Volpone; or, the fox by ben jonson

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IMPAIR, impairment.
IMPART, give money.
IMPARTER, any one ready to be cheated and to part

with his money.

IMPEACH, damage.
IMPERTINENCIES, irrelevancies.
IMPERTINENT(LY), irrelevant(ly), without reason or purpose.
IMPOSITION, duty imposed by.
IMPOTENTLY, beyond power of control.
IMPRESS, money in advance.
IMPULSION, incitement.
IN AND IN, a game played by two or three persons

with four dice.

INCENSE, incite, stir up.
INCERATION, act of covering with wax; or reducing

a substance to softness of wax.

INCH, "to their--es," according to their stature,


INCH-PIN, sweet-bread.
INCONVENIENCE, inconsistency, absurdity.
INCONY, delicate, rare (used as a term of affection).
INCUBEE, incubus.
INCUBUS, evil spirit that oppresses us in sleep, nightmare.
INCURIOUS, unfastidious, uncritical.
INDENT, enter into engagement.
INDIFFERENT, tolerable, passable.
INDIGESTED, shapeless, chaotic.
INDUCE, introduce.
INDUE, supply.
INEXORABLE, relentless.
INFANTED, born, produced.
INFLAME, augment charge.
INGENIOUS, used indiscriminantly for ingenuous;

intelligent, talented.

INGENUITY, ingenuousness.
INGENUOUS, generous.
INGINE. See Engin.
INGINER, engineer. (See Enginer).
INGLE, OR ENGHLE, bosom friend, intimate, minion.
INHABITABLE, uninhabitable.
INJURY, insult, affront.
IN-MATE, resident, indwelling.
INNATE, natural.
INNOCENT, simpleton.
INQUEST, jury, or other official body of inquiry.
INSTANT, immediate.
INSTRUMENT, legal document.
INSURE, assure.
INTEGRATE, complete, perfect.
INTELLIGENCE, secret information, news.
INTEND, note carefully, attend, give ear to, be

occupied with.

INTENDMENT, intention.
INTENT, intention, wish.
INTENTION, concentration of attention or gaze.
INTENTIVE, attentive.
INTERESSED, implicated.
INTRUDE, bring in forcibly or without leave.
INVINCIBLY, invisibly.
INWARD, intimate.
IRPE (uncertain), "a fantastic grimace, or contortion

of the body: (Gifford)."

JACK, Jack o' the clock, automaton figure that strikes

the hour; Jack-a-lent, puppet thrown at in Lent.

JACK, key of a virginal.
JACOB'S STAFF, an instrument for taking altitudes and


JADE, befool.
JEALOUSY, JEALOUS, suspicion, suspicious.
JERKING, lashing.
JEW'S TRUMP, Jew's harp.
JIG, merry ballad or tune; a fanciful dialogue or

light comic act introduced at the end or during an

interlude of a play.
JOINED (JOINT)-STOOL, folding stool.
JOLL, jowl.
JOLTHEAD, blockhead.
JUMP, agree, tally.
JUST YEAR, no one was capable of the consulship until

he was forty-three.

KELL, cocoon.
KELLY, an alchemist.
KEMB, comb.
KEMIA, vessel for distillation.
KIBE, chap, sore.
KILDERKIN, small barrel.
KILL, kiln.
KIND, nature; species; "do one's--," act according

to one's nature.

KIRTLE, woman's gown of jacket and petticoat.
KISS OR DRINK AFORE ME, "this is a familiar expression,

employed when what the speaker is just about to say is

anticipated by another" (Gifford).
KIT, fiddle.
KNACK, snap, click.
KNIPPER-DOLING, a well-known Anabaptist.
KNITTING CUP, marriage cup.
KNOCKING, striking, weighty.
KNOT, company, band; a sandpiper or robin snipe (Tringa

canutus); flower-bed laid out in fanciful design.

KURSINED, KYRSIN, christened.
LABOURED, wrought with labour and care.
LADE, load(ed).
LADING, load.
LAID, plotted.
LANCE-KNIGHT (Lanzknecht), a German mercenary foot-soldier.
LAP, fold.
LAR, household god.
LARD, garnish.
LARGE, abundant.
LARUM, alarum, call to arms.
LATTICE, tavern windows were furnished with lattices of

various colours.

