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Eastern leaders rejected claims of Roman popes to be sole authority for all



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Eastern leaders rejected claims of Roman popes to be sole authority for all

  • By 1054, leaders mutually excommunicated each other (Great Schism)

  • Crusades, launched in 1095 by Catholic pope against Muslims, led Crusaders to pass through Byzantine Empire, sometimes attacking Byzantines

  • And remarkable growth of Arab Empire threatened Byzantines

    1. Able to hold off for a time with their military innovation known as “Greek fire” – a combination of oil, sulfur, and lime

    1. In 1453, Turkic Ottoman Empire finally conquered Constantinople

    2. Byzantine Legacy

    1. Preserved Greek and Roman learning

    2. Transmitted classical learning to the Islamic world and Christian West

    3. Byzantine religious culture spread among Slavic-speaking peoples

    1. Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius, developed an alphabet, based on Greek letters, with which Slavic languages could be written

    2. Expansion of Orthodox Christianity occurred among Slavic peoples of what is now Ukraine and western Russia

    3. A modest state known as Kievan Rus - named after the most prominent city, Kiev - emerged in the ninth century CE




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