Government College Lahore? English & Philosophy

  3. How had Iqbal established himself as by the time he went to Europe in 1905?

Iqbal had already established himself as an Urdu poet.

  1. Where did in Europe did Iqbal go to? England & Germany

  2. What did Iqbal do in Europe?Studied Law & Philosophy-Observed Western Society

  3. What impressed and revolted Allama Iqbal about the West? (Source 5.18)

He admired the energy and vigor, but hated the ruthless competition between man and man, between nation and nation……

  1. What did Iqbal do after his return to the subcontinent?

Iqbal started to practice law, but also began to take an active role in the Muslim League.

  1. What was Iqbal’s poetry about in that period?

His poetry contained cries from the heart for the past glories of Islam, complaints about its decline, and calls for Muslim unity.

  1. How did Iqbal inspire Indian Muslims?

  • With the ideas of freedom, confidence national consciousness and action

  • He believed that reform can be brought by an individual’s behavior; for example by obeying the law of Islam, by having self-control, and taking actions rather than just accepting things as they were.

  1. What message did Source 5.21 contain for Muslims?

The source explains the current situation of Muslims at that time when they had hit rock bottom, and refers to them as dead if there is no zest for struggle alive in them. He is trying to awaken the Muslims to make their lives better by hard work and struggle for a better life.

  1. What two books did Iqbal write, and in what language?

Asrar-i-Khudi & Rumuz-i-Bekhudi. Written in Persian

  1. What did the writing of the books do for Iqbal?

The books brought Iqbal wide fame and he was knighted in 1922 by the British Government.

  1. When was Iqbal’s first volume of Persian poetry published? 1924

  2. What was the name of Iqbal’s first volume of Persian poetry? Bang-i-dara

  3. What other volumes of poetry did Iqbal write and in which years?

Bal-e-Jibril (1935) & Zarb-e-kalim (1937)

  1. What justification does Allama Iqbal give in Source 5.22 for supporting the creation of a Muslim state in India?

To Iqbal, Self-government with in the British Empire or without the British Empire, Muslims of seventy million in India were far more homogenous than any other people in India and could be described as a nation, thus the creation of a Muslim state in India was required.

  1. What did Iqbal concentrate on building up with Muslims as he had observed Western society?

His observation of Western society showed him that nationalism could lead to racism and imperialism, and thus, Iqbal concentrated on building up the strength of Muslims rather than the strength of India as a nation.

  1. What did Iqbal become convinced with?

As the time went on, Iqbal became convinced that Muslims should have their own homeland where they could be free of Hindu interference.

  1. What direction did he give Muslims and Jinnah in his speech in a Muslim League meeting in Allahabad in 1930?

He made a famous statement in his speech in a Muslim League meeting in Allahabad in 1930, which gave direction to Muslims and inspired Jinnah in his struggle for the creation of Pakistan.

  1. When did Iqbal die and how old was he when he died? 1938; 61 years old.

  2. What did Jinnah’s ‘Fourteen Points’ ask for? Rights for Muslims

  3. Describe Gandhi’s appearance in a few sentences.

Gandhi appeared in a shawl and dhoti. He was a thin man wearing glasses.

  1. What movement of Gandhi was the most successful one and what was it about?

It was a non-cooperative movement against the British, against paying tax on salt. It was a month long protest which started from Ahmadabad to a beach near Bombay.

  1. What was the purpose of the Round Table Conferences in London?

The purpose of the Round Table Conferences was in order to try to find a way of ruling India that would be accepted by everybody.

  1. Why did the Round Table Conferences fail?

  1. Why did Jinnah go to London? (Source 5.27)

Jinnah was disgusted and discouraged by the attitude of Congress at the Round Table Conferences. The attitude and the Hindu sentiment led him to believe that there was no hope for unity among Hindus and Muslims. He felt that he could not do anything for the Muslims and his country. This led him to settle down in London where he practiced law, and his sister Fatima, and daughter Dina stayed with him.

  1. What was the name of Jinnah’s daughter? Dina

  2. What did Liaquat Ali Khan do which caused Jinnah to leave London?

In Jinnah’s absence the Muslim League declined and Congress gained power. Then Liaquat Ali Khan along with his wife visited him in London and appealed to him to return to build up the league. In 1934, Jinnah returned to India.

  1. What was Government of India act, and what was the result of it?

Under the Government of India Act, British handed over control of 11 provinces to elected parliaments. In the elections which followed, the league did badly while Congress led by Nehru and Gandhi in 7 of 11 provinces and refuse to co-operate with the league. This confirmed to Jinnah and Hindu Muslim unity would never work.

