Volpone; or, the fox by ben jonson

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RIFLING, raffling, dicing.
RING, "cracked within the--," coins so cracked were

unfit for currency.

RISSE, risen, rose.
RIVELLED, wrinkled.
ROARER, swaggerer.
ROCHET, fish of the gurnet kind.
ROCK, distaff.
RODOMONTADO, braggadocio.
ROGUE, vagrant, vagabond.
RONDEL, "a round mark in the score of a public-house"

(Nares); roundel.

ROOK, sharper; fool, dupe.
ROSAKER, similar to ratsbane.
ROSA-SOLIS, a spiced spirituous liquor.
ROSES, rosettes.
ROUND, "gentlemen of the--," officers of inferior rank.
ROUND TRUNKS, trunk hose, short loose breeches reaching

almost or quite to the knees.

ROUSE, carouse, bumper.
ROVER, arrow used for shooting at a random mark at

uncertain distance.

ROWLY-POWLY, roly-poly.
RUDE, RUDENESS, unpolished, rough(ness), coarse(ness).
RUFFLE, flaunt, swagger.
RUG, coarse frieze.
RUG-GOWNS, gown made of rug.
RUSH, reference to rushes with which the floors were

then strewn.

RUSHER, one who strewed the floor with rushes.
RUSSET, homespun cloth of neutral or reddish-brown colour.
SACK, loose, flowing gown.
SADLY, seriously, with gravity.
SAD(NESS), sober, serious(ness).
SAFFI, bailiffs.
ST. THOMAS A WATERINGS, place in Surrey where criminals

were executed.

SAKER, small piece of ordnance.
SALT, leap.
SALT, lascivious.
SAMPSUCHINE, sweet marjoram.
SARABAND, a slow dance.
SATURNALS, began December 17.
SAUCINESS, presumption, insolence.
SAUCY, bold, impudent, wanton.
SAUNA (Lat.), a gesture of contempt.
SAVOUR, perceive; gratify, please; to partake of the nature.
SAY, sample.
SAY, assay, try.
SCALD, word of contempt, implying dirt and disease.
SCALLION, shalot, small onion.
SCANDERBAG, "name which the Turks (in allusion to

Alexander the Great) gave to the brave Castriot, chief

of Albania, with whom they had continual wars. His

romantic life had just been translated" (Gifford).

SCAPE, escape.
SCARAB, beetle.
SCARTOCCIO, fold of paper, cover, cartouch, cartridge.
SCONCE, head.
SCOPE, aim.
SCOT AND LOT, tax, contribution (formerly a parish


SCOTOMY, dizziness in the head.
SCOUR, purge.
SCOURSE, deal, swap.
SCRATCHES, disease of horses.
SCROYLE, mean, rascally fellow.
SCRUPLE, doubt.
SEAL, put hand to the giving up of property or rights.
SEALED, stamped as genuine.
SEAM-RENT, ragged.
SEAMING LACES, insertion or edging.
SEAR UP, close by searing, burning.
SEARCED, sifted.
SECRETARY, able to keep a secret.
SECULAR, worldly, ordinary, commonplace.
SECURE, confident.
SEELIE, happy, blest.
SEISIN, legal term: possession.
SELLARY, lewd person.
SEMBLABLY, similarly.
SEMINARY, a Romish priest educated in a foreign seminary.
SENSELESS, insensible, without sense or feeling.
SENSIBLY, perceptibly.
SENSIVE, sensitive.
SENSUAL, pertaining to the physical or material.
SERENE, harmful dew of evening.
SERICON, red tincture.
SERVANT, lover.
SERVICES, doughty deeds of arms.
SESTERCE, Roman copper coin.
SET, stake, wager.
SET UP, drill.
SETS, deep plaits of the ruff.
SEWER, officer who served up the feast, and brought

water for the hands of the guests.

