Wang ch‘ung lun-hêng miscellaneous essays Traduits et annotés par Alfred forke



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Analects

I, 10 (II, 282).

II, 2 (II, 280) ; II, 4 (II, 126) ; II, 4 (II, 292) ; II, 5 (I, 394) ; II, 6 (I, 394) ; II, 9 (I, 398) ; II, 19 (I, 386) ; II, 23 (II, 121) ; II, 23, 2 (I, 455).

III, 1 (I, 395) ; III, 5 (I, 407) ; III, 6 (I, 395) ; III, 6 (II, 24) ; III, 14 (I, 474) ; III, 15 (I, 434) ; III, 15 (II, 284).

IV, 5 (I, 389) ; IV, 5 (I, 395) ; IV, 7 (I, 402).

V, 1 (I, 397) ; V, 4 (I, 427) ; V, 4 (II, 55) ; V, 8 (I, 398) ; V, 9 (I, 399) ; V, 9 (I, 400) ; V, 18 (I, 401) ; V, 18 (II, 105) ; V, 27 (II, 255).

VI, 2 (I, 402) ; VI, 5 (I, 398) ; VI, 8 (I, 165) ; VI, 9 (I, 398) ; VI, 15 (II, 416) ; VI, 17 (I, 152) ; VI, 21 (II, 219) ; VI, 26 (I, 403).

VII, 9 (II, 19) ; VII, 15 (I, 416) ; VII, 34 (II, 182).

VIII, 3 (II, 379) ; VIII, 7 (II, 87) ; VIII, 10 (I, 399) ; VIII, 15 (I, 467) ; VIII, 18 (I, 98) ; VIII, 18 (I, 482) ; VIII, 19, (I, 98) ; VIII, 19 (I, 478) ; VIII, 19 (II, 222) ; VIII, 19 (II, 267) ; VIII, 20 (II, 273) ; VIII, 20 (II, 278).

IX, 5 (II, 302) ; IX, 6 (I, 102) ; IX, 6 (II, 292) ; IX, 8 (I, 405) ; IX, 10 (II, 98) ; IX, 10 (II, 201) ; IX, 11 (II, 24) ; IX, 13 (I, 406) ; IX, 14 (II, 286) ; IX, 22 (II, 121).



  1. 8, 10 (I, 523) ; X, 16 (I, 295) ; X, 18 (II, 138).

  2. 4 (II, 287) ; XI, 7 (I, 411) ; X1, 8 (I, 409) ; XI, 8 (II, 2) ; XI, 9 (I, 411) ; Xl, 16 (II, 345) ; XI, 18 (I, 408) ; XI, 22 (II, 283) ; XI, 24 (I, 408) ; XI, 24 (I, 449) ; XI, 24 (II, 268) ; XI, 25, 7 (I, 520, 11, 335).

XII, 5 (I, 136) ; XII, 7 (I, 412) ; XII, 12 (II, 195) ; XII, 18 (I, 403).

XIII, 3 (I, 407) ; XIII, 9 (I, 413) ; XIII, 24 (I1, 130).

XIV, 14 (I, 500) ; XIV, 14 (II, 281) ; XIV, 18 (II, 26) ; XIV, 26 (I, 414) ; XIV, 38 (II, 7) ; XIV, 38 (II, 10).

XV, 8 (I, 412) ; XV, 24 (I, 441) ; XV, 30 (II, 128).

XVI, 9 (II, 120) ; XVI, 10 (II, 284).

XVII, 1 (I, 417) ; XVII, 1 (II, 283) ; XVII, 2-3 (I, 387) ; XVII, 5 (I, 417) ; XVII, 6 (I, 283) ; XVII, 7 (I, 415) ; XVII, 12 (I, 445) ; XVII, 19 (I, 184) ; XVII, 22 (II, 104).

