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THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


TEXTS AND EXERCISES ON
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

Составитель: Орельская О.А.


КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

КГПУ, 2005 г.

WELCOME TO THE USA



QUIZ: How many of these questions can you answer?
1. In what century did Christopher Columbus discover the continent of America?

2. Where did the first American colonists come from?

3. How many colonies gained independence and formed the USA in 1776?

4. Which American state was the last to acquire (получить) “state” status?

5. Which American President was the first to live in the White House?

6. Which U.S. legal holiday – held every four years – falls on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November?

7. What is the highest mountain in the USA? In which state is it?

8. Which is the smallest U.S. state?

9. Which major city in the state of Florida has the same name as a Russian city?

10. Which sport is considered to be a national American sport?

11. Which American rock-and-roll star lived in Memphis, Tennessee?

12. What monument in Washington, D.C. is nicknamed “The Pencil”?

13. In which city and state is Disney World located?

14. Which 19th century American writer is said to be the founder of detective genre?

15. Which famous event happened in California in1849 that was widely covered in films and books?

16. In which state do the tallest trees in the world grow and what are they called?

THE STORY OF AMERICA

How much do you know about the history of the USA? Study the following texts to find out more information.
NOTRH AMERICA’S FIRST SETTLERS
North America’s first settlers were the ancestors of the Indians. They came from Asia, across the Bering Strait, many thousands years ago. By the time the first white men sailed westward from Europe and discovered North America, Indian people had spread across the continent.

The Indians’ food plants made a very important contribution toward helping the white men settle in North America. Although many white men came to North America seeking riches in gold and furs, the Indian food plants they discovered soon proved more valuable than these. From Indians the newcomers got many plants which are still important.

The most important Indian food plant was corn. But the Indians also gave the white men sweet potatoes, squash, several kinds of beans, pumpkins, and many other foods. Soon they became important in many other parts of the world as well. Another important plant was tobacco.
COLUMBUS’ VOYAGE
Mind the pronunciation of the following proper names you will see in the text:
Genoa [΄d3enəuə] Haiti [΄heiti] Genoese [d3enəu΄i:z]

Japan [d3ə́pæn] Honduras [hond΄juərəs] European [ֽjuərə΄pi(:)ən]
It was history’s most glorious mistake.

A young merchant from the Italian city of Genoa became convinced he could sail nonstop to legendary Japan and China by heading west across the “Sea of Darkness” – the Atlantic.

Educated men in late 15th-century Europe knew the Earth was round. But they knew, too, that wise explorers didn’t sail west into the wild unknown sea, but south and east, hugging Africa’s coast, in the search for a route to the Orient and its rumored riches.

The western route obsessed Christopher Columbus, the Genoese seafarer. Columbus’ quest for knowledge led him on history’s most important voyage that in the end united the Earth, making two worlds one.

From his own experience traveling in the eastern Atlantic, Columbus formulated his idea about traveling West to the Orient.

Such a great enterprise would require an equipment of vessels at much expense. Columbus presented his proposal to Spain, Portugal, England and France. Finally, after seven years of waiting, Columbus found success. Isabella, Queen of Spain, agreed to aid him in carrying out his plans.



Columbus started his first Voyage of Discovery on August 3, 1492 on three small vessels the Santa Maria, the Nina and the Pinta .

After a voyage of ten weeks, on October 13, 1492 the exhausted and frightened crew saw land.

Columbus had discovered one of the Bahama Islands which he called San Salvador. He coasted along the shores of Cuba and Haiti. He did not find the cities of Asia as he had expected, but he had no doubt that he was in the East Indies, and therefore called the natives Indians.

Columbus returned to Spain carrying with him gold, cotton, parrots, some plants, probably tobacco, and a few Indians for baptism. He was given the noble title of Don Cristobal Colon by the Spanish Crown.