SHAPE, a suit by way of disguise.
SHIFT, fraud, dodge.
SHIFTER, cheat.
SHITTLE, shuttle; "shittle-cock," shuttlecock.
SHOT, tavern reckoning.
SHOT-CLOG, one only tolerated because he paid the shot

(reckoning) for the rest.

SHOT-FREE, scot-free, not having to pay.
SHOVE-GROAT, low kind of gambling amusement, perhaps

somewhat of the nature of pitch and toss.

SHOT-SHARKS, drawers.
SHREWD, mischievous, malicious, curst.
SHREWDLY, keenly, in a high degree.
SHRIVE, sheriff; posts were set up before his door for

proclamations, or to indicate his residence.

SHROVING, Shrovetide, season of merriment.
SIGILLA, seal, mark.
SILENCED BRETHERN, MINISTERS, those of the Church or

Nonconformists who had been silenced, deprived, etc.

SILLY, simple, harmless.
SIMPLE, silly, witless; plain, true.
SIMPLES, herbs.
SINGLE, term of chase, signifying when the hunted stag

is separated from the herd, or forced to break covert.

SINGLE, weak, silly.
SINGLE-MONEY, small change.
SINGULAR, unique, supreme.
SI-QUIS, bill, advertisement.
SKELDRING, getting money under false pretences; swindling.
SKILL, "it--s not," matters not.
SKINK(ER), pour, draw(er), tapster.
SKIRT, tail.
SLEEK, smooth.
SLICE, fire shovel or pan (dial.).
SLICK, sleek, smooth.
'SLID, 'SLIGHT, 'SPRECIOUS, irreverent oaths.
SLIGHT, sleight, cunning, cleverness; trick.
SLIP, counterfeit coin, bastard.
SLIPPERY, polished and shining.
SLOPS, large loose breeches.
SLOT, print of a stag's foot.
SLUR, put a slur on; cheat (by sliding a die in some way).
SMELT, gull, simpleton.
SNORLE, "perhaps snarl, as Puppy is addressed" (Cunningham).
SNUFF, anger, resentment; "take in--," take offence at.
SNUFFERS, small open silver dishes for holding snuff,

or receptacle for placing snuffers in (Halliwell).

SOCK, shoe worn by comic actors.
SOD, seethe.
SOGGY, soaked, sodden.
SOIL, "take--," said of a hunted stag when he takes

to the water for safety.

SOL, sou.
SOLDADOES, soldiers.
SOLICIT, rouse, excite to action.
SOOTH, flattery, cajolery.
SOOTHE, flatter, humour.
SOPHISTICATE, adulterate.
SORT, company, party; rank, degree.
SORT, suit, fit; select.
SOUSE, ear.
SOUSED ("Devil is an Ass"), fol. read "sou't," which

Dyce interprets as "a variety of the spelling of "shu'd":

to "shu" is to scare a bird away." (See his "Webster,"

page 350).

SOWTER, cobbler.
SPAGYRICA, chemistry according to the teachings of Paracelsus.
SPAR, bar.
SPEAK, make known, proclaim.
SPECULATION, power of sight.
SPED, to have fared well, prospered.
SPEECE, species.
SPIGHT, anger, rancour.
SPINNER, spider.
SPINSTRY, lewd person.
SPITTLE, hospital, lazar-house.
SPLEEN, considered the seat of the emotions.
SPLEEN, caprice, humour, mood.
SPRUNT, spruce.
SPURGE, foam.
SPUR-RYAL, gold coin worth 15s.
SQUIRE, square, measure; "by the--," exactly.
STAGGERING, wavering, hesitating.
STAIN, disparagement, disgrace.
STALE, decoy, or cover, stalking-horse.
STALE, make cheap, common.
STALK, approach stealthily or under cover.
STALL, forestall.
STAPLE, market, emporium.
STARK, downright.
STARTING-HOLES, loopholes of escape.
STATE, dignity; canopied chair of state; estate.
STATUMINATE, support vines by poles or stakes; used

by Pliny (Gifford).