XIX, 19 (I, 288) ; XIX, 20 (I, 478) ; XIX, 20 (I, 485) ; XIX, 20 (II, 271) ; XIX, 22 (II, 125) ; XIX, 23 (II, 101).
Shuking

L. I : p. 15 (II, 220). p. 17 (II, 263). p. 24 (II, 188). p. 25 (I, 315). p. 26 (I, 459). p. 31 (I, 459). p. 32 (II, 19). p. 32 (I, 128). p. 33 (I, 516). p. 47 (II, 257). p. 48 (II, 80). p. 49 (II, 181). p. 51 (I, 316). p. 59 (II, 46). p. 70 (II, 147). p. 70 (II, 320). p. 73 (II, 266). p. 80 (II, 71). p. 84 (I, 404). p. 85 (I, 490). p. 88 (I, 363). p. 108 (II, 247). p. 113 (II, 250). p. 127 (I, 378). p. 271 (II, 268).

L. II : p. 315 (I, 484). p. 330 (I, 374). p. 340 (I, 282). p. 340 (I, 302). p. 342 (I, 277). p. 351 (I, 205). p. 359 (II, 17). p. 359 (II, 21). p. 385 (I, 134). p. 399 (I, 121). p. 428 (II, 405). p. 455 (I, 98). p. 455 (I, 481). p. 464 (I, 504). p. 466 (I, 502). p. 468 (I, 482). p. 469 (II, 233). p. 471 (I, 123). p. 477 (II, 21). p. 518 (II, 333). p. 592 (I, 114). p. 593 (I, 123). p. 629 (I, 418).
Shi-chi

Chap. 3 p. 1 (I, 464) ; p. 10r. (II, 29) ; p. 11 (I, 488).

Chap. 4 p. 1 (I, 464) ; p. 39 (I, 506).

Chap. 6 p. 6 (I, 311) ; p. 18 (I, 507) ; p. 21v. (I, 491) ; p. 24 (I, 231) ; p. 24 (I, 492) ; p. 25v. (I, 492) ; p. 26v. (II, 116).

Chap. 8 p. 1 v. (I, 178) ; p. 2 (I, 305) ; p.5 (I, 234) ; p. 11v. (I, 530) ; p. 35v. (I, 148).

Chap. 24 p. 39 (I, 222).

Chap. 28 p. 20 (I, 508) ; p. 21 (I, 344).

Chap. 31 p. 9v. (I, 523).

Chap. 33 p. 3v. (II, 233).

Chap. 40 p. 11 (I, 177).

Chap. 41 p. 6v. (I, 310) ; p. 7r. (II, 144).

Chap. 43 p. 7 (I, 225) ; p. 11 (I, 226) ; p. 12 (I, 230) ; p. 19 (I, 226).

Chap. 47 p. 12v. (I, 312).

Chap. 55 p. 1 v. (I, 236).

Chap. 57 p. 6v. (I, 309).

Chap. 61 p. 3v. (I, 168).

Chap. 63 p. 2v. (I, 358).

Chap. 69 p. 12v. (II, 269).

Chap. 70 p. 2v. (II, 52).

Chap. 75 p. 2r (II, 384) ; p. 2v. (I, 161).

Chap. 83 p. 9 v. (II, 175).

Chap. 84 p. 6r. (II, 40).

Chap. 86 end (II, 177).

Chap. 88 p. 5 (I, 167).

Chap. 91 p. 1 (I, 308).

Chap. 92 p. 16 r. (II, 144).

Chap. 109 p. 6 (I, 169).

Chap. 111 p. 1v. (I, 308).

Chap. 123 p. 9 v. (I, 174).

Chap. 129 p. 3v. (II, 327).


Ch‘un-ch‘iu

Huan, 17th year (I, 458).

Chuang, 2nd year (II, 254).

Chuang, 7th year (I, 274). 25th year (II, 339).

Hsi, 16th year (I, 276).
Tso-chuan

Huan, 5th year (II, 336).

Chuang, 8th year (I, 245).

Hsi, 10th year (I, 204). 22nd year (II, 119). 28th year (I, 189). 29th year (II, 123).

Wên, 1st year (I, 207). 18th year (I, 243).

Hsüan, 3rd year (I, 505). 15th year (I, 211).

Hsiang, 19th year (I, 206). 21st year (I, 302). 21st year (I, 351). 31st year (II, 74).