Four voyages were made by Christopher Columbus in all, in which he explored the coast of South America, discovered Honduras and other small islands.
THE IMPACT OF EXPLORATION
Columbus’ voyage had an enormous impact – the immigration of thousands of refugees, pilgrims, missionaries, conquerors and people who wanted a better life for themselves and their children. As a result of his succeeding journeys, Europeans encountered not only a new world, but also crops that radically altered their diets: potatoes, tomatoes, corn, chocolate, peppers, beans, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, squash, peanuts, pineapples, blueberries, and sunflowers.

At the same time, he and those who followed him brought to the New World wheat, barley, onions, citrus fruit, horses, dogs, cats, beef cattle, pigs and chickens. Colonization by the English, French, Spanish and Dutch eventually led to the American Revolution and the founding of the republic.

Unfortunately, tragedy also accompanied these events as Old World diseases accompanied the immigrants – diseases for which the New World had no natural immunity: smallpox, measles, cholera and whooping cough. There was also greed, cruelty and racism.
Say if the statement is true, false, or there is no information in the texts:
1) The people who first set foot on the continent of North America came there from Africa.

2) In the age of Christopher Columbus somewhere between fifty and one hundred million people lived on the American continent.

3) From the Indians white men learnt how to grow potatoes and tobacco.

4) The first voyage to the “East Indies” took Columbus and his crew more than two months.

5) Kings of several countries offered Columbus financial aid to make his voyage.

6) Columbus’ voyages made a great influence on the life of the “Old World”.

7) Being very sick, Columbus spent his last days in disappointment and neglect.

8) Europeans, who settled on the new continent after Columbus’ voyages, brought not only some new plants and animals with them, but they also brought some diseases, for which the Indians had no immunity.


Answer the following questions based on the texts:
1) Where did the first settlers of North America come to the continent from?

2) What were many of the white men seeking in the new continent?

3) In what way did Columbus decide to reach the eastern coast of Asia?

4) How many years did he wait for carrying out his plans?

5) Why did Columbus call the natives Indians?

6) What crops did the Indians give the white men?

7) What European crops were brought to America?

8) What were the positive and the negative aspects of Columbus’ voyages and discoveries?


COLUMBUS’ SAILS
Fill in the blanks with the words from the table:


rank

chance

finance

refused

believed

Spain

route

sail

expensive

wealthy

West

Admiral

supplies

cheaply

rulers

Columbus had a dream. His dream was to reach Asia by sailing 3,000 miles (1)________. If he could reach Asia by sea, he could transport Asian spices, silks and other valuable products by sea (2) _________. At that time, the products had to be transported over a long and dangerous land route. This made products scarce and (3)________. A sea route would mean that goods could be transported more (4)_________ and in greater quantity. Anyone who could find this sea route would receive great honors and become very (5)________.

Columbus needed someone to help (6)_______ the trip if he was to turn his dream into reality. He asked the (7)________ of Portugal, Spain, and England for financial backing. They all (8)_______ to help. They thought the plan had little (9)________ of success and would cost too much money.

Finally, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of (10)_______ changed their minds. They provided Columbus with three ships and all the necessary (11)_______. In addition, they promised to make him governor of any new lands that he discovered, to make him an (12)_________, and to grant him a noble

(13)______ if he was successful.

On August 3, 1492, Columbus set (14)______. On October 12, 1492, he landed in America. He was convinced that he had discovered the sea route from Europe to Asia. He (15)________ this to his dying day.




HOW IT ALL STARTED
For 150 years North America remained largely unsettled by Europeans. During that time, however, Spanish adventurers roamed Florida, the gulf coast, and the Southwest in a vain search for treasure. French voyagers explored the Far North in pursuit of furs, and Dutch and Swedish traders established small settlements on the Northeast coast in present-day New-York and Delaware.

The English, too, came looking for easy riches. In December 1606, a London Company sent a group of settlers on board three ships to colonize the North America territory called Virginia. They reached the New World in May 1607 and founded Jamestown, which became the first permanent English settlement on the American continent.