STAY, gag.
STAY, await; detain.
STICKLER, second or umpire.
STIGMATISE, mark, brand.
STILL, continual(ly), constant(ly).
STINKARD, stinking fellow.
STINT, stop.
STIPTIC, astringent.
STOCCATA, thrust in fencing.
STOCK-FISH, salted and dried fish.
STOMACH, pride, valour.
STOMACH, resent.
STOOP, swoop down as a hawk.
STOP, fill, stuff.
STOPPLE, stopper.
STOTE, stoat, weasel.
STOUP, stoop, swoop=bow.
STRAIGHT, straightway.
STRAMAZOUN (Ital. stramazzone), a down blow, as opposed

to the thrust.

STRANGE, like a stranger, unfamiliar.
STRANGENESS, distance of behaviour.
STREIGHTS, OR BERMUDAS, labyrinth of alleys and courts

in the Strand.

STRIGONIUM, Grau in Hungary, taken from the Turks in

STRIKE, balance (accounts).

STRINGHALT, disease of horses.
STROKER, smoother, flatterer.
STROOK, p.p. of "strike."
STRUMMEL-PATCHED, strummel is glossed in dialect dicts.

as "a long, loose and dishevelled head of hair."

STUDIES, studious efforts.
STYLE, title; pointed instrument used for writing on wax

SUBTLE, fine, delicate, thin; smooth, soft.

SUBTLETY (SUBTILITY), subtle device.
SUBURB, connected with loose living.
SUCCUBAE, demons in form of women.
SUCK, extract money from.
SUFFERANCE, suffering.
SUMMED, term of falconry: with full-grown plumage.
SUPER-NEGULUM, topers turned the cup bottom up when

it was empty.

SUPERSTITIOUS, over-scrupulous.
SUPPLE, to make pliant.
SURBATE, make sore with walking.
SURCEASE, cease.
SUR-REVERENCE, save your reverence.
SURVISE, peruse.
SUSCITABILITY, excitability.
SUSPECT, suspicion.
SUSPEND, suspect.
SUSPENDED, held over for the present.
SUTLER, victualler.
SWAD, clown, boor.
SWATH BANDS, swaddling clothes.
SWINGE, beat.
TABERD, emblazoned mantle or tunic worn by knights

and heralds.

TABLE(S), "pair of--," tablets, note-book.
TABOR, small drum.
TABRET, tabor.
TAFFETA, silk; "tuft-taffeta," a more costly silken fabric.
TAINT, "--a staff," break a lance at tilting in an

unscientific or dishonourable manner.

TAKE IN, capture, subdue.
TAKE ME WITH YOU, let me understand you.
TAKE UP, obtain on credit, borrow.
TALENT, sum or weight of Greek currency.
TALL, stout, brave.
TANKARD-BEARERS, men employed to fetch water from the


TARLETON, celebrated comedian and jester.
TARTAROUS, like a Tartar.
TAVERN-TOKEN, "to swallow a--," get drunk.
TELL, count.
TELL-TROTH, truth-teller.
TEMPER, modify, soften.
TENDER, show regard, care for, cherish; manifest.
TENT, "take--," take heed.
TERSE, swept and polished.
TERTIA, "that portion of an army levied out of one

particular district or division of a country" (Gifford).

TESTON, tester, coin worth 6d.
THIRDBOROUGH, constable.
THREAD, quality.
THREAVES, droves.
THREE-FARTHINGS, piece of silver current under Elizabeth.
THREE-PILED, of finest quality, exaggerated.
THRIFTILY, carefully.
THRUMS, ends of the weaver's warp; coarse yarn made from.
THUMB-RING, familiar spirits were supposed capable of

being carried about in various ornaments or parts of dress.