LAUNDER, to wash gold in aqua regia, so as imperceptibly

to extract some of it.

LAVE, ladle, bale.
LAW, "give--," give a start (term of chase).
LAXATIVE, loose.
LAY ABOARD, run alongside generally with intent to board.
LEAGUER, siege, or camp of besieging army.
LEASING, lying.
LEAVE, leave off, desist.
LEER, leering or "empty, hence, perhaps, leer horse,

a horse without a rider; leer is an adjective meaning

uncontrolled, hence 'leer drunkards'" (Halliwell);

according to Nares, a leer (empty) horse meant also a

led horse; leeward, left.
LEESE, lose.
LEGS, "make--," do obeisance.
LEIGER, resident representative.
LEIGERITY, legerdemain.
LEMMA, subject proposed, or title of the epigram.
LENTER, slower.
LET, hinder.
LET, hindrance.
LEVEL COIL, a rough game...in which one hunted

another from his seat. Hence used for any noisy

riot (Halliwell).
LEWD, ignorant.
LEYSTALLS, receptacles of filth.
LIBERAL, ample.
LIEGER, ledger, register.
LIFT(ING), steal(ing); theft.
LIGHT, alight.
LIGHTLY, commonly, usually, often.
LIKE, please.
LIKELY, agreeable, pleasing.
LIME-HOUND, leash-, blood-hound.
LIMMER, vile, worthless.
LIN, leave off.
Line, "by--," by rule.
LINSTOCK, staff to stick in the ground, with forked

head to hold a lighted match for firing cannon.

LIQUID, clear.
LIST, listen, hark; like, please.
LIVERY, legal term, delivery of the possession, etc.
LOGGET, small log, stick.
LOOSE, solution; upshot, issue; release of an arrow.
LOSE, give over, desist from; waste.
LOUTING, bowing, cringing.
LUCULENT, bright of beauty.
LUDGATHIANS, dealers on Ludgate Hill.
LURCH, rob, cheat.
LUTE, to close a vessel with some kind of cement.
MACK, unmeaning expletive.
MADGE-HOWLET or OWL, barn-owl.
MAIM, hurt, injury.
MAIN, chief concern (used as a quibble on heraldic

term for "hand").

MAINPRISE, becoming surety for a prisoner so as to

procure his release.

MAINTENANCE, giving aid, or abetting.
MAKE, mate.
MAKE, MADE, acquaint with business, prepare(d), instruct(ed).
MALLANDERS, disease of horses.
MALT HORSE, dray horse.
MAMMET, puppet.
MAMMOTHREPT, spoiled child.
MANAGE, control (term used for breaking-in horses);

handling, administration.

MANGO, slave-dealer.
MANGONISE, polish up for sale.
MANIPLES, bundles, handfuls.
MANKIND, masculine, like a virago.
MANKIND, humanity.
MAPLE FACE, spotted face (N.E.D.).
MARCHPANE, a confection of almonds, sugar, etc.
MARK, "fly to the--," "generally said of a goshawk

when, having 'put in' a covey of partridges, she takes

stand, marking the spot where they disappeared from

view until the falconer arrives to put them out to her"

(Harting, Bibl. Accip. Gloss. 226).
MARLE, marvel.
MARROW-BONE MAN, one often on his knees for prayer.
MARRY! exclamation derived from the Virgin's name.
MARRY GIP, "probably originated from By Mary Gipcy" =

St. Mary of Egypt, (N.E.D.).

MARTAGAN, Turk's cap lily.
MARYHINCHCO, stringhalt.
MASORETH, Masora, correct form of the scriptural text

according to Hebrew tradition.

MASS, abb. for master.
MAUND, beg.
MAUTHER, girl, maid.
MEAN, moderation.
MEASURE, dance, more especially a stately one.
MEAT, "carry--in one's mouth," be a source of money

or entertainment.

MEATH, metheglin.
MECHANICAL, belonging to mechanics, mean, vulgar.
MEDITERRANEO, middle aisle of St. Paul's, a general

resort for business and amusement.