Life was very hard in the little colony. Nearly all of the men had come from rich or well-to-do families in England. They had never had to work. These people believed the stories of the riches which, they had been told, lay everywhere in the New World. The Indians gave them some corn, but the colonists never had enough food. Many people died. But in 1610 ships and food came from England, and Jamestown was saved.

In 1620, the Puritans, a religious group from England, sailed to America. They landed at Plymouth Bay in what is now called New England. They settled in the area. Many died from cold and hunger during the first winter. The Indians showed the settlers how to fish and plant crops. After the first harvest, they held a feast to thank God. Thanksgiving Day is still celebrated each November. Some settlers traded with the Indians, but many saw them as enemies. Lots of the Indians were killed or died of diseases brought by settlers.


1. Find answers to the following questions in the text:

1) In what parts of the American Continent did Europeans settle?

2) Where and when was the first English colony established?

3) What were most of European settlers seeking in the New World?

4) What kind of difficulties did the first settlers experience?

5) How was the celebration of Thanksgiving Day started?



2. Name the following words by their definitions:

- continuing to exist for a long time;

- a large meal for a lot of people, to celebrate a special occasion;

- to walk or travel, usually for a long time;

- gathering crops from the fields;

- the act of trying to achieve something;


BRITAIN AND THE COLONIES


The British proved more adaptable than their rivals and readier to see the possibilities of colonization. Between 1607 and 1773 Britain managed to establish a dozen bustling Colonies. The British Colonies, scattered along the Atlantic seaboard, varied widely. They could even be called the different worlds of colonial America. Colonies existed to produce essential raw materials cheaply, to provide an unlimited market for manufacturing goods and to offer a minimum of economic competition. The Colonies were expected to supply their mother country with raw and semi-finished materials, including furs, fish, rice, tobacco and timber. In exchange they received a lot of manufactured goods from the homeland. Special Acts of the British Parliament required that all American goods should be carried in British and colonial vessels and sold only to British buyers. American trade with other nations or their colonies was officially forbidden.

The colonists did not want to remain under the British rule any longer. The War of Independence began in 1775. In June, 1776, representatives of American Colonies met in Philadelphia in the Second Continental Congress. On July 4, 1776, the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson. Thus, the United States of America was born.



THE STATES OF THE USA
The United States began as a nation of 13 states. These were the colonies which had broken away from Great Britain in 1776 and fought a six-year War of Independence. The original 13 colonies were then located in the area today occupied by 16 states. 34 other states were admitted to the union one by one.

The newest states are Alaska and Hawaii admitted in 1959. Washington, in the District of Columbia, is the national capital. It was named in honor of George Washington, the first US President, who was also Commander-in-Chief of the American army during the War of Independence.

The District of Columbia, which was named for Christopher Columbus, discoverer of America, is 60 square miles in area; and it is not part of any state.
Say if the statement is true, false or there is no information in the texts:
1) British colonies were quite different from one another.

2) The British Empire established colonies on the new Continent mainly to provide England with raw materials.

3) American trade with other nations and their colonies was unlimited.

4) The British Parliament asked the colonists to contribute towards the cost of maintaining the British army through centrally-raised taxes.

5) The War of Independence lasted five years.

6) Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the Declaration of Independence because of his fame as a writer.

7) It was George Washington who chose the place for the American capital.

8) The District of Columbia does not belong to any state.



Some more historical events:



  • Negro slavery had been introduced into the American colonies in 1619 when the Dutch ship brought its cargo of human chattels (имущество) to Virginia.

  • In 1787 the delegates of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia adopted the Constitution of the USA, an extraordinary document by which America abides (придерживаться) more than two centuries later. So far only twenty six amendments (поправки) have been made to the Constitution.

  • George Washington was chosen as first President in 1789.

