Whap exam review test #5: Modern Period

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  1. Which of the following was a new Western motive for overseas territorial expansion in the industrial era?

  1. Missionary drive to convert non-Western peoples to Christianity

  2. Seizure of land for raising cash crops

  3. Drive to dominate sources of precious minerals and metals

  4. Need for raw materials for factory production

  5. Access to new markets for sale of Western manufactured goods

  1. How did the Dutch gain control of Java?

  1. Massive emigration from the Netherlands to Indonesia gave the Dutch a demographic advantage.

  2. Rapid industrialization and urbanization allowed for management of the majority of the population at work and at home.

  3. Shrewd exploitation of existing political divisions on the island resulted in territorial concessions.

  4. Supremacy in military technology resulted in direct rule after an initial period of warfare.

  5. Crucial help from the Chinese navy broke the back of indigenous Javanese rulers.

  1. Which of the following was NOT a reason India had become Britain's most important colony by about 1800?

  1. India offered crucial port facilities for the British navy.

  2. India was a major outlet for British manufactured goods.

  3. India was an important supplier of British raw materials.

  4. India was an important location for British textile factories.

  5. Britain had lost the North American colonies.

  1. During the era of British colonialism in India, why were the British content, in general, to leave Indian social hierarchies intact?

  1. Over time, exposure to Hindu doctrine on caste won British elites over.

  2. British officials were able to graft themselves onto an existing social pyramid at its apex while incurring a minimum of social disruption.

  3. British notions of proper gender roles, such as a wife's duty to commit sati were the same as Indian ones.

  4. Superior Mughal political and military authority prevented British interference in Indian social relations.

  5. Commonplace social mobility between the caste stratifications prevalent in the subcontinent British impressed colonial administrators.

  1. In which area did British and Dutch colonialists in South Asia and Indonesia assimilate the fewest indigenous practices?

  1. Religion

  2. Dress

  3. Food

  4. Housing

  1. Work habits

  1. By what method did Western imperialists work to gain a dependable corps of local managers to aid in the administration of their colonies?

  1. Kidnapping of managers' family members and holding them for ransom

  2. Conversion of local elites to Christianity

  3. Education of new generations of colonized youth in Western languages and cultural practices

  1. I and II

  2. II and III

  3. I and III

  4. II only

  5. III only

  1. Which reform was most emblematic of growing British interest in transforming Indian social relations in the nineteenth century?

  1. Dismantling of the caste system

  2. Prohibition of sati

  3. Expansion of education for girls

  4. Building interest in the sport of cricket

  5. Construction of trade schools to train a new Indian industrial working class

  1. Which answer choice contains the major rivals to British industrial and imperial supremacy that emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century?

  1. China, Belgium, Germany, the United States

  2. The United States, Brazil, France, Germany

  3. China, Brazil, Germany, Belgium

  4. The United States, Belgium, France, Germany

  5. France, Germany, Brazil, Belgium

  1. Which answer choice contains regions that were nominally independent but nonetheless endured significant Western informal political and economic influence by 1914?

  1. West Africa, South Asia, China, Latin America

  2. China, Persia, the Middle East, Latin America

  3. Persia, West Africa, South Asia, Latin America

  4. South Asia, the Middle East, China, Latin America

  5. West Africa, Persia, the Middle East, Latin America

  1. Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of contested settler societies?

  1. Algeria

  2. India

  3. South Africa

  4. Kenya

  5. Hawaii

  1. Which of the following is generally true of indigenous individuals promoted to assist Western imperialists in their rule of the colony?

  1. When possible, Christians were chosen.

  2. They tended to be from minority ethnic groups.

  3. They were given limited Western education and technical training.

  4. They were barred from the very top supervisory ranks.

  5. All of the above

  1. Which of the following best characterizes the difference between educational systems set up by imperialists in Africa and India?