MEET WITH, even with.
MELICOTTON, a late kind of peach.
MENSTRUE, solvent.
MERCAT, market.
MERD, excrement.
MERE, undiluted; absolute, unmitigated.
MESS, party of four.
METHEGLIN, fermented liquor, of which one ingredient

was honey.

METOPOSCOPY, study of physiognomy.
MIDDLING GOSSIP, go-between.
MIGNIARD, dainty, delicate.
MILE-END, training-ground of the city.
MINE-MEN, sappers.
MINION, form of cannon.
MINSITIVE, (?) mincing, affected (N.E.D.).
MISCELLANY MADAM, "a female trader in miscellaneous

articles; a dealer in trinkets or ornaments of various

kinds, such as kept shops in the New Exchange" (Nares).
MISCELLINE, mixed grain; medley.
MISCONCEIT, misconception.
MISPRISE, MISPRISION, mistake, misunderstanding.
MISTAKE AWAY, carry away as if by mistake.
MITHRIDATE, an antidote against poison.
MOCCINIGO, small Venetian coin, worth about ninepence.
MODERN, in the mode; ordinary, commonplace.
MOMENT, force or influence of value.
MONTANTO, upward stroke.
MONTH'S MIND, violent desire.
MOORISH, like a moor or waste.
MORGLAY, sword of Bevis of Southampton.
MORRICE-DANCE, dance on May Day, etc., in which

certain personages were represented.

MORT-MAL, old sore, gangrene.
MOSCADINO, confection flavoured with musk.
MOTHER, Hysterica passio.
MOTION, proposal, request; puppet, puppet-show;

"one of the small figures on the face of a large

clock which was moved by the vibration of the

pendulum" (Whalley).

MOTION, suggest, propose.
MOTLEY, parti-coloured dress of a fool; hence

used to signify pertaining to, or like, a fool.

MOTTE, motto.
MOURNIVAL, set of four aces or court cards in a hand;

a quartette.

MOW, setord hay or sheaves of grain.
MUCH! expressive of irony and incredulity.
MUCKINDER, handkerchief.
MULE, "born to ride on--," judges or serjeants-at-law

formerly rode on mules when going in state to Westminster

MULLETS, small pincers.
MUM-CHANCE, game of chance, played in silence.
MUN, must.
MUREY, dark crimson red.
MUSE, wonder.
MUSICAL, in harmony.
MUSS, mouse; scramble.
MYROBOLANE, foreign conserve, "a dried plum, brought

from the Indies."

MYSTERY, art, trade, profession.
NAIL, "to the--" (ad unguem), to perfection, to the

very utmost.

NATIVE, natural.
NEAT, cattle.
NEAT, smartly apparelled; unmixed; dainty.
NEATLY, neatly finished.
NEATNESS, elegance.
NEIS, nose, scent.
NEUF (NEAF, NEIF), fist.
NEUFT, newt.
NIAISE, foolish, inexperienced person.
NICE, fastidious, trivial, finical, scrupulous.
NICENESS, fastidiousness.
NICK, exact amount; right moment; "set in the--,"

meaning uncertain.

NICE, suit, fit; hit, seize the right moment, etc.,

exactly hit on, hit off.

NOBLE, gold coin worth 6s. 8d.
NOCENT, harmful.
NIL, not will.
NOISE, company of musicians.
NOMENTACK, an Indian chief from Virginia.
NONES, nonce.
NOTABLE, egregious.
NOTE, sign, token.
NOUGHT, "be--," go to the devil, be hanged, etc.
NOWT-HEAD, blockhead.
NUMBER, rhythm.
NUPSON, oaf, simpleton.
OADE, woad.
OBARNI, preparation of mead.
OBJECT, oppose; expose; interpose.
OBLATRANT, barking, railing.
OBNOXIOUS, liable, exposed; offensive.
OBSERVANCE, homage, devoted service.
OBSERVANT, attentive, obsequious.
OBSERVE, show deference, respect.
OBSERVER, one who shows deference, or waits upon another.
OBSTANCY, legal phrase, "juridical opposition."
OBSTREPEROUS, clamorous, vociferous.
OBSTUPEFACT, stupefied.
ODLING, (?) "must have some relation to tricking and

cheating" (Nares).