  • In 1861, 11 Southern states announced their secession from the Union. They formed their own union, called the Confederacy. Civil War between anti-slavery North and pro-slavery South broke out. In 1862 President Abraham Lincoln issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation. In this document he proclaimed that all the slaves would be forever emancipated, that is free! The War ended in 1865 with the victory of the North.

  • President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865.

  • In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

  • In 1879 Thomas Edison invented the electric bulb.

  • The Wright Brothers made the first successful airplane flight in 1903.

  • In 1917 the U.S. entered World War I.

  • In 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the U.S. entered World War II.

  • The Supreme Court ruled that compulsory segregation in public schools was unconstitutional in 1954.

  • In 1965-1973 the United States fought in the Vietnam War.

  • In 1968 Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated. He is ranked among the greatest of black Americans because of his crusade to win full civil rights for his people.

  • Astronaut Neil Armstrong walked on the moon on July 20, 1969.

  • In 1975 U.S. Apollo and USSR Soyuz spacecraft linked together in space.

  • In 1981 the United States launched the world’s first reusable spacecraft, space shuttle Columbia, which successfully orbited the Earth for two days.

G E O G R A P H Y


European Place Names in America


Do you know how many “European Names” we can see on the map of the USA? How many examples can you give? Read the text to find out more.
European place names appeared in America beginning with the 16th century, when Europeans came to inhabit the New World. Some of the names that appeared on the map at that time were those of English and French kings and queens. One of the many examples is the name of the State of Georgia. The state got its name from the original colony, which was named in honor of the English King George II. Another name, Louie, which can be seen in many place names (e.g. Louisiana, Saint Louis, etc.), came from the French to honor their king Louie XIV.

Many place names were given to honor famous people; some names were taken from history or literature. There were names taken from geology, others were connected with important events in the life of the people.

The first people to arrive in America from Holland built a town which they called New Amsterdam, in honor of the capital of their country in Europe. But forty years later, English fleet under the command of Duke of York appeared before New Amsterdam. The English occupied the town and renamed it New York.

The first people who came to America did not try to invent new names, they often gave the new place the same name as the place they had come from. Along the coast of the USA, we find such English names as Plymouth, Cambridge, London, Boston. English names often appear with the word new as a prefix: New England, New York, New Britain.

When the first English inhabitants or their children left their homes on the East Coast and moved to tremendous and rich lands in the west, they continued the tradition of giving the new places the same names as those they had left behind. As a result, there are twenty – two towns in the United States that are called London or New London, eighteen towns named Bristol, many named Chester, Windsor or New Windsor.

There are a lot of Russian names on the map of the U.S. as well. We find most of them in the state of Alaska and on the Aleutian Islands. Nearly all of them were given in honor of sea-farers or statesmen of the XVIII – XIX centuries.

One of the typical features of the geographical map of the United States is the abundance of “duplicate-names” of European cities and towns as well as of mountains, rivers and lakes. These names were brought to America by immigrants from England, Ireland, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Austria and many other countries. Sometimes these place names begin with “new”, e.g. New-Edinburgh. You can also see on the U.S. map such European names as Madrid, Dublin, Berlin, St. Petersburg and others.
Study the following texts about different areas of the USA.
NEW ENGLAND
Find the meanings of the following words in the dictionary:

to land; to seek; to supply; to plough;

opportunity; frontier; manufacturing; power and raw materials; workshop
Over 350 years ago the first settlers arrived from Europe. The first settlers landed on the East Coast. They began clearing the forests and ploughing the soil. Settlers moved westward, ever seeking better land and greater opportunities. In this way the frontier moved across the US, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

The Northeast is where American manufacturing began. The first factories were in New England. They produced cotton cloth. Power and raw materials are the basic ingredients of industry. Both are available in the Northeastern States. Coal, natural gas and water power have long kept the Northeast well supplied with power.