Chao, 4th year (I, 227). 5th year (I, 187). 7th year (I, 209). 7th year (I, 214). 8th year (I, 237). 13th year (I, 177). 26th year (II, 154). 29th year (I, 356).



Mencius

Bk. I, Pt. I, 1 (I, 418). Pt. II, 16 (I, 422). Pt. II, 16 (I, 432).

Bk. II, Pt. 1, 2 (I, 421). Pt. I, 2 (19) (II, 293). Pt. I, 2 (20) (II, 293). Pt. I, 2 (22) (II, 294). Pt. II, 3 (I, 420). Pt. II, 8 (I, 420). Pt. II, 9 (II, 288). Pt. II, 10 (I, 419). Pt. II, 12 (I, 422). Pt. II, 13 (I, 423).

Bk. III, Pt. I, 1 (I, 467). Pt. II, 4 (I, 420). Pt. II, 4 (I, 426). Pt. II, 9 (1) (I, 85). Pt. II, 10 (I, 427).

Bk. IV, Pt. 1, 15 (I, 385). Pt. II, 21 (I, 457).

Bk. VI, Pt. I, 2 (I, 386).

Bk. VII, Pt. I, 2 (I, 431). Pt. 1, 3 (I, 139). Pt. II, 3 (I, 485). Pt. II, 15 (II, 294). Pt. II, 37 (II, 147).

Huai Nan Tse


  1. 4r. (I, 100).

  2. 2 (I, 279). 2r. (II, 350).

  3. VI, 1v. (II, 172).

VI, 1v. (II, 173). 2r. (II, 178).

VII, 8v. (II, 169).

VIII, 5r. (II, 167). 5r. (II, 184). 5r. (II, 186). 6v. (II, 19).

XI, 5r. (I, 100).

XII, 4r. (II, 95). 11 v. (I, 328). 11 v. (II, 153).

XII, 22r. (II, 160).

XIII, 9r. (II, 233).

XIII, 14 r. (II, 126).

XVI, 1 v. (II, 181). 1 v. (II, 190). 13 (I, 415).

XVII. 25v. (I, 374).

XVIII, 6 (I, 159). 17r. (II, 147). 18 v. (II, 376). 19r. (I, 69).

XX, 2 (I, 96).


Liki

L. I : p. 80 (II, 386). p. 84 (I, 325). p. 123 (I, 197). p. 123 (II, 284). p. 128 (II, 23). p. 135 (I, 164). p. 136 (I, 411). p. 136 (I, 501). p. 181 (I, 186). p. 201 (II, 329). p. 208 (I, 522). p. 244 (II, 315). p. 260 (I, 141). p. 310 (I, 141). p. 344 (I, 316).

L. II : p. 5 (I, 296). p. 5 (II, 347). p. 90 (II, 133). p. 201 (I, 517). p. 206 (I, 519). p. 208 (I, 519). p. 208 (I, 522).
Shiking

Pt. I, Bk. IV, Ode IX, 2 (I, 374) ; (I, 387).

Pt. II, Bk. III, Ode X, 2 (II, 264). Bk. V, Ode III, 2 (II, 244). Bk. V, Ode IX, 6 (II, 323). Bk. VII, Ode V (I, 303) ; (II, 367). Bk. VIII, Ode VIII (I, 277).

Pt. III, Bk. I, Ode I (II, 266). Bk. I, Ode II (II, 154). Bk. I, Ode VII, 1 (I, 134). Bk. 11, Ode I, 2 (I, 318). Bk. II, Ode V, 2 (II, 264). Bk. II, Ode VIII (I, 369). Bk. III, Ode III (II, 265). Bk. III, Ode IV, 3 (II, 10).

Pt. IV, Bk. III, Ode II (I, 330).
Yiking

1st diagram (I, 128 ; I, 134 ; I, 283 ; I, 356 ; I, 418 ; I, 529).

5th diagram, L. p. 67 (I, 418).

22nd diagram, L. p. 231 (II, 275).

30th diagram, L. p. 237 (I, 267).

49th diagram, L. p. 168 (II, 275).

55th diagram, L. p. 186 (II, 266). L. p. 336 (I, 275).

63rd diagram, L. p. 205 (II, 201). L. p. 206 (I, 514).