TIBICINE, player on the tibia, or pipe.
TICK-TACK, game similar to backgammon.
TIGHTLY, promptly.
TIM, (?) expressive of a climax of nonentity.
TIMELESS, untimely, unseasonable.
TINCTURE, an essential or spiritual principle supposed

by alchemists to be transfusible into material things;

an imparted characteristic or tendency.
TINK, tinkle.
TIPPET, "turn--," change behaviour or way of life.
TIPSTAFF, staff tipped with metal.
TIRE, head-dress.
TIRE, feed ravenously, like a bird of prey.
TITILLATION, that which tickles the senses, as a perfume.
TOD, fox.
TOILED, worn out, harassed.
TOKEN, piece of base metal used in place of very small

coin, when this was scarce.

TONNELS, nostrils.
TOP, "parish--," large top kept in villages for

amusement and exercise in frosty weather when people

were out of work.
TOTER, tooter, player on a wind instrument.
TOUSE, pull, rend.
TOWARD, docile, apt; on the way to; as regards; present,

at hand.
TOY, whim; trick; term of contempt.

TRACT, attraction.
TRAIN, allure, entice.
TRANSITORY, transmittable.
TRANSLATE, transform.
TRAY-TRIP, game at dice (success depended on throwing

a three) (Nares).

TREEN, wooden.
TRENCHER, serving-man who carved or served food.
TRENDLE-TAIL, trundle-tail, curly-tailed.
TRICK (TRICKING), term of heraldry: to draw outline of

coat of arms, etc., without blazoning.

TRIG, a spruce, dandified man.
TRILL, trickle.
TRILLIBUB, tripe, any worthless, trifling thing.
TRIPOLY, "come from--," able to perform feats of agility,

a "jest nominal," depending on the first part of the word

TRITE, worn, shabby.
TRIVIA, three-faced goddess (Hecate).
TROJAN, familiar term for an equal or inferior; thief.
TROLL, sing loudly.
TROMP, trump, deceive.
TROPE, figure of speech.
TROW, think, believe, wonder.
TROWLE, troll.
TROWSES, breeches, drawers.
TRUCHMAN, interpreter.
TRUNDLE, JOHN, well-known printer.
TRUNDLE, roll, go rolling along.
TRUNDLING CHEATS, term among gipsies and beggars for

carts or coaches (Gifford).

TRUNK, speaking-tube.
TRUSS, tie the tagged laces that fastened the breeches

to the doublet.

TUBICINE, trumpeter.
TUCKET (Ital. toccato), introductory flourish on the

TUITION, guardianship.

TUMBLER, a particular kind of dog so called from the

mode of his hunting.

TUMBREL-SLOP, loose, baggy breeches.
TURD, excrement.
TUSK, gnash the teeth (Century Dict.).
TWIRE, peep, twinkle.
TYRING-HOUSE, attiring-room.
ULENSPIEGEL. See Howleglass.
UMBRATILE, like or pertaining to a shadow.
UMBRE, brown dye.
UNBATED, unabated.
UNBORED, (?) excessively bored.
UNCARNATE, not fleshly, or of flesh.
UNCOUTH, strange, unusual.
UNDERTAKER, "one who undertook by his influence in the

House of Commons to carry things agreeably to his

Majesty's wishes" (Whalley); one who becomes surety for.
UNEQUAL, unjust.
UNEXCEPTED, no objection taken at.
UNFEARED, unaffrighted.
UNHAPPILY, unfortunately.
UNICORN'S HORN, supposed antidote to poison.
UNKIND(LY), unnatural(ly).
UNMANNED, untamed (term in falconry).
UNQUIT, undischarged.
UNREADY, undressed.
UNRUDE, rude to an extreme.
UNSEASONED, unseasonable, unripe.
UNSEELED, a hawk's eyes were "seeled" by sewing the

eyelids together with fine thread.

UNTIMELY, unseasonably.
UNVALUABLE, invaluable.
UPBRAID, make a matter of reproach.
UPSEE, heavy kind of Dutch beer (Halliwell); "--Dutch,"

in the Dutch fashion.

UPTAILS ALL, refrain of a popular song.
URGE, allege as accomplice, instigator.
URSHIN, URCHIN, hedgehog.
USE, interest on money; part of sermon dealing with the

practical application of doctrine.