Fishing has been important in the Northeast. Many towns on the New England coast began as a fishing community. Boston, Portland, New Bedford all were early fishing centers.

The Northeast is usually thought of as an industrial workshop of the USA.


* Do you know that?

  • The State of Vermont in New England makes more maple syrup than any other state. It takes 40 gallons (501 liters) of maple sap to yield one gallon (3.8 liters) of syrup.

  • The smallest US State is Rhode Island (48 x 37 miles or 77 x 60 kilometers) in New England. But this smallest state has the longest official name – State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.



GREAT LAKES


Learn to pronounce these geographical names:

Lake Superior [ ֽsju΄piəriə]; Lake Ontario [on΄tεəriəu] ; Lake Michigan [΄mi∫igən] ;

Lake Huron [΄ hjuərən ] ; Lake Erie [΄iəri ]; Niagara [nai΄ægərə]
Part of the boundary between the USA and Canada is formed by four of the five Great Lakes. The largest of them is Lake Superior, which, as its name implies, is the highest above the sea. South of it is Lake Michigan, entirely in the US territory; to the east is Lake Huron, from the southern end of which the St.Clair River leads into Lake Erie. From Lake Erie the Niagara River rushes over the famous Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario.

All the lakes are connected by canals or navigable channels to form the most important unit of inland waterway. The lakes take a very important place in the economic life of both the USA and of Canada.

Buffalo is the fourth largest port and the seventh industrial city in the USA. It is situated at the northern end of Lake Erie.

The Lakes can be used only between the months of April and December, as they freeze in winter.


Read the texts and find the words denoting:

  • a car, a bus etc.;

  • all the special tools, machines etc. that you use for a particular activity;

  • a plant that is grown by farmers;

  • a place of shelter for ships;

  • an uninhabited region



THE MIDWEST
The eastern part of the Midwest is corn country. This region is often called the Corn Belt. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri are leading Corn Belt States. Farming is the Midwest leading industry. Corn is the pioneer American crop. The Indians taught the early settlers how to grow it.

The northern part of the Midwest is a hay and dairy region. Wisconsin is the leading dairy state. Most of Wisconsin milk is made into cheese and butter.

The drier western parts of the Midwest are wheat lands. The Midwest has everything to be a great manufacturing center. There is a big supply of raw materials – iron ore, livestock, wheat, timber and so on.

Detroit is the center of automobile industry. Over half the motor vehicles and equipment made in the US comes from the Midwest. And over two-fifths come from Michigan alone.


* Do you know that?



  • More than 85% of the motor vehicles produced in the United States are made by auto companies based in Michigan.

  • The skyscraper, which depends on a steel frame, was invented in Chicago in the 1880’s.

  • Chicago is the chief center of industry and transportation in the U.S. mainly because of its location - it is the only place in North America where the Great Lakes link with the Mississippi River system, giving access to both the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.


THE WEST
Only in few parts of the West there is enough quantity of water for farming. There are vast areas of desert. The three states of the West Coast – California, Oregon and Washington – have important farm lands.

California became part of the United States in 1846. When gold was discovered several years later, California’s population grew rapidly. Wheat soon became the chief crop. Rice and barley became important too.

California is now the country’s second most important cotton-producing state. And California’s farmers grow half of the country’s fruit and vegetables.

The center of West Coast manufacturing is the Los Angeles area. Los Angeles was a farm community. Then oil was discovered. Oil brought manufacturing to this region. Aircraft manufacturing became the chief industry.

In 1909 the first movie studio opened in Los Angeles. Today the Los Angeles suburb, Hollywood, has become movie and television center.

California is nicknamed the Golden State. The emblem of the State is a golden poppy, and the entrance to its finest harbor is called the Golden Gate.



* Do you know that?



  • The biggest living things on earth grow in California. What are they?