  1. African colonies contained comparatively more schools administered by colonial governments than India.

  2. African schools tended to be set up by Christian missionaries while Indian ones were set up by the colonial state.

  3. Indian education mainly consisted of trade schools for training industrial workers, while African schools did not.

  4. African education mainly consisted of trade schools for training industrial workers, while Indian schools did not.

  5. White supremacist notions dissuaded imperialists from setting up education in either colony.

  1. Which sector of the colonized economy had experienced the least expansion by 1914?

  1. Transport

  2. Mining

  3. Export crop cultivation

  4. Heavy industrial capacity

  5. Raw material extraction

  1. The purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1885 was

  1. For representatives of Western industry to learn cutting-edge German industrial techniques

  2. For representatives of colonized peoples to learn cutting-edge German industrial techniques

  3. To set quotas and agreements surrounding the growth of the German navy

  4. To negotiate settlements among Western rivalries over the partition of Africa

  5. To study the ideas of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche

  1. The India Congress Party's early membership consisted heavily of middle-class individuals, including M. K. Gandhi, trained in which profession?

  1. Journalism

  2. Engineering

  3. Law

  4. Policing

  5. Civil administration

  1. Which choice lays out the correct order in which the Industrial Revolution began and spread?

  1. Great Britain, United States, continental Europe

  2. Continental Europe, United States, Great Britain,

  3. United States, continental Europe, Great Britain

  4. Great Britain, continental Europe, United States

  5. Continental Europe, Great Britain, United States

  1. Which of the following ran counter to the democratic impulses associated with the American Revolution?

  1. Rejection of aristocratic notions of hierarchy in the thirteen colonies

  2. Continued centrality of slavery to the colonial socioeconomic order

  3. New England's tradition of town meetings

  4. Virginia's practice of election of a House of Burgesses

  5. Demands for representation in British Parliament

  1. Which of the following documents spells out Enlightenment ideas as they were applied to revolutionary France?

  1. The Declaration of Independence

  1. Second Treatise of Government

  2. The Social Contract

  3. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

  4. Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte

  1. Which traditions of the French Revolution did not survive long beyond the initial and radical phases?

  1. Equality under the law

  2. Attack on feudal privilege and institutions

  3. Popular nationalism

  4. The metric system

  5. Women's leading role in toppling established political powers

  1. Which nineteenth-century political ideology stressed principles of laissez-faire and constitutional rule?

  1. Conservative

  2. Liberal

  3. Fascist

  4. Anarchist

  5. Socialist

  1. Which of the following Western societies escaped internal disturbances during the Revolutions of 1848?

  1. Germany

  2. Austria

  3. Hungary

  4. Russia

  5. France

  1. Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of new responsibilities Western governments gained in the nineteenth century?

  1. Public education

  2. Workplace safety regulation

  3. Child labor regulation

  4. Minimum-wage regulation

  5. Mass conscription

  1. Which answer choice best captures the changes historians associate with what is termed the "second industrial revolution"?

  1. Industrialization outside of England

  2. Shift to nuclear power in the West after World War II

  3. Central role of heavy industry and electrical power

  4. Rapid urbanization associated with factory production

  5. Move to an "information economy" after the rise of the personal computer

  1. Upon which demand would radicals and liberals have most likely agreed?

  1. Worker control of industry

  2. Minimum-wage laws

  3. Expansion of voting rights

  4. A graduated income tax

  5. Return of monarchy

  1. Which of the following causes did the American and French Revolutions share?

  1. Frustration over high levels of taxation

  2. Resentment at exclusion from governmental decision making

  3. Anger sparked by feudal exploitation of the peasantry

  1. I and II

  2. II and III

  3. I and III

  4. I only

  5. II only

  1. Which group of formerly colonized nations gained political independence from Western colonialism in the nineteenth century?

  1. Ghana, Mexico, India

  2. Argentina, Mexico, Brazil

  3. India, Mexico, Brazil

  4. Brazil, India, Ghana

  5. Argentina, Mexico, Ghana

  1. Which situation did formally independent Latin American nations have most in common with colonized portions of Africa and Asia in the nineteenth century?

  1. Rapidly expanding social, economic, and political possibilities for the majority of women

  2. A dependent position in the world economy due to the rise of Western industrial capitalism

  3. Declining importance of race and ethnicity in defining social status

  4. Supplantation of agriculture by industry as the main occupation of the laboring population

  5. Depopulation due to exposure to new diseases brought by Western colonialists

  1. Which of the following concerns made Creole elites, who yearned for independence from Spain, what we might call "cautious revolutionaries"?