USE, be in the habit of, accustomed to; put out to interest.
USURE, usury.
UTTER, put in circulation, make to pass current; put forth for sale.
VAIL, bow, do homage.
VAILS, tips, gratuities.
VALL. See Vail.
VALLIES (Fr. valise), portmanteau, bag.
VAPOUR(S) (n. and v.), used affectedly, like "humour,"

in many senses, often very vaguely and freely ridiculed

by Jonson; humour, disposition, whims, brag(ging),

hector(ing), etc.

VARLET, bailiff, or serjeant-at-mace.
VAUT, vault.
VEER (naut.), pay out.
VEGETAL, vegetable; person full of life and vigour.
VELLUTE, velvet.
VELVET CUSTARD. Cf. "Taming of the Shrew," iv. 3, 82,

"custard coffin," coffin being the raised crust over a pie.

VENT, vend, sell; give outlet to; scent, snuff up.
VENUE, bout (fencing term).
VERDUGO (Span.), hangman, executioner.
VERGE, "in the--," within a certain distance of the court.
VEX, agitate, torment.
VICE, the buffoon of old moralities; some kind of

machinery for moving a puppet (Gifford).

VIE AND REVIE, to hazard a certain sum, and to cover

it with a larger one.

VINCENT AGAINST YORK, two heralds-at-arms.
VINDICATE, avenge.
VIRGE, wand, rod.
VIRGINAL, old form of piano.
VIRTUE, valour.
VIVELY, in lifelike manner, livelily.
VIZARD, mask.
VOGUE, rumour, gossip.
VOICE, vote.
VOID, leave, quit.
VOLARY, cage, aviary.
VOLLEY, "at--," "o' the volee," at random (from a

term of tennis).

VORLOFFE, furlough.
WADLOE, keeper of the Devil Tavern, where Jonson and his

friends met in the 'Apollo' room (Whalley).

WAIGHTS, waits, night musicians, "band of musical

watchmen" (Webster), or old form of "hautboys."

WANNION, "vengeance," "plague" (Nares).
WARD, a famous pirate.
WARD, guard in fencing.
WATCHET, pale, sky blue.
WEAL, welfare.
WEED, garment.
WEFT, waif.
WEIGHTS, "to the gold--," to every minute particular.
WELKIN, sky.
WELL-SPOKEN, of fair speech.
WELL-TORNED, turned and polished, as on a wheel.
WELT, hem, border of fur.
WHER, whether.
WHETSTONE, GEORGE, an author who lived 1544(?) to 1587(?).
WHIFF, a smoke, or drink; "taking the--," inhaling the

tobacco smoke or some such accomplishment.

WHIGH-HIES, neighings, whinnyings.
WHIMSY, whim, "humour."
WHINILING, (?) whining, weakly.
WHIT, (?) a mere jot.
WHITEMEAT, food made of milk or eggs.
WICKED, bad, clumsy.
WICKER, pliant, agile.
WILDING, esp. fruit of wild apple or crab tree (Webster).
WINE, "I have the--for you," Prov.: I have the

perquisites (of the office) which you are to share

WINNY, "same as old word "wonne," to stay, etc." (Whalley).
WISE-WOMAN, fortune-teller.
WISH, recommend.
WISS (WUSSE), "I--," certainly, of a truth.
WITHOUT, beyond.
WITTY, cunning, ingenious, clever.
WOOD, collection, lot.
WOODCOCK, term of contempt.
WOOLSACK ("--pies"), name of tavern.
WORT, unfermented beer.
WOUNDY, great, extreme.
WREAK, revenge.
WROUGHT, wrought upon.
WUSSE, interjection. (See Wiss).
YEANLING, lamb, kid.
ZANY, an inferior clown, who attended upon the chief

fool and mimicked his tricks.

End of The Project Gutenberg Etext of Volpone; Or, The Fox

by Ben Jonson

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