Chi-t‘se II, L. p. 383 (I, 98). L. p. 385 (I, 473).

Chap. I, p. 7v. (Chin. text)(II, 183).


Han Fei Tse

XIII, 5 (I, 436). 5 (I, 440). 5v. (I, 433).

XVI, 1 (I, 442). 5 (I, 443).

XIX, 4 (I, 445)


Lieh Tse

IV, 4v. (II, 147).

V, 5 v. (I, 250).

VIII, 2 (I, 96). 6r. (II, 95). 6v. (I, 159).


Chung-yung

Chap. XV (I, 153)

Chap. XVIII, 3 (II, 23)
Kung Yang

Chuang, 7th year (I, 274).

Hsi, 31st year (I, 277).
Erh-ya

Chap. 9 p. 6 (II, 324).


K‘ung Tse chia-yü

4 p. 8v. (II, 308).


Shan-hai-king

Chap. 9 p. 1v. (I, 271).


Lü-shi ch‘un-ch‘iu

IV, 2v. (II, 258).


Ch‘ien Han-shu

Chap. 8 p. 21v. (II, 197).

Chap. 64a, p. 13v. (II, 135).

Chap. 68 p. 21 r. (II, 354).



@

1 Wu Tse Hsü or Wu Yuan.

2 On Wu Tse Hsü and Ch‘ü Yuan see Vol. I, p. 140, Note 2.

3 King Huai of Ch‘u, 327-294 B. C.

4 Fu Ch‘ai, king of Wu, 495-473 B. C.

5 I presume that the two chances are good and bad chances, and the three coincidences, the meeting of a king, a virtuous minister, and a slanderer.

6 Two ancient dynasties.

7 The founders of the last named dynasties.

8 Minister to the tyrant Chieh.

9 Cf. p. 31, Note 2.

10 A nobleman put to death by the emperor Chou.

11 Cf. p. 31, Note 1.

12 The counsellor of King Wu, more generally known by the name of T‘ai Kung, his surname being Shang (Giles, Biogr. Dict. No. 1862).

1 Kao Tsung = Wu Ting, an emperor of the Shang dynasty. Cf. Vol. I, p. 317, Note 2.

2 Fu Yüeh, originally a poor man, became minister of the emperor Kao Tsung.

3 Sovereign and minister both doing their duty.

4 Yen Yuan = Yen Hui, a disciple of Confucius. See Vol. I, p. 151.

5 Quotation from Analects XI, 8 [Couvreur].

6 The story is told in full Vol. I, p. 321 and on p. 163.

7 The cocks of two nobles of Lu were in the habit of fighting. The one noble sheathed the head of his cock, and the other gave metal spurs to his. This cockfight increased the enmity of the two gentlemen who were instrumental in bringing about the dethronement of Duke Chao of Lu. See Tso-chuan, Duke Chao 25th year (Legge, Classics Vol. V, p. 710) [Couvreur, p. 387].

8 The mainah or mino bird — Legge calls it the mino-grackle — is a kind of thrush or starling which uses to breed in holes of walls and banks. The fact that in the 25th year of Duke Chao of Lu it was seen building its nest in a tree, was interpreted as a bad augury for the duke, who in the same year was compelled to leave his State and flee to Ch‘i. For more details see Tso-chuan, Duke Chao 25th year (Legge, Classics Vol. V, p. 709, Par. 3) [Couvreur].

1 Shun’s territory Yü.

2 The emperor .

3 Mars is called the ‘Fire Star’.

4 K‘uei is the constellation α, β, γ, δ of Ursa major, the other three stars : ε, ζ, η being called Shao, the ‘handle’ of the Dipper i. e., the Tail of the Great Bear. From time immemorial the Chinese have determined the seasons and the month by the revolution of the Great Bear, regarding its Tail as the hand of a natural clock. In the beginning of the first Chinese moon it points to the cyclical sign yin viz. E.N.E. […] (T‘ai-p‘ing yü-lan chap. 18, 1v. The Yüeh-ling here quoted is not that of the Liki). See also : Astronomy of the Ancient Chinese by Chalmers in Legge’s Shuking, Prolegomena p. 93.

