What was the reaction of Indians towards the new rules, & how did Jinnah react? The Indians were against it and Jinnah resigned from the council in protest.
When did ‘Rowlatt Act’ become law? 1919.
What were the two main effects of the Rowlatt Act of 1919?
Gandhi emerged as a nationalist leader.
The Amritsar Massacre
Who was Mohandas Gandhi? Gandhi was a nationalist leader who was lawyer by profession. In the World War I he didn’t know in which political direction to head, and then the Rowlatt act gave him a vision for India without Britishers. He believed in peace and justice.
What was Gandhi’s profession? Lawyer.
Where did Gandhi spent early years of his life? South Africa.
When did Gandhi come to India, and what was his take on British? After 22 years, World War I and to rule without British in India.
What were Gandhi’s beliefs? Non-Violence.
What kind of system did Gandhi introduce against Britain? Satyagraha- non-violent, with truth and love.
What does ‘Satyagraha’ means? Truth and Love.
In which way did Gandhi start to dress? In cotton clothes, like Hindu Holy Men.
What was Gandhi’s take on ‘Industrial Development’? He believed that in a simple peasant life in which machines, factories were not to givetrue happiness.
For whom did Gandhi show a lot of concern? The bottom of India’s structure, ‘the untouchables’.
Who were the ‘untouchables’? The poor ones, the lowest caste in the people.
What was the name given to the ‘untouchables’ by Gandhi? Harijans-little brothers.
What did Gandhi urge Congress to do in reference to the ‘untouchables’? Improve their conditions.
What did Gandhi organize to protest against the British rule in 1919? Strikes and demonstrations.
Was Gandhi able to protest against the British rule in peace? No.
What was the significance of the city of Amritsar? A sacred Sikh city.
What violence took place in Amritsar? Bank managers were murdered and British lost control.
What did the British do after the violence in the city of Amritsar? Banned meetings and demonstrations.
How many Indians gathered on April 13? About 10,000.
Where and why did Indians gather on April 13? Jallianwala Bagh against the British for banning.
Who was the Governor-general of Punjab at that time? Colonel O’Dawyer.
Who did the Governor-general call to deal with the crowd of Indians gathered on April 13? He called Brigadier General, 50 troops, 25 Gurkhas and 25 Baluchis.
What happened when the troops blocked the exit of Jallianwala Bagh? The troops opened fired killed 1 or 2 thousand people.
How many people lost their lives at Jallianwala Bagh? 1,000 or 2,000.
What was the outcome the next day of the incident at Jallianwala Bagh? List the incidents in different parts of India. In Lahore: Crowd took control over the city for 2 days, stoning the police and burning the railway station. Martial law was later announced and punishments were given to people. Then on 18th April Gandhi called of all the protests.
What law was announced in Punjab when the riots started after the incident of Jallianwala Bagh? Martial Law.
When did Gandhi call off the protests? April 18th.
Who was the final causality of Amritsar Massacre? Governor General- O’Dawyer.
He believed that reform can be brought by an individual’s behavior; for example by obeying the law of Islam, by having self-control, and taking actions rather than just accepting things as they were.
What message did Source 5.21 contain for Muslims?
The source explains the current situation of Muslims at that time when they had hit rock bottom, and refers to them as dead if there is no zest for struggle alive in them. He is trying to awaken the Muslims to make their lives better by hard work and struggle for a better life.
What two books did Iqbal write, and in what language?
Asrar-i-Khudi & Rumuz-i-Bekhudi. Written in Persian
What did the writing of the books do for Iqbal?
The books brought Iqbal wide fame and he was knighted in 1922 by the British Government.
When was Iqbal’s first volume of Persian poetry published? 1924
What was the name of Iqbal’s first volume of Persian poetry? Bang-i-dara
What other volumes of poetry did Iqbal write and in which years?
Bal-e-Jibril (1935) & Zarb-e-kalim (1937)
What justification does Allama Iqbal give in Source 5.22 for supporting the creation of a Muslim state in India?
To Iqbal, Self-government with in the British Empire or without the British Empire, Muslims of seventy million in India were far more homogenous than any other people in India and could be described as a nation, thus the creation of a Muslim state in India was required.