  1. Fear that the Spanish monarchs were more capable rulers

  2. Fear that continued rapid industrialization would create urban instability

  3. A growing communist threat inspired by the example of the Bolshevik Revolution in the Soviet Union

  4. Fear that slaves and other oppressed groups would target local elites as part of a general social upheaval

  5. Fear that women would reject subordination in the private and public spheres if independence were achieved

  1. After the United States, which was the next New World colony to gain independence from European power?

  1. Mexico

  2. Argentina

  3. Brazil

  4. Haiti

  5. Cuba

  1. Which event in Europe contributed most directly to the wave of independence struggle in early nineteenth-century Latin America?

  1. Publication of the Gutenberg bible

  2. The Reconquista

  3. Napoleon's invasion of Spain

  4. Fascist aerial bombardment of Guernica

  5. Onset of World War I

  1. Why was the struggle for Brazilian independence distinctive in Latin American history?

  1. Brazil was the only colony whose economy was dependent on cash crops.

  2. Brazil remained a monarchy after independence.

  3. Brazil abolished slavery before independence was achieved.

  4. Brazil was the first colony to achieve independence.

  5. Brazil was the only ethnically diverse colony where racial hierarchy did not exist before or after independence.

  1. Which social practices of the early United States were replicated in newly independent Spanish Latin America?

  1. Slavery was maintained.

  2. Women remained subordinate to men.

  3. Property restrictions were placed on voting.

  4. Established colonial elites moved to the top ranks of political power.

  5. All of the above

  1. What impact did the instability of the wars for independence have on subsequent developments in Latin America?

  1. Agricultural regions devastated by modern warfare were slow to recover, leading to widespread famine.

  2. Female veterans of military service refused subordinate roles in the home.

  3. Military leaders remained influential and intervened frequently in political affairs.

  4. Mestizo, slave, and indigenous populations formed guerrilla units and launched armed struggle for communism.

  1. The grip of the Catholic Church was weakened and various strains of Protestantism became the dominant form of Christianity.

  1. What was the main commonality Liberal and Conservative politicians shared in nineteenth-century Latin America?

(A) They agreed that the Catholic Church had too much power.

  1. Both were led by wealthy landowners and the urban middle to upper classes.

  1. They agreed on the immediate abolition of slavery and repatriation to Africa.

  2. Both looked with admiration on the example of independent Haiti.

  1. Both were influenced by the ideas of Karl Marx.

  1. Which area of the 19th century Latin American economy was most damaged by free-trade relations with the British?

  1. Rail

  2. Port city

  3. Manufacturing

  4. Ranching

  5. Agricultural

  1. War in the 19th century with which Western power reduced Mexico's territory by about half?

  1. The United States

  2. France

  3. Spain

  4. Portugal

  5. Germany

  1. Which Latin American nation attracted the greatest number of European immigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?

  1. Colombia

  2. Peru

  3. Venezuela

  4. Mexico

  5. Argentina

  1. Which best characterizes the rule and impact of Porfirio Diaz in Mexico?

  1. Sacrifice of liberal political principles in pursuit of industrial and infrastructural modernization

  2. Peasant-based populist mandate achieving comprehensive land reform

  3. Puppet ruler manipulated by German imperialism bringing little to no economic development

  4. Conservative ruler who returned large landowners and Catholic elites to power

  5. Communist revolutionary implementing a series of Five-Year Plans for agriculture and industry

  1. Which statement best characterizes Ottoman and Qing Chinese relations with the West by about 1750?

  1. Both empires were in full military retreat and subject to carrying out Western economic demands.

  2. Both empires were successfully carrying out policies of isolation from the West.

  3. Qing China was able to strongly regulate relations with the West while Ottoman rulers were less able to repel Western incursions into their territorial waters.

  4. Qing China pursued a policy of imitation of Western industrial and mercantile practices while Ottoman rulers refused to do so.

