Vocabulary c. 8,000 B. C. E. 600 C. E



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Vocabulary c. 8,000 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.

Match the term to the definition. To create a better review sheet, write the term instead of the letter.



Vedas

“Wisdom,” early collections of prayers and hymns that provide information about the Indo-European Aryans who migrated to India around 1500 B.C.E.

Theocracy

A government ruled by God or by church leaders

Aristocracy

a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, especially the hereditary nobility

Artisan

a craftsman

Civilization

A cultural group with advanced cities, complex institutions, skilled workers, advanced technology, and a system of recordkeeping

Edict of Milan

A document that made Christianity one of the religions allowed in the Roman Empire

Polis

A Greek city-state

Indo