(The California redwood trees; most are more than 90 meters high)

  • The driest spot in the U.S. is Death Valley in California; average yearly rainfall is 1.35 inches (34.3 millimeters)

  • The world’s shortest river is the D River in Lincoln City (Oregon). It flows 440 feet (134 meters) from Devil’s Lake to the Pacific.



THE SOUTH
Most of the South is a land of long, hot summers. Winters are short and cool. There is abundant rainfall. This combination gives the South a long growing season.

Agriculture is the chief industry in the states of Florida, Texas, Mississippi and Arkansas. Some southern ranches are larger than those in the West. The mild southern winters mean year-round green pastures.

The South is rich in natural resources. There are great supplies of iron ore in the South, although it is mined only in a few places. Most of the iron ore is mined near Birmingham, Alabama. The ore has helped make Birmingham an important producer of iron and steel.

More than half of the southern landscape is covered with forests. Two-fifths of the country’s timber come from the South. More than half of the pulp and one-third of the paper of the United States come from the southern states.




* Do you know that?

  • Stone Mountain Confederate Memorial (in the State of Georgia), the world’s largest sculpture, covers an area larger than a football field.

  • The State of Mississippi takes its name from the mighty river that forms most of its western border. Mississippi means the “Great Water” or the “Father of Waters”.

  • Saguaro Cactuses, found in Arizona, may grow to 50 feet (15 meters) tall and live to 200 years.



A L A S K A

Look up the following words in a dictionary:

attitude; to purchase; peninsula; to establish; to depart; deposit



Learn to pronounce the following geographical names:

Juneau [΄d3unou]; Eskimos [΄eskiməuz]; Siberia [sai΄biəriə]; the Bering Strait [ ΄beriŋ ΄streit]


In 1959 Alaska became the 49th state of the USA. Attitudes towards Alaska were different in 1867, when the peninsula was purchased from Russia. Then most Americans had little interest in “the land of icebergs and polar bears”.

Alaska is America’s largest state, but very few people live there. The state would have to double its population to match that of Rhode Island, the smallest state. The capital of Alaska is Juneau.

Arctic Alaska has been the home of the Eskimos for centuries. It is believed that the Eskimos moved there from Mongolia or Siberia. A short route for their passage would have been the Bering Strait, which is named for Vitus Bering, the sea captain who discovered Alaska on his voyage to Russia in 1741.

The Eskimos and the American Indians of southeastern Alaska are the state’s earliest known inhabitants. Russian fur traders established settlements, but by the time that Russia offered to sell Alaska to the USA, most of the traders had departed.

After fishing, Alaska’s chief industry is lumber and paper production. There are also large deposits of coal, copper, gold and other important minerals.
*Do you know that?


  • Mount McKinley, the highest peak in North America, is in Alaska. Its height is 6,194 meters.

  • Alaska ranks first in the USA in commercial fishing.




H A W A I I

Find the words in the text using the given definitions:

In the fifth or sixth century, daring Polynesian voyagers sailed to Hawaii across thousands of miles of the Pacific Ocean in their double canoes. They are believed to have been the island’s first inhabitants. British Captain James Cook accidentally rediscovered Hawaii in 1778, and the traders and priests and ministers soon followed.

About 3,5 thousand kilometers separate Hawaii from California, its closest sister state.

The twenty islands of Hawaii lie upon the Pacific, from southeast to northwest. The largest island, Hawaii, lies at the southeastern end of the chain and is almost twice as large as all the other islands combined.

The best known of all the islands is Oahu, a diamond-shaped plot of earth, is the center of Hawaiian life. Honolulu, capital and largest city, spreads out at the foot of the volcanic mountain range. It is home for more than half of all Hawaiians. Close to it lies Pearl Harbor, where the US Pacific Fleet is based.

The rich volcanic soil of the islands has been made to flourish through scientific agriculture and man-made waterways.


*Do you know that?

  • Hawaii has the largest pineapple plantation in the world.