I have translated [] by ‘opposed to’. Shên W.S.W. is exactly opposite to yin E.N.E. The expression seems to refer to the supposed antagonism of the cyclical signs and their attributes. Cf. Vol. I, p. 105 and chap. XXXIX.



5 As long as her mother-in-law is alive, the daughter-in-law who lives in the same family with her husband has to obey her commands like her own daughter, and does not become her own mistress before the death of the mother-in-law, when she succeeds to her position.

1 Again the usual symbolism supposing a mysterious sympathy between the moon representing the liquid element and the animals living in the water. Huai Nan Tse III, 2r. says that when the moon, the ruler of the Yin, fades, the brains of fish decrease, and when it dies shells and oysters shrivel. The moon, says the Lü-shi ch‘un-ch‘iu, is the source of all Yin. It being bright, all oysters are full, and the Yin is exuberant ; when it is dark oysters are empty, and all Yin shrinks together. The moon appears in the sky, and all the Yin creatures undergo their transformations in the deep. (T‘ai-p‘ing yü-lan chap. 942, p. 1v.)

2 Cf. Vol. I, p. 279, Note 2.

3 In Chekiang province.

4 A mountain on the north shore of the gulf of Pechili, in the prefecture of Yung-p‘ing.

1 The tilling was accidental.

2 A place in Hunan in the Ning-yuan district.

3 This tradition is mentioned in the Ti-wang shi-chi quoted by the T‘ai-p‘ing-yü-lan chap. 81, p. 2v. and chap. 82, p. 2r. where it is said that below the grave of crows weeded the land. No further explanation of these rather obscure passages is given. How did those animals till the burial ground of the old emperors, and what does it mean ?

4 Cf. Vol. I, p. 306.

5 This story is told in full in Vol. I, p. 307.

1 These subjects will be found thoroughly discussed in chap. XXXVII-XXXIX.

2 A relative of the ducal house of Lu.

3 A member of one of the three powerful families of Lu.

4 See Analects XIV, 38 [Couvreur] and p. 10, Note 4.

5 A favourite of Duke P‘ing of Lu.

6 Cf. Vol. I, p. 422.

1 Regions in the province of Kiangsu, where the founder of the Han dynasty, a native of P’ei, began his career.

2 Cf. Vol. I, p. 226 and 307.

3 The relations between Han An Kuo and I K‘uan are related in Vol. I, p. 309.

4 The famous ‘Orphan of Chao’ who later on became the hero of the well known drama translated by Stanislas Julien, which is not a mere copy of the ‘Mysterious Box’, as v. Gottschall (Das Theater and Drama der Chinesen, Breslau 1887, p. 108) seems to intimate, the subject being much older and semi-historical. For more details see Vol. I, p. 177.

5 Others remain uninjured.

6 Because they are doomed to die.

1 Wang Ch‘ung’s view that fate is not affected by human activity is as one-sided as that which he impugns viz. that virtue can do everything. Human energy is but one of the many circumstances co-operating in what we call fate, but a very important one which cannot be neglected.

2 In former times Chinese officials were paid in grain instead of money, a system not quite abolished even at present.

1 Up to the present day, the Emperor feels himself responsible for the happiness of his State and looks upon an unlucky war or other misfortunes as punishments inflicted upon him by Heaven for his sins. On the other side, he and the manes of his ancestors get the credit for all success.

2 Needles for acupuncture, not for sewing, for there is no cutting in Chinese medicine.

3 A celebrated physician of the 5th cent. B. C. Cf. Vol. I, p. 223, Note 2 and Giles, Biogr. Dict. No. 396.

4 Analects XIV, 38 [Couvreur].

5 Shiking III, Bk. III, Ode IV, 3 (Legge, Classics Vol. IV, Part II, p. 530) [Couvreur].

6 King Hsüan of the Chou dynasty, 827-781 B. C.

7 Cf. p. 16.


1 Wang Ch‘ung here anticipates the theory of many modern historians who ascribe great political changes not to the preponderating influence of some individuals, the great men of history, but to the economical conditions of the people.