  1. What happened at the League meeting in 1937?

In 1937, at the League’s meeting in Lucknow, Jinnah in a sign that things had changed, laid aside his English gentleman’s clothes, and wore a traditional brown sherwani, with white pajamas and a black Karakuli cap. It was symbolic, that from now the destination was clear.

  1. Who conceived the name Pakistan, and when did it first appear? Chaudhary Rahmat Ali. In 1933.

  2. What was the ‘T’ in the name of ‘Pakistan’ stand for according to Chaudhary Rahmat Ali? Turkharistan

  3. What was the name of the book that Chaudhary Rahmat Ali wrote in 1947?

Pakistan, the Fatherland of the Pak Nation.

  1. What is the meaning of Pakistan? Land of Paks – the spiritually pure and clean..

  2. In which year did King George V announce that India’s capital would move from Calcutta to Delhi? 1911

  3. How different were the attitudes of Indians when King George V visited India in 1911, and when his son King Edward VIII visited India in 1921?

  • When King George V visited India in 1911, people were excited, there were cries of ‘Badshah’, and the crowd was very enthusiastic.

  • When King Edward VIII visited India in 1921, there were demonstrations, and strikes. Gandhi had called for the royal visit to be boycotted. People stayed in their houses with black flags on their roofs or doors.

  1. Who signed the treaty of Versailles, and what was the outcome of it? The treaty was signed between Germany and Britain after WWI which gave British Empire new territories – including most of the German empire in Africa, and power in the Arab world following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

  2. How much of the world’s population lived in the British Empire in 1919? 400 million people or over a quarter of the world’s population lived with in the empire.

  3. In which year did Rudyard Kipling write his famous poem, The White Man’s Burden? 1899

  4. Write a few sentences explaining why the British Empire declined in the 20th century?

  • WWI had weakened Britain

  • WWII further weakened Britain

  • Economic problem with in Britain

  • Britain’s allies no longer wanted to belong to the Empire

  • Britain lost her colonies rapidly as nationalist movements rose up

  1. Complete the following table

Events In Turkish History

Chronological Order

Overthrow of Abdulhamid II

Women given the vote

Proclamation of a Republic

Introduction of Latin

Treaty of Sevres

Kurdish Revolt

1st Khilafat meeting

bandonment of Islamic law

Kemal’s admission to Young Turk Movement

Entry into World War 1

  1. Complete the following table by writing which family member of the British Royal Family was involved with each of these events in either 1911 or 1921?


British Royal Family Member


Moving India’s capital to Delhi

King George V


Providing a better education for Indians

King George V


Cries of ‘Badshah’

King George V


Gandhi’s call for a boycott

King Edward VIII


Strikes and Demonstrations

King Edward VIII


People staying indoors

King Edward VIII


Opening of the Victoria Monument

King Edward VIII


  1. Fill in the blanks.

  1. The First World War gave Indians a new impression of Europeans.

  2. In protest Jinnah resigned from Legislative Council due to new British laws.

  3. Mohandas Gandhi was also known as Mahatma Gandhi.

  4. To Gandhi, Satyagraha was almost a religion.

  5. Harijans’ means ‘little brothers’.

  6. Mahatma means ‘great soul’.

  7. Amritsar was a part of the province of Punjab.

  8. Many British people praised General Dyer’s actions at Amritsar but the Secretary of State for War was not one of them.

  9. Taking advice, the Khilafat Committee began in

  10. Another word for migration is

  11. Iqbal gained a reputation as the greatest Urdu pet of the 20th century.

  12. Iqbal’s visit to Europe showed him that nationalism can lead to racism and imperialism.

  13. In 1926, Iqbal was elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly.

  14. The Round Table Conferences held in London from 1930 to 1932, after which Congress and the Muslim League parted ways.

  15. Under the Government of India Act, British handed over control of 11 provinces to elected parliaments.

  16. Karakuli cap came to be known after Jinnah’s name as the ‘Jinnah cap’.

  17. The last Emperor of India was King George VI.

  18. The state crown worn by the wife of the last Emperor of India had the Koh-i- Noor diamond at the front of the crown.

  19. Rudyard Kipling’s famous poem, The White Man’s Burden came to represent the whole idea of imperialism.

  20. The Britain’s economic problems forced it to step down from its position as a first-rank power and gave way to the United States of America.

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