  5. Both empires had launched effective counterattacks culminating with occupation of key Western urban centers.

  1. Initial expansion of Western-style university systems, communication methods, railways, and newspaper production and the promulgation of a European-style constitution are associated with which period in the history of the Ottoman Empire?

  1. World War I era

  2. Era of Suleyman the Magnificent

  3. Great Depression era

  4. Tanzimat reform era

  5. Crusades era

  1. The nineteenth-century Egyptian political leader Muhammad Ali is best known for

  1. Revitalization of Islamic fundamentalism in the Ottoman world

  2. Defeat of the British navy to prevent Greek independence

  3. Determined but ultimately unsuccessful efforts to modernize Egypt's economy along Western lines

  4. Breaking Egyptian dependence on cotton exports in trade relations

  5. Defeating Napoleon's invasion of Egypt

  1. Which of the following made Egypt an attractive target for Western imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century?

  1. Gold deposits

  2. Control of Nile River trade

  3. Lucrative tourism prospects

  4. Construction and control of the Suez Canal

  5. Fertile land of the Nile River delta

  1. Which of the following does not belong in a list of policies generally followed by a rising Chinese dynasty?

  1. Repair and expansion of dams, canals, and roads

  2. Lowering tax burdens for the peasantry

  3. Expanding opportunities for peasants to own land

  4. Strengthening of civil service examination systems

  5. Concentration of land ownership into ever fewer hands

  1. Which of the following best describes China's trade relations with the rest of the world by about 1750?

  1. Export of Chinese manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for Western manufactured and luxury goods

  2. Export of Chinese manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for silver

  3. Import of Western manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for silver

  4. Negligible levels of trade with the rest of the world since China produced all it needed

  1. Mercantilist expansion colonizing the Philippines, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia

  1. Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of nineteenth-century challenges to the rule of the Qing dynasty in China?

  1. Floods

  2. Peasant rebellion

  3. Foreign invasion

  4. Corruption in the bureaucracy

  5. Expanding influence of communism in China

  1. Which statement best captures the ruling Qing dynasty's attitude toward the West particularly in the period before the Opium Wars?

  1. Western civilization possessed military and industrial practices worthy of emulation.

  2. Western civilization posed a mortal threat to Chinese civilization.

  3. Western civilization was just another barbarian foreign society.

  4. Western civilization possessed artistic and intellectual practices worthy of emulation.

  5. Western civilization allowed for gender roles worthy of emulation.

  1. Land redistribution, reforms to simplify Chinese writing, equality for women, and armed struggle were major features of which pair of Chinese movements?

  1. Taiping Rebellion, Communist

  2. May Fourth Movement, Taiping Rebellion

  3. Nationalist, Taiping Rebellion

  4. May Fourth Movement, Communist

  5. Nationalist, Boxer Rebellion

  1. Which does NOT belong in a group of nations that had achieved territorial concessions in China by 1914?

  1. Japan

  2. Germany

  3. Britain

  4. France

  5. Italy

  1. Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of Chinese movements resentful of foreign domination?

  1. Boxer Rebellion

  2. May Fourth Movement

  3. Tanzimat Reform Movement

  4. Chinese Communist Movement

  5. Kuomintang (Nationalist) Movement

  1. Which pair of regional powers was able, by 1914, to initiate substantial industrialization and resist Western domination?

  1. Ottoman Empire and South Africa

  2. Russia and Japan

  3. South Africa and Russia

  4. Ottoman Empire and Japan

  5. Argentina and Ottoman Empire

  1. Which common trait helps to explain Russian and Japanese ability to modernize in the nineteenth century?

  1. Extensive experience with cultural imitation, Russia imitating Byzantium and the West, Japan imitating China

  2. Prior adoption and variation of Christian teachings, providing a basis for westernization

  3. Royal appreciation of the democratic tradition

  4. Presence of abundant natural resources, particularly coal and iron ore deposits, within traditional territorial confines

  5. Preexisting traditions of widespread public education and literacy

  1. All of the following statements are reasons monarchy survived so much longer in Russia than it did anywhere else in Europe EXCEPT