OMINOUS, deadly, fatal.
ONCE, at once; for good and all; used also for additional


ONLY, pre-eminent, special.
OPEN, make public; expound.
OPPILATION, obstruction.
OPPONE, oppose.
OPPOSITE, antagonist.
OPPRESS, suppress.
ORIGINOUS, native.
ORT, remnant, scrap.
OUT, "to be--," to have forgotten one's part;

not at one with each other.

OUTCRY, sale by auction.
OUTRECUIDANCE, arrogance, presumption.
OUTSPEAK, speak more than.
OVERPARTED, given too difficult a part to play.
OWLSPIEGEL. See Howleglass.
OYEZ! (O YES!), hear ye! call of the public crier

when about to make a proclamation.

PACKING PENNY, "give a--," dismiss, send packing.
PAD, highway.
PAD-HORSE, road-horse.
PAINED (PANED) SLOPS, full breeches made of strips

of different colour and material.

PAINFUL, diligent, painstaking.
PAINT, blush.
PALINODE, ode of recantation.
PALL, weaken, dim, make stale.
PALM, triumph.
PAN, skirt of dress or coat.
PANNEL, pad, or rough kind of saddle.
PANNIER-ALLY, inhabited by tripe-sellers.
PANNIER-MAN, hawker; a man employed about the inns of

court to bring in provisions, set the table, etc.

PANTOFLE, indoor shoe, slipper.
PARAMENTOS, fine trappings.
PARANOMASIE, a play upon words.
PARANTORY, (?) peremptory.
PARCEL, particle, fragment (used contemptuously); article.
PARCEL, part, partly.
PARCEL-POET, poetaster.
PARERGA, subordinate matters.
PARGET, to paint or plaster the face.
PARLE, parley.
PARLOUS, clever, shrewd.
PART, apportion.
PARTAKE, participate in.
PARTED, endowed, talented.
PARTICULAR, individual person.
PARTIZAN, kind of halberd.
PARTRICH, partridge.
PARTS, qualities, endowments.
PASH, dash, smash.
PASS, care, trouble oneself.
PASSADO, fencing term: a thrust.
PASSAGE, game at dice.
PASSINGLY, exceedingly.
PASSION, effect caused by external agency.
PASSION, "in--," in so melancholy a tone, so pathetically.
PATOUN, (?) Fr. Paton, pellet of dough; perhaps the

"moulding of the tobacco...for the pipe" (Gifford); (?)

variant of Petun, South American name of tobacco.
PATRICO, the recorder, priest, orator of strolling

beggars or gipsies.

PATTEN, shoe with wooden sole; "go--," keep step with,


PAUCA VERBA, few words.
PAVIN, a stately dance.
PEACE, "with my master's--," by leave, favour.
PECULIAR, individual, single.
PEDANT, teacher of the languages.
PEEL, baker's shovel.
PEEP, speak in a small or shrill voice.
PEEVISH(LY), foolish(ly), capricious(ly); childish(ly).
PELICAN, a retort fitted with tube or tubes, for

continuous distillation.

PENCIL, small tuft of hair.
PERDUE, soldier accustomed to hazardous service.
PEREMPTORY, resolute, bold; imperious; thorough, utter,


PERIMETER, circumference of a figure.
PERIOD, limit, end.
PERK, perk up.
PERPETUANA, "this seems to be that glossy kind of stuff

now called everlasting, and anciently worn by serjeants

and other city officers" (Gifford).
PERSPECTIVE, a view, scene or scenery; an optical device

which gave a distortion to the picture unless seen from a

particular point; a relief, modelled to produce an

optical illusion.

PERSPICIL, optic glass.
PERSTRINGE, criticise, censure.
PERSUADE, inculcate, commend.
PERSWAY, mitigate.
PERTINACY, pertinacity.
PESTLING, pounding, pulverising, like a pestle.
PETASUS, broad-brimmed hat or winged cap worn by Mercury.
PETITIONARY, supplicatory.
PETRONEL, a kind of carbine or light gun carried by horsemen.
PETULANT, pert, insolent.
PHERE. See Fere.
PHLEGMA, watery distilled liquor (old chem. "water").
PHRENETIC, madman.
PICARDIL, stiff upright collar fastened on to the coat


PICT-HATCH, disreputable quarter of London.
PIECE, person, used for woman or girl; a gold coin

worth in Jonson's time 20s. or 22s.