  • Hawaiians live on slopes of mountains: Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea stand about six miles (9.7 kilometers) tall from their peaks to their bases on the ocean floor.


W A S H I N G T O N
The city of Washington was designed in the late eighteenth century. When George Washington was elected President of the United States, there was no permanent capital to house the government. Since members of the Congress could not agree as to where the capital should be located, it was decided to choose a special place for the new capital. The State of Maryland agreed to allot a wild and marshy area on the Potomac River. The region was called the District of Columbia, after Christopher Columbus.

Washington today is among the most beautiful cities in the world.


Seeing the sights of Washington

Located on Capitol Hill, the seat of American legislature dominates the City of Washington. It is the tallest building in Washington: no other building is allowed to be taller than the Capitol.




The White House was built after Congress established the District of Columbia as the permanent capital of the United States on July 16, 1790. President George Washington himself helped select the site.

John Adams became the first president to take residence in the building on November1,1800. The building was originally referred to as the Presidential Palace or Presidential Mansion. However, by 1811 the first evidence of the public calling it the "White House" emerged, because of its white-painted stone exterior. The name Executive Mansion was often used in official context until President Theodere Roosevelt established the formal name by having "The White House" engraved on his stationery in 1901.



The Washington National Monument is an obelisk of white marble, more than 555 feet high. An elevator takes visitors to the 500-foot level. Return is by elevator as well but if one wishes, he can walk down the 898 steps, from which the 190 memorial stones donated by local, State, and foreign governments can be seen.


The Lincoln Memorial is a tribute to President Abraham Lincoln and the nation he fought to preserve during the Civil War (1861-1865). The Lincoln Memorial was built to resemble a Greek temple. It has 36 Doric columns, one for each state at the time of Lincoln’s death. A sculpture by Daniel Chester French of a seated Lincoln is in the center of the memorial chamber.

Thomas Jefferson, besides being President of the United States, was also a gifted amateur architect, political thinker, and founder of the University of Virginia. The Jefferson Memorial was built in 1943, to dedicate the 200th anniversary of his birth. Inside the memorial is a 19-foot bronze statue of Jefferson. Surrounding the memorial are cherry trees that the City of Tokyo presented to the City of Washington in 1912.



Arlington National Cemetery was established in 1864. Prominent among the many memorials one can see is the Tomb of the Unknowns, and among the unknown dead are 2,111 who died on the battlefields in the Civil War.

Many famous Americans were buried here, among them was President of the US, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, assassinated in 1963.



Dear Reader,

At this point we have come to an end of our very short journey around the history and geography of the United States. We hope that it has been interesting and somewhat informative for you. We also hope that you will take interest in this country and start your own “journey of exploration”. There are still so many interesting things to be “discovered”! Go ahead!



And now take the chance to do the crossword puzzle or go back to the quiz questions and answer them again. Will the result be better this time?
CROSSWORD PUZZLE


Across:

4. The State famous for its maple syrup.

5. Food made from milk.

8. A crop used to make bread.

9. The traveler who discovered Alaska.

12. The capital city of Hawaii.

13. Part of the name used to describe some of the Midwest States.

15. A dry, sandy region.

16. The English for “гавань”.

19. One of the Midwest agricultural states.

20. The main American crop.

21. A State known for its warm climate, sea and sunshine.

22. A piece of rock from which metal can be obtained.

23. The first inhabitants of Alaska.

24. The world’s largest sculpture made in the rock is in the State of ______.

Down:

1. One of the Great Lakes.

2. A piece of land almost surrounded by water.

3. The “home” city of skyscrapers.

6. Hollywood is a ____ of Los Angeles.

7. Somebody who goes to live in a new place.

10. A large industrial city in New England, also known for its university.

11. Wood that is used for building, making furniture, etc.

14. A person who buys and sells goods.

17. One of the chief industries of this State is car-making.

18. A farm that produces products from milk.

21. Alaska’s № 1 industry is ____.




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