1 In Vol. I, p. 270 Wang Ch‘ung says that, on an average, an eclipse of the sun occurs every 41 or 42 months and of the moon every 180 days.

2 See Vol. I, p. 118.

3 Cf. Vol. I, p. 136.

4 Neither of these two statements will be unreservedly admitted : The prices, to a great extent, depend on the harvest, and the welfare of a State, on the moral qualities of its citizens, although there may be still other causes at work.

1 This is not in accordance with Wang Ch‘ung’s system advocating spontaneity and must be taken merely hypothetically as one of two possibilities, either .... or.

2 Sages have many affinities with Heaven which manifests itself by them. Therefore Heaven being agitated, they are agitated too.

3 Wang Ch‘ung goes on to prove that all these apprehensions and self-reproaches are baseless.

4 No such passage is to be found in our text of the Shuking, but in the Ti-wang-shi-chi of the 3d cent. A. D. quoted in the T‘ai-p‘ing yü-lan chap. 83, p. 2r. we read,

« After T‘ang had destroyed Chieh there was a great drought for seven years, so that the Lo dried up. He ordered tripods to be brought and thus prayed to the Mountains and Rivers :

— Have my desires been dissolute ? Have I caused pain to the people ? Has there been bribery ? Have calumniators been predominant ? Has there been too much building of palaces ? Has the society of women been sought too much ? What is the cause of this absolute want of rain ?’

The historiographer of Yin divined and said that a man ought to be sacrificed.

— It is for the people that I pray for rain, replied T‘ang. If a man is to be immolated I wish to be the one.

Then he fasted, cut his hair, and pared his nails to take the place of the victim. At an altar in a mulberry grove he prayed,

— I, the young man, have come and dare to offer myself as a black victim. I here declare before august Heaven and Earth, if the ten thousand regions have any sins, may they fall upon my person, and if I have any guilt, may it not involve the ten thousand regions. May not the imprudence of one single man induce God and the Spirits to injure the life of the people.

He had not yet finished these words, when a mighty rain poured down over several thousand miles’.



Here T‘ang impeaches himself with six, not with five faults. Only the words in Italics occur in the Shuking, T‘ang-kao, with some variations. The gist of the above quotation is also given by Legge, Chinese Classics Vol. III, Part I, p. 190, Concluding Note. [Couvreur]

1 With the object of attracting rain. Cf. chap. XXXII.

2 Part V, Book VI of the Shuking [Legge] [Couvreur].

3 Quotation from Shuking Part V, Book VI, 16 (Legge, Classics Vol. III, Part II, p. 359) [Couvreur].

4 This is in accordance with the Shi-chi chap. 33, p. 6r. (Chavannes, Mém. Hist. Vol. IV, p. 100, Note 1), but not with the Shuking, where the Duke of Chou is supposed to be banished, but still alive.

5 Territories in modern Honan which were given as fiefs to the two younger brothers of Wu Wang, who spread the reports about the Duke of Chou. Cf. Shi-chi chap. 4, p. 15v. (Chavannes, Mém. Hist. Vol. I, p. 245, Note 2).

6 The Shuking only says that for two years Chou Kung resided in the east. According to the Shi-chi loc. cit. the calumnies had no effect.

1 See Shuking loc. cit. Book VI, 18 [Legge] [Couvreur, § 18].

2 Analects VII, 9 [Couvreur].

3 The Liki.

4 Days designated by these cyclical signs in the calendar.

5 Cf. Shi-chi chap. 28, p. 11v. (Chavannes, Mém. Hist. Vol. III, p. 439), and Vol. I, p. 334, Note 4.

6 See Vol. I, p. 177.

1 Quoted from Huai Nan Tse VIII, 6v. Yao’s assistant Yi bound the storm, which must be conceived as the storm-god, Fêng-po.

2 Quoted from Shuking Part II, Book I, chap. 3 (Legge, Classics Vol. III, Part I, p. 32) [Couvreur].

3 See above p. 17.

4 For this story see Vol. I, p. 222 where all the details are given.

5 As is related in the Shuking loc. cit.

6 A man celebrated for his strength. Cf. Vol. I, p. 380, Note 4.

7 See Vol. I, p. 276.



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