What did Iqbal concentrate on building up with Muslims as he had observed Western society?
His observation of Western society showed him that nationalism could lead to racism and imperialism, and thus, Iqbal concentrated on building up the strength of Muslims rather than the strength of India as a nation.
What did Iqbal become convinced with?
As the time went on, Iqbal became convinced that Muslims should have their own homeland where they could be free of Hindu interference.
What direction did he give Muslims and Jinnah in his speech in a Muslim League meeting in Allahabad in 1930?
He made a famous statement in his speech in a Muslim League meeting in Allahabad in 1930, which gave direction to Muslims and inspired Jinnah in his struggle for the creation of Pakistan.
When did Iqbal die and how old was he when he died? 1938; 61 years old.
What did Jinnah’s ‘Fourteen Points’ ask for? Rights for Muslims
Describe Gandhi’s appearance in a few sentences.
Gandhi appeared in a shawl and dhoti. He was a thin man wearing glasses.
What movement of Gandhi was the most successful one and what was it about?
It was a non-cooperative movement against the British, against paying tax on salt. It was a month long protest which started from Ahmadabad to a beach near Bombay.
What was the purpose of the Round Table Conferences in London?
The purpose of the Round Table Conferences was in order to try to find a way of ruling India that would be accepted by everybody.
Different groups of Indians could not agree among themselves
Why did Jinnah go to London? (Source 5.27)
Jinnah was disgusted and discouraged by the attitude of Congress at the Round Table Conferences. The attitude and the Hindu sentiment led him to believe that there was no hope for unity among Hindus and Muslims. He felt that he could not do anything for the Muslims and his country. This led him to settle down in London where he practiced law, and his sister Fatima, and daughter Dina stayed with him.
What was the name of Jinnah’s daughter? Dina
What did Liaquat Ali Khan do which caused Jinnah to leave London?
In Jinnah’s absence the Muslim League declined and Congress gained power. Then Liaquat Ali Khan along with his wife visited him in London and appealed to him to return to build up the league. In 1934, Jinnah returned to India.
What was Government of India act, and what was the result of it?
Under the Government of India Act, British handed over control of 11 provinces to elected parliaments. In the elections which followed, the league did badly while Congress led by Nehru and Gandhi in 7 of 11 provinces and refuse to co-operate with the league. This confirmed to Jinnah and Hindu Muslim unity would never work.
What happened at the League meeting in 1937?
In 1937, at the League’s meeting in Lucknow, Jinnah in a sign that things had changed, laid aside his English gentleman’s clothes, and wore a traditional brown sherwani, with white pajamas and a black Karakuli cap. It was symbolic, that from now the destination was clear.
Who conceived the name Pakistan, and when did it first appear? Chaudhary Rahmat Ali. In 1933.
What was the ‘T’ in the name of ‘Pakistan’ stand for according to Chaudhary Rahmat Ali? Turkharistan
What was the name of the book that Chaudhary Rahmat Ali wrote in 1947?
Pakistan, the Fatherland of the Pak Nation.
What is the meaning of Pakistan? Land of Paks – the spiritually pure and clean..
In which year did King George V announce that India’s capital would move from Calcutta to Delhi? 1911
How different were the attitudes of Indians when King George V visited India in 1911, and when his son King Edward VIII visited India in 1921?
When King George V visited India in 1911, people were excited, there were cries of ‘Badshah’, and the crowd was very enthusiastic.
When King Edward VIII visited India in 1921, there were demonstrations, and strikes. Gandhi had called for the royal visit to be boycotted. People stayed in their houses with black flags on their roofs or doors.
Who signed the treaty of Versailles, and what was the outcome of it? The treaty was signed between Germany and Britain after WWI which gave British Empire new territories – including most of the German empire in Africa, and power in the Arab world following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
How much of the world’s population lived in the British Empire in 1919? 400 million people or over a quarter of the world’s population lived with in the empire.
In which year did Rudyard Kipling write his famous poem, The White Man’s Burden? 1899
Write a few sentences explaining why the British Empire declined in the 20th century?
WWI had weakened Britain
WWII further weakened Britain
Economic problem with in Britain
Britain’s allies no longer wanted to belong to the Empire
Britain lost her colonies rapidly as nationalist movements rose up