Welcome to Hungary – Hungary through the Arts – Session 2 The Baroque

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Cultures of Europe 1

Welcome to Hungary – Hungary through the Arts – Session 2
The Baroque → relating to the style of art, building, and music that took shape in European art in the 16th century and became the dominant style in the 17th and early 18th centuries. Applies dense decoration

  • dense – thick; close together; difficult to go or see through

  • popular – liked, enjoyed or supported by many people

  • society – a large group of people who live together in an organized way, making decisions about how to do things and sharing the work that needs to be done. All the people in a country, or in several similar countries, can be referred to as a society

  • social – relating to society and living together in an organized way

  • ancestral – a person related to you who lived a long time ago

  • symmetrical – having parts that match each other in a regular way

  • arrangement – a group of objects that have been put in a particular order or position

  • shade – the parts of a picture or painting that the artist has made slightly darker than the other parts

  • graceful – moving in a smooth, relaxed, attractive way, or having a smooth, attractive shape

  • circular – shaped like a circle

  • dynamic – energetic and forceful

  • dynamism – being dynamic

  • rich – containing a lot of something

  • imposing – having an appearance which looks important or causes admiration

  • appearance – the way a person or thing looks to other people

  • blended – combined, put together from different things

  • ornament – decoration

  • allegory – a story, play, poem, picture or other work in which the characters and events represent particular qualities or ideas, related to morals, religion or politics

  • symbol – a sign, shape or object which is used to represent something else

  • image – a depiction of somebody or something

  • angelic – like the spirits who are close to God

  • sculpture – the art of forming solid objects that represent a thing, person, idea, etc. out of a material such as wood, clay, metal or stone,

  • frame – a border which surrounds and supports a picture, door or window

  • drapery – cloth hanging or arranged in folds

  • gilded – covered with a thin layer of gold or a substance that looks like gold

  • Virgin Mary – mother of Jesus Christ

  • Jesus Christ – the man Christians believe is the son of God and on whose teaching Christian religion is based

  • poet – a person who writes poems

  • prose – written language in its ordinary form rather than poetry

  • politician – a member of a government

  • military – relating to or belonging to the armed forces

  • leader – a person in control of a group, country or situation

  • work – something created as a result of effort, especially a painting, book or piece of music

  • classical – belonging to or relating to the culture of ancient Rome and Greece

  • tradition – a belief, principle or way of acting which people in a particular society or group have continued to follow for a long time, or all of these beliefs, etc. in a particular society or group

  • siege – the surrounding of a place by an armed force in order to defeat those defending it

  • defence – (a) protection or support against attack/siege

The Rococo → relating to the very decorated and detailed style in buildings, art and furniture that was popular in Europe in the 18th century

  • curvilinear – consisting of curved lines

  • whimsical – unusual and strange

  • exotic – from a far, especially tropical country

  • cycle – connected with each other by dealing with the same characters or ideas

  • fresco – painting on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling

  • projection – something that sticks out from a flat surface

  • bow window – a curved window that sticks out from the wall of a house

  • narrative – a story or a description of a series of events

  • historical – connected with the study or representation of things from what has been

  • hero – a person who is admired for having done something very brave or having achieved something great

  • local – in a small area of a country

  • national – relating to or typical of a whole country and its people

Classicism → a style in painting, sculpture and building, based on the particular style of Greek and Roman art, which was especially popular during the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe

  • education – the process of teaching and learning

  • collection – a group of things that have been collected by one person or in one place

  • urbanism – the tendency to build to build houses, offices, etc. in an area of countryside so that it becomes a town

  • emphasis – the particular importance or attention that you give to something

  • aesthetics – the study of art, especially in relation to the idea of beauty

  • preservation – when you keep something the same or prevent it from being damaged

  • renewal – to increase the life of or replace something old

  • origin – the particular way in which something started to exist or someone started their life

  • fine art – drawings, paintings and sculptures that are admired for their beauty

  • domestic – belonging or relating to the home, house or family

  • proportion – the number or amount of a group or part of something

  • volume – an amount of space

  • mass – forming a large amount

  • innovative – applying new ways, modes to do something

  • variety – the characteristic of often changing and being different

  • Palladian – “The term Palladian can be used to refer to any architectural style based on the work of Andrea Palladio, whether it be by his Italian contemporaries or by the numerous architectural practices operating around the world today.” Definition by The Royal Institute of British Architects

Vocabulary to the 19th-century folk literature and Romanticism in Hungary

  • liberal – respecting and allowing many different types of beliefs or behaviour

  • revolutionary – involved in or relating to a revolution

  • revolution – a change in the way a country is governed, usually to a different political system and often involving violence or war

  • independence – freedom from being governed or ruled by another country

  • battle – a fight between armed forces

  • folk poetry – poetry rooted in the culture of a particular group or type of people

  • variation – a change in a particular mode

  • landscape – a large area of countryside, especially in relation to its appearance

  • issue – a question or problem which people are thinking and talking about

  • anthem – a song which has special importance for a particular group of people, an organization or a country, often sung on a special occasion

  • unknown – not known or familiar

  • mystery – something strange or not known which has not yet been explained or understood

  • mood – the way you feel at a particular time

  • criticism – when you give your opinion or judgment about the good or bad qualities of something or someone, especially books, films, etc

  • severe – very serious, causing very great pain, difficulty, worry, damage

  • require – to need or make necessary

  • improvement – when something gets better or when you make it better

  • initiate – to cause something to begin

  • strain (in art) – a type or direction of art

  • appeal – a request made to somebody or a group of people for something

Vocabulary to 19th-century painting

  • genre – a style, especially in the arts, that involves particular modes of technique

  • celebration – to show admiration and approval for something or someone

  • subtle – a quiet way which does not attract attention to itself and which is therefore good or clever

  • blurred – without sharp contours

  • contour – the shape formed by lines as the outer edges of something shown

  • compositional – the way that people or things are arranged in a painting or photograph

  • double portrait – a painting, photograph, drawing of two people

  • abundance – richness in something

  • condemn – to criticise something or someone in a degrading way

  • extinction – a situation in which something no longer exists

  • phenomenon – something that exists and can be seen, felt

  • territory – a land or area

  • rural – in, of or like the countryside

  • scene – a part of a play or film in which the action stays in one place for a time

  • sharp outline – clear and dominant lines forming the outer edges of a shape

  • contrast – the difference between two or more things

  • bold – brave, outstanding

  • colouring – the combination of colours

  • fabric – the texture of something

  • texture – the quality of something that can be decided by touch; the degree to which something is rough or smooth, or soft or hard

  • genuine – original, it is what it appears to be

  • angle – the space between two lines or surfaces at the point at which they touch each other, measured in degrees

19th-century architecture

  • second half of the 19th century → new buildings were erected: market-halls, railway stations, banks, theatres, the House of Parliament

  • Budapest turned into a multilingual metropolis (Germans, Slovaks, Greeks, Jews, Armenians, Rumanians, Serbs) which allowed for the establishment of unique buildings of different cultures


  • market-hall – a building in which people meet in order to buy and sell things

  • railway-station – the area or building where trains stop

  • bank – an organization where people and businesses can invest or borrow money, change it to foreign money, etc., or a building where these services are offered

  • theatre – a building, room or outside structure with rows of seats, each row usually higher than the one in front, from which people can watch a performance or other activity

  • multilingual – involving the presence of more than two different languages

  • metropolis – a very large city, often the most important city in a large area or country

  • unique – being the only existing one of its type or, more generally, unusual or special in some way

  • oriental – the countries in the east and south-east of Asia

  • motif – a pattern or design

  • exotic – unusual and often exciting because of coming (or seeming to come) from a far, especially tropical country

  • ceremonial – formal acts, often fixed and traditional, performed on important social, artistic or religious occasions

Home assignment

Please, look up the following words in an English-language dictionary:

god, polytheism and monotheism, Old Testament, New Testament

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