  1. The defeat of Napoleon in 1812 seemed to indicate a royal power could beat a modern one.

  2. Serfdom continued to provide a stable labor system.

  3. Czarist autocracy insulated Russia from the uprisings of 1830 and 1848 in much of Europe.

  4. Czars were able to mobilize enough industrial development to remain a world power.

  5. The Romanov dynasty imitated the stable British model of constitutional monarchy.

  1. Which of the following was experienced by Russia and not Japan by 1914?

  1. Mass revolutionary upheaval

  2. Rapid urbanization

  3. State-directed industrial development

  1. Expansion of educational opportunity

  2. War for territorial acquisition

  1. Which of the following was the main reform put in place as a result of the 1905 Revolution in Russia?

  1. Unions were legalized.

  2. Freedom of the press was established.

  3. A national representative assembly, the Duma, was created.

  4. Czarism was abandoned in favor of representative democracy.

  5. Agriculture was collectivized.

  1. How was the opening of Japan to the West different from other encounters between major civilizations and the West around the world in the period 1750-1914?

  1. French imperialists who dominated Japan refused to confer citizenry on the Japanese as they had in Africa.

  2. Japanese ruling elites remained in continuous control of the pace and terms of relations with the West.

  3. Japan was the only major civilization whose first contact with the West was with the United States.

  4. Japanese military power was able to thwart Western intervention.

  5. Exposure of the Japanese to Christianity created a minority community that assisted in direct colonial rule by the British.

  1. What was the role of the Meiji Restoration in Japanese history?

  1. Strengthening of the power of the Tokugawa Shogunate

  2. Expansion of Chinese influence in Japanese society

  3. Reversal of traditional Japanese gender norms

  4. Launching of Japan on a course of modernization and westernization

  5. Reconstruction of Japan after the devastation of the Second World War

  1. Which of the following best describes the political system set up in Japan during the Meiji Restoration?

  1. Proletarian dictatorship

  2. Democratic republic

  3. Constitutional monarchy

  4. Feudal state

  5. Absolute monarchy

  1. How did industrial development in Japan and Russia tend to differ from similar processes in Western Europe and the United States?

  1. Industrial development was not applied to military purposes.

  2. Industrial development did not spur territorial expansion.

  3. Industrial development tended to be more state-directed.

  4. Industrial development was more dependent on immigrant labor.

  5. Industrial development led to the rise of an organized labor movement, and unions were legalized.

  1. In which area did westernization of Japan have the least impact?

  1. Politics

  2. Religion

  3. Economy

  4. Fashion

  5. Science

  1. Which of the following nations pursued a course of overseas territorial expansion only after beginning the process of industrialization?

  1. Netherlands.

  1. Great Britain

  2. Spain

  1. Japan

  1. France

  1. Which of the following regions incorporated Western ideas in the nineteenth century but did not manage to achieve political independence from the West?

  1. Russia

  1. Japan

  1. Mexico

  2. India

  3. Brazil

  1. Which best describes the initial method of British rule over its Indian colony?

  1. Popular representative assemblies were established to include the Indian population in decision making.

  2. Direct rule by Queen Elizabeth was established.

  3. East India Trading Company officials set up favorable relations for the British with local ruling elites.

  1. I and II

  2. II and III

  3. I and III

  4. II only

  5. III only

  1. D

  2. C

  3. D

  4. B

  5. A

  6. B

  7. B

  8. D

  9. B

  10. B

  11. E

  12. B

  13. D

  14. D

  15. C

  16. D

  17. B

  18. D

  19. E

  20. B

  21. D

  22. D

  23. C

  24. C

  25. A

  26. B

  27. B

  28. D

  29. D

  30. C

  31. B

  32. E

  33. C

  34. B

  35. C

  36. A

  37. E

  38. A

  39. C

  40. D

  41. C

  42. D

  43. E

  44. B

  45. E

  46. C

  47. A

  48. E

  49. C

  50. B

  51. A

  52. E

  53. A

  54. C

  55. C

  56. D

  57. C

  58. C

  59. B

  60. D

  61. D

  62. E

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