CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY COALITION TO PREVENT ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE. Sue Renes1, 1Educational Service District, Port Angeles, WA United States
The case study documents a community´s response to adolescent substance abuse. Three former high school students from the community were killed in a drunk driving accident on December 31, 2002. The community subsequently developed a coalition to address adolescent substance abuse, implementing interventions at the micro, messo, and macro levels. The study describes the community´s initial response as well as future plans. The study suggests the need to further investigate community coalitions that develop as the result of a tragedy. Sustaining the initial energy felt by community members and examining what needs are filled by participating in the coalition are areas for further research. According to Drixler, Krahn, and Wood (2001), the high incidence of drinking and driving among North American teenagers is documented by a large number of studies. Howard, Baker, and Zucker (as cited in Skiba, Monroe, & Wodarski, 2004), reported that 33 percent of all automobile injuries and fatalities involved young drivers ages 16-20 with blood alcohol levels of .10 or higher.
Butterfloss, Morrow, Webster, and Crews (2003) defined a community coalition as a group of individuals representing diverse factions who come together to achieve a common goal. Following formation, the coalition analyzes the problem, identifies and implements solutions, and works toward social change. Federal funding is available to support community coalitions as improvements in public health are more successful when the community is informed and involved in carrying out public health plans (Lewin Group, Inc., 2002). Coalitions are often formed for proactive reasons, anticipating a potential problem (Mizrahi & Rosenthal, 2001); however, defensive reasons, such as a reaction to a crisis, are also common.
MacQueen et al (2001) described community as consisting of five core elements: (1) locus (a sense of place), (2) sharing (common interests and perspectives), (3) joint action (a sense of cohesion and identity), (4) social ties (interpersonal relationships that form the foundation for the community) and (5) diversity (social complexity within communities). The definition is consistent with the ecological perspective of social work practice as the definition focuses on the interaction of the physical, social, and cultural environment and the impact of the environment on a client system (Germaine & Gitterman, 2002). Ecological frameworks often serve as the foundation for individuals interested in prevention and health promotion (Wandersman & Florin, 2003). The goal of the ecological perspective is to promote individual, family, and community health and growth.
A CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE ALCOHOL EXPECTANCIES QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ADOLESCENTS. Karen Randolph1, Mary Gerend1, Brenda Miller2, 1Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL United States; 2Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Berkeley, CA United States
Purpose: One of the most widely used instruments for measuring alcohol expectancies among youth is the Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A). Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. Also, few studies have tested whether the AEQ-A meets criteria for measurement invariance (i.e., extent to which it assesses similar constructs across groups). We contribute to the alcohol prevention research by (1) replicating previous evidence for a two-factor, positive and negative expectancy model and (2) testing the two-factor model for measurement invariance across gender, race, and age.
Methods: Using data from a NIAAA-funded study (AA0755409) of the impact of maternal alcohol involvement on child well-being, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the AEQ-A with a sample of 313 youth, ages 10-16, to determine whether the two-factor, positive and negative structure held for this sample. To examine measurement invariance, we evaluated a series of multiple-group CFA models in which we tested for the equivalence of the (a) overall factor structure, (b) factor loadings, (c) intercepts, and (d) residual errors across the background variables.
Results: To replicate the previous analyses, 28 of the original 90 scale items were included in the CFA. The latent negative expectancy factor was indicated by four items; the latent positive expectancy factor was indicated by four subscales [social enhancement (5 items), personal power (7 items), cognitive/motor enhancement (5 items), and tension reduction (7items)]. Fit indices indicated that the model adequately fit the data [chi2=42.6; df =18; chi2/df ratio=2.4:1; CFI=.95; TLI=.91; RMSEA=.07 (p =.09); SRMR=.05]. All indicators loaded significantly on their respective factors. Each of the four dimensions of measurement invariance was confirmed by gender. However, only the basic factor structure was invariant based on race or age differences; factor loadings, intercepts, and errors varied in these groups.
Implications: Our findings have important implications for alcohol prevention strategies that focus on altering beliefs about the expected benefits of alcohol use. The results support evidence of a two-factor, positive and negative structure for the AEQ-A. Although our data indicate that the AEQ-A assesses equivalent alcohol expectancy constructs among males and females, the same conclusions can not be drawn for race or age-based groups. This suggests that the AEQ-A may assess somewhat different constructs for youth from different racial groups or of different ages. Further research is needed to confirm this finding and to determine the impact on the efforts of alcohol prevention specialists to reduce underage drinking.
EDUCATIONAL SUCCESS AND ADULT HEALTH: FINDINGS FROM THE CHICAGO LONGITUDINAL STUDY. James Dimitri Topitzes1, Geetika Tiwari1, Olga Godes1, Sudakshina Ceglarek1, Joshua Mersky1, Arthur Reynolds1, 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI United States
Research indicates that educational attainment is related to health risk behaviors, general health, and mental health (e.g., Ross & Wu, 1995). Building on such work, the current investigation explores relationships between education-related variables and health-related indicators in the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS). The CLS is a long-term evaluation of the Chicago Child-Parent Centers (CPC), a school-based early childhood intervention for low-income children. The study follows a predominantly African-American sample of students who attended either CPC preschool or an alternative Chicago area program in the mid 1980s. Data for current analyses is drawn from a recently administered survey of 1131 CLS participants, ages 22-24. Three questions are addressed: (1) what are the major adult health and mental health measures; (2) how are these measures related to each other; and (3) how are these measures related to CPC preschool participation, reading achievement scores, and highest grade completed?
Regarding question 1, after conducting reliability and validity tests the following were selected as outcome measures: self-report health status, health insurance coverage, health care access, chronic health problems, tobacco use, substance use, teen parenthood, life satisfaction, and depression.
Regarding question 2, preliminary analyses revealed that the first cluster of health outcomes, self-report health status, health insurance coverage, and health care access, were significantly correlated with each other. Further, all remaining outcome measures were significantly related to one or more of these first three, and in many instances to each other. For instance, substance use was correlated with life satisfaction (r = -.219, p < .001) and tobacco use was correlated with teen parenthood (r = .142, p < .01). Congruent with existing evidence (e.g., Hawkins, Catalano, and Arthur, 2000), these analyses indicate associations between general health, substance use, and mental health.
Regarding question 3, participation in the CPC preschool program was significantly associated with health insurance coverage, health care access, and substance use. Highest grade completed was significantly related to these same outcomes along with tobacco use, teen parenthood, life satisfaction, and depression. Additionally, participants´ grade 8 reading comprehension test scores were significantly related to most outcomes under study, e.g., health insurance coverage and life satisfaction.
These findings uncover connections between education variables and health indicators in the CLS. Additional analyses will examine relationships with regression modeling and include controls for parents´ education, perceived social and academic competence, and known risk factors.
FACTORS PREDICTING FATHER´S PARENTAL SELF-EFFICACY IN A COPARENTING INTERVENTION PROGRAM. Richard Puddy1, Mark Feinberg1, Marni Kan1, 1Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA United States
Past research has consistently predicted that parental self-efficacy is related to high quality parenting. Parental self-efficacy refers to parent´s expectations about their ability to perform effectively and competently as a parent and their ability to exert a positive influence on their child´s behavior and development. The literature on parental self-efficacy grew out of Bandura´s work on how self-efficacy influences and guides behavior. Parental self-efficacy applies this construct specifically to the parenting domain, and refers to how competent a person feels in his parenting abilities. The assumption is that feelings of competency directly affect how parents interact with and discipline their children. In other words, parents who feel competent in the parenting role, those with high parental self-efficacy, will behave competently. Past research has demonstrated that low maternal efficacy is associated with concurrent measures of depression, anxiety, marital conflict, and problematic parenting. However, much less is known about father´s parental self-efficacy. The majority of studies on parental self-efficacy focus exclusively on mothers and therefore, results can only be generalized to mothers.
This study explores predictors of father´s parental self-efficacy in a randomized trial of a coparenting intervention for couples during the transition to parenthood. The study sample includes mothers and fathers expecting their first child at time of enrollment, but only father´s responses were used for this study. The intervention, Family Foundations, consists of prenatal and postnatal sessions designed to enhance coparenting quality.
Results indicate that several factors are significantly related to father´s parental self-efficacy in the prenatal period, including father´s expectations of parenthood and readiness to become a parent; mother´s report of couple intimacy and father´s reports of couple efficacy in resolving problems; and fathers´ role satisfaction, depression, and anxiety. Thus, parental self-efficacy in fathers is related to fathers´ adjustment and emotional health, attitudes towards parenthood, and the couple relationship.
Implications for the application of these findings are discussed in the context of enhancing these predictive factors through intervention.
DEVELOPING A NATIONAL SAMPLING FRAME OF CONSUMER-OPERATED DROP-IN CENTERS FOR MENTAL HEALTH CONSUMERS. A. Suzanne Boyd1, 1University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC United States
Consumer-operated services for mental health consumers have become widespread in recent years, and have been identified in national reports as a promising service modality that can promote the well-being of mental health consumers and for which there is an emerging evidence base. This paper shares the results of a research study on developing a national sampling frame of consumer-operated drop-in centers (CODICs). The current literature on consumer-operated mental health services remains sparse, yet the proliferation of such models have expanded in recent years. Before a national study comparing the descriptive characteristics of CODICs can be conducted, a national sampling frame is needed to identify the number and types of existing CODICs. The steps used to develop a sampling frame of CODICs based on the study respondents will be described and the results will be reported. The pilot study findings in which 330 Local Mental Health Affiliate (LMHA) Directors of the National Mental Health Association and 50 representatives from the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors were asked to: (1) complete a mail survey about the types of consumer-operated services that existed in their state and local affiliate areas, and (2) share the names and addresses of any known CODICs are reported. A total of 45 LMHA representatives and 17 State representatives responded to the survey. Thirty-eight of the LMHA respondents indicated that a CODIC existed in their area, followed by consumer-operated support services (n=31), consumer-operated businesses (n=15), consumer-operated case management (n=7), and consumer-operated housing services (n=6). All of the State respondents indicated that consumer-operated support services exist in their state (n=17), followed by CODICs (n=14), and consumer-operated businesses (n=8). Consumer-operated case management services and housing services were equally prevalent (n=5). An initial sampling frame of approximately 45 consumer-operated drop-in centers has been established to date based on Phase One of the present study, which employed availability and snowball sampling techniques. The results of this pilot study indicate that CODICs centers remain a prevalent consumer-operated mental health service option. The implications of how consumer-operated services can promote the well-being of mental health consumers will be offered.
ENHANCING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT TO PREVENT VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS. Aleta Meyer1, Morton Gulak1, Kimberly Goodman1, 1Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA United States
Violence prevention efforts to promote positive school climate and discourage negative behavior focus on changes at the individual, teacher, and/or system level. These efforts might be greatly enhanced through manipulations to the physical environment of schools. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) theory proposes that the form, arrangement, and design of buildings and open spaces can encourage or discourage undesirable behavior and criminal activity. As a step toward exploring possibilities for prevention, this paper describes the assessment process used to guide the identification of priorities for changing the physical environment of an urban high school where school violence is a significant concern to the community.
CPTED strategies have been used internationally to design features of the community such as urban housing, shopping malls, and landscaping. There are six main principles for applying CPTED strategies to the school environment—natural surveillance, access management, territoriality, physical maintenance, order maintenance and other factors (e.g., access to nature, capacity, and inclusiveness). As an example, natural surveillance involves the design and placement of physical features in such a way as to maximize visibility and avoid auditory isolation (e.g., bright lighting, windows, low landscaping, and raised entrances). The goals of these six strategies are to create a warm and welcoming environment; to create a sense of physical and social order; to create a sense of ownership by students, staff, and parents; to send positive message to students; to maximize the presence of authority figures; to minimize opportunities for out-of-sight activities; and to manage access to all school areas.
The assessment process for determining priorities for CPTED strategies involved a comprehensive observational assessment of the building and three focus groups of high school students and high school student parents. In the winter of 2004, a team of CPTED experts trained a community sample comprised of school staff, the school system´s chief of safety and security, the system´s director of facilities management, and university faculty to conduct the comprehensive observational assessment. The goal of the focus groups was for students and parents to identify things that made students and parents feel safe or unsafe at their school. Information from both of these data gathering activities led to the development of a recommendation matrix for changes to the building. A steering committee led by the director of facilities management and the chief of safety and security for the school system then identified criticalities for change that fit within the budget allotted for the CPTED intervention.
LINKS ONLINE: A PRIMER IN RESILIENCY AND SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION. Kris Bosworth1, 1University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ United States
On going professional development is essential for educators to remain current with changes in the field. Yet, time for professional development is at a premium for educators. Placing professional development on line so that it is available to educators at their convenience provides an opportunity for participation in professional development. A series of interactive multimedia lessons in core prevention concepts (resiliency, risk and protective factors and evidence-based practices) have been developed and are available to educators participating in a 55 school Safe Schools/Healthy Students project (Tucson LINKS). This proposal is to demonstrate these modules. Focus groups of prevention specialists, trainers and educators provided development specifications that have been adhered to in each module. The modules are highly interactive and visually appealing through the use of a variety of visuals including, video, pictures, illustrations, graphics and cartoons. Each lesson lasts no longer than 20 minutes. Resource information is available for each module for those users who wish to pursue a topic further. The narrators for the modules are staff from a school that has successfully implemented evidence-based prevention. These guides discuss prevention concepts from the role of the principal, the counselor and a teacher. Case studies from other schools are included. The context for each module is situated in a real school situation. In one module, the user is invited to join a child study team discussing the risk and protective factors in the life of a referred student. In another module, the user joins a team charged with the decision of selecting a prevention program. Currently these module are offered to participating schools for professional development credit. Some schools request that teachers review the modules before attending live prevention professional development.
7:15 PM – 9:15 PM
9:30 PM – 12:00 AM
ANNUAL MINORITY SCHOLARSHIP DANCE
THE MOTHERS OF PREVENTION
FRIDAY, MAY 27, 2005
7:30 AM – 11:00 AM
7:30 AM – 8:30 AM
8:30 AM – 10:15 AM
PLENARY SESSION 3
ADVANCING THE INTEGRATION OF BIOPYCHOSOCIAL RESEARCH AND PREVENTION SCIENCE
Chair: Irwin Sandler
Thomas Insel1, Philip Fisher2, Ronald Dahl3, Irwin Sandler, 1National Institute for Mental Health, Besthesda, MD, USA, 1Oregon Social Learning Center, Eugene, OR, USA,; 3University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA United States; 4Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
Prevention Science has historically been based on a scientific paradigm in which there is an iterative mutually reinforcing relationship between research on processes involved in the development of health and disorder and the design and evaluation of preventive interventions. These three presentations describe exciting perspectives on how advances in biopsychosocial research may further the research agenda of prevention science.
Dr. Thomas Insel: Prediction and Prevention: A Vision for Mental Health in 2025. The talk will address the research needed to transform mental health care over the next two decades. Three major challenges need to be overcome. First, we need a fundamental understanding of the pathophysiology of mental disorders. Second, based on understanding this pathophysiology, we need to define the risk architecture. And third, knowing who is at risk, we need to develop strategic preventive interventions. PTSD will be used as a case study to describe how key insights on pathophysiology, risk architecture, and preventive
interventions could reduce the public health burden of this disabling disorder.
Dr. Philip Fisher: Extensive research has documented the impact of early life adversity on neural and behavioral components of the stress-emotion system. This presentation will focus on the implications of this research for the field of prevention in two areas: (1) the development of conceptual models to characterize underlying mechanisms of risk; and (2) the use of biological indicators of intervention effects. To illustrate these topics, we will present data from research from a randomized efficacy trial involving young foster children, which indicates that change key neural regulatory systems may accompany improved behavioral functioning and more positive permanent outcomes
Dr. Ronald Dahl: This presentation will discussBrain/Behavior/Social Context interactions in development with a focus on early adolescence as crucial time in the development of affective processes. More specifically, it will focus on pubertal changes in emotion and motivation and their relevance to a broad range of behavioral and emotional problems that emerge in adolescence. A developmental model of affect regulation will be described that emphasizes the value of understanding neurobehavioral processes in ways that can inform early intervention and prevention strategies in high-risk youth.
ADVANCING THE INTEGRATION OF BIOPYCHOSOCIAL RESEARCH AND PREVENTION SCIENCE.Thomas Insel1, Philip Fisher2, Ronald Dahl3, Irwin Sandler, 1National Institute for Mental Health, Besthesda, MD, USA, 2Oregon Social Learning Center, Eugene, OR, USA,; 3University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA United States; 4Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
CONCURRENT 2, OPEN
CONCURRENT 3, INTEGRATING BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS IN PREVENTION RESEARCH, Organized Poster Forum