PIECES OF EIGHT, Spanish coin: piastre equal to eight

PIED, variegated.

PIE-POUDRES (Fr. pied-poudreux, dusty-foot), court held

at fairs to administer justice to itinerant vendors and

PILCHER, term of contempt; one who wore a buff or leather

jerkin, as did the serjeants of the counter; a pilferer.

PILED, pilled, peeled, bald.
PILL'D, polled, fleeced.
PIMLICO, "sometimes spoken of as a person--perhaps

master of a house famous for a particular ale" (Gifford).

PINE, afflict, distress.
PINK, stab with a weapon; pierce or cut in scallops for


PINNACE, a go-between in infamous sense.
PISTOLET, gold coin, worth about 6s.
PITCH, height of a bird of prey's flight.
PLAGUE, punishment, torment.
PLAIN, lament.
PLAIN SONG, simple melody.
PLAISE, plaice.
PLANET, "struck with a--," planets were supposed to

have powers of blasting or exercising secret influences.

PLAUSIBLE, pleasing.
PLAUSIBLY, approvingly.
PLOT, plan.
PLY, apply oneself to.
POESIE, posy, motto inside a ring.
POINT IN HIS DEVICE, exact in every particular.
POINTS, tagged laces or cords for fastening the breeches

to the doublet.

POINT-TRUSSER, one who trussed (tied) his master's

points (q.v.).

POISE, weigh, balance.
POKING-STICK, stick used for setting the plaits of ruffs.
POLITIC, politician.
POLITIC, judicious, prudent, political.
POLITICIAN, plotter, intriguer.
POLL, strip, plunder, gain by extortion.
POMANDER, ball of perfume, worn or hung about the

person to prevent infection, or for foppery.

POMMADO, vaulting on a horse without the aid of stirrups.
PONTIC, sour.
POPULAR, vulgar, of the populace.
POPULOUS, numerous.
PORT, gate; print of a deer's foot.
PORT, transport.
PORTAGUE, Portuguese gold coin, worth over 3 or 4

PORTCULLIS, "--of coin," some old coins have a

portcullis stamped on their reverse (Whalley).
PORTENT, marvel, prodigy; sinister omen.
PORTENTOUS, prophesying evil, threatening.
PORTER, references appear "to allude to Parsons, the king's

porter, who was...near seven feet high" (Whalley).

POSSESS, inform, acquaint.
POST AND PAIR, a game at cards.
POSY, motto. (See Poesie).
POTCH, poach.
POULT-FOOT, club-foot.
POUNCE, claw, talon.
PRACTICE, intrigue, concerted plot.
PRACTISE, plot, conspire.
PRAGMATIC, an expert, agent.
PRAGMATIC, officious, conceited, meddling.
PRECEDENT, record of proceedings.
PRECEPT, warrant, summons.
PRECISIAN(ISM), Puritan(ism), preciseness.
PREFER, recommend.
PRESENCE, presence chamber.
PRESENT(LY), immediate(ly), without delay; at the

present time; actually.

PRESS, force into service.
PREST, ready.
PRETEND, assert, allege.
PREVENT, anticipate.
PRICE, worth, excellence.
PRICK, point, dot used in the writing of Hebrew and

other languages.

PRICK, prick out, mark off, select; trace, track;

"--away," make off with speed.

PRIMERO, game of cards.
PRINCOX, pert boy.
PRINT, "in--," to the letter, exactly.
PRIVATE, private interests.
PRIVATE, privy, intimate.
PROCLIVE, prone to.
PRODIGIOUS, monstrous, unnatural.
PRODIGY, monster.
PRODUCED, prolonged.
PROFESS, pretend.
PROJECTION, the throwing of the "powder of projection"

into the crucible to turn the melted metal into gold or

PROLATE, pronounce drawlingly.
PROPER, of good appearance, handsome; own, particular.
PROPERTIES, stage necessaries.
PROPERTY, duty; tool.
PRORUMPED, burst out.
PROTEST, vow, proclaim (an affected word of that time);

formally declare non-payment, etc., of bill of exchange;

fig. failure of personal credit, etc.
PROVANT, soldier's allowance--hence, of common make.
PROVIDE, foresee.
PROVIDENCE, foresight, prudence.
PUBLICATION, making a thing public of common property (N.E.D.).
PUCKFIST, puff-ball; insipid, insignificant, boasting fellow.
PUFF-WING, shoulder puff.
PUISNE, judge of inferior rank, a junior.
PUMP, shoe.
PUNGENT, piercing.
PUNTO, point, hit.
PURCEPT, precept, warrant.
PURE, fine, capital, excellent.
PURELY, perfectly, utterly.
PURL, pleat or fold of a ruff.
PURSE-NET, net of which the mouth is drawn together

with a string.

PURSUIVANT, state messenger who summoned the persecuted

seminaries; warrant officer.

PURSY, PURSINESS, shortwinded(ness).
PUT, make a push, exert yourself (N.E.D.).
PUT OFF, excuse, shift.
PUT ON, incite, encourage; proceed with, take in hand, try.
QUAINT, elegant, elaborated, ingenious, clever.
QUAR, quarry.
QUARRIED, seized, or fed upon, as prey.
QUEAN, hussy, jade.
QUEASY, hazardous, delicate.
QUELL, kill, destroy.
QUEST, request; inquiry.
QUESTION, decision by force of arms.
QUESTMAN, one appointed to make official inquiry.
QUIB, QUIBLIN, quibble, quip.
QUICK, the living.
QUIDDIT, quiddity, legal subtlety.
QUIRK, clever turn or trick.
QUIT, requite, repay; acquit, absolve; rid; forsake,

QUITTER-BONE, disease of horses.

QUODLING, codling.
QUOIT, throw like a quoit, chuck.
QUOTE, take note, observe, write down.
RACK, neck of mutton or pork (Halliwell).
RAKE UP, cover over.
RAMP, rear, as a lion, etc.
RAPT, carry away.
RAPT, enraptured.
RASCAL, young or inferior deer.
RASH, strike with a glancing oblique blow, as a

boar with its tusk.

RATSEY, GOMALIEL, a famous highwayman.
RAVEN, devour.
REACH, understand.
REAL, regal.
REBATU, ruff, turned-down collar.
RECTOR, RECTRESS, director, governor.
REDARGUE, confute.
REDUCE, bring back.
REED, rede, counsel, advice.
REEL, run riot.
REFEL, refute.
REFORMADOES, disgraced or disbanded soldiers.
REGIMENT, government.
REGULAR ("Tale of a Tub"), regular noun (quibble) (N.E.D.).
RELIGION, "make--of," make a point of, scruple of.
RELISH, savour.
REMNANT, scrap of quotation.
REMORA, species of fish.
RENDER, depict, exhibit, show.
REPAIR, reinstate.
REPETITION, recital, narration.
RESIANT, resident.
RESIDENCE, sediment.
RESOLUTION, judgment, decision.
RESOLVE, inform; assure; prepare, make up one's mind;

dissolve; come to a decision, be convinced; relax, set

at ease.
RESPECTIVE, worthy of respect; regardful, discriminative.
RESPECTIVELY, with reverence.
RESPECTLESS, regardless.
RESPIRE, exhale; inhale.
RESPONSIBLE, correspondent.
REST, musket-rest.
REST, "set up one's--," venture one's all, one's

last stake (from game of primero).

REST, arrest.
RESTIVE, RESTY, dull, inactive.
RETCHLESS(NESS), reckless(ness).
RETIRE, cause to retire.
RETRICATO, fencing term.
RETRIEVE, rediscovery of game once sprung.
RETURNS, ventures sent abroad, for the safe return of

which so much money is received.

REVERBERATE, dissolve or blend by reflected heat.
REVERSE, REVERSO, back-handed thrust, etc., in fencing.
REVISE, reconsider a sentence.
RHEUM, spleen, caprice.
RIBIBE, abusive term for an old woman.
RID, destroy, do away with.

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