nolds in The Staging of Elizabethan Plays at the Red Bull Theater, 1940) is that Forrest and the Sailors enter on die stage as though on deck, and that the Boy re-enters in a regular second-level playing-area as though on the main-top.
The fifth action is in the anonymous Lady Alimony (c. 1640?, theatre unknown but evidently designed for a public theatre). The performance begins with an induction in which Presenters discuss the ensuing play. One of them, Tnllo, decides to watch the play and later interrupts the third and fourth acts to applaud the 'author' Timon's genius (Q, 1659): ' Tril May the Poets day prove fair and fortunate: full Audience and honest Door-keepers. I shall perchance rank my self amongst your Gallery-men... Trillofrom the high Gallery. ...He takes his Seat again ... Trillofrom the Gallery.9Since the play proper requires a second-level playing-area, Adams suggests that Tnllo's two kter appearances are in a third-level playing-area of the tiring-house, but his alternative suggestion that Trillo appears in the top spectators' gallery is surely more likely in view of Tnllo's evident intention to station himself among the audience.7
I. Lawrence, 'Music and Song in the Elizabethan Theatre', in The Elizabethan Playhouse (1912), p 91. 2 Dates of plays are generally, as appropriate, from E K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage (1923), W. W. Greg, The Shakespeare First Folio (1955), and G. E Bendey, The Jacobean and Caroline Stage (1956).
The paucity of evidence for an Elizabethan * upper-stage' is pointed out in my 'Gallery over the Stage in the
Public Playhouse of Shakespeare's Time', Shakespeare Quarterly, vra (1957).
Music was also, of course, occasionally performed on stage. I assume that music for the Elizabethan jig was
generally so performed. (This particular problem is not dealt with by Lawrence in his essay on the jig in Pre-
Restoration Stage Studies, 1927, or by C. R. Baskervillin The Elizabethan Jig, 1929.) The custom of locating musicians
on stage is recorded in the Van der Venne pnnt, reproduced by Richard Southern in *A 17th-century Indoor Stage*,
Theatre Notebook, 9 (1954).
The performance of music within the tiring-house is alluded to by Jonson in the Induction to Cynthia's
Revels (1600, Blackfriars). The Third Boy asks the whereabouts of the Author, and the Second Boy replies: 'Not
this way, I assure you Sir, we are not so officiously befriended by him, as to have his Presence in the Tiring-house, to
prompt us aloud, stampe at the Booke-holder, sweare for our Properties, cursse the poore Tire-man, rayle the
Musique out of tune, and sweat for every vemall trespasse we commit, as some Author would, if he had such fine
Ingles as we' (Q, 1601).
Hodges writes: *. .if the "shadow" were to be raised high up to the eaves-hne, it would necessitate elon
gating, in what I thinkis a most improbable way, the two pillars supporting it in front. Clearly the two pillars
in the Swan sketch are intended to be in the classical style and proportion. But to raise them in anything like
classical proportion to the height of approximately thirty feet (which is what would be required) would be to make
them unwidddy massive for their job. On the other hand, to make them of that height but slender, would be to
add structural difficulties to architectural improbabilities; for two such tall, slender single-piece shafts of timber
would not only be unsuitable for carrying a permanent weight but, moreover, would not be easy to get And
even if, as Adams suggests, ships' masts could be satisfactorily used for the job, the result would still have been so
out of character with the Elizabethan style and method of building that I, for one, think it more likely the pillars
were kept pretty well within the classical proportion, that they therefore did not rise to the eaves-hne, and that
people ni the top galleries whose view was consequently impaired by the "shadow", were obliged to make the best
of it, as we have to do today in some of the upper galleries of our own theatres' (The Globe Restored, pp. 31-2).
This article was written during tenure of a Research Fellowship of the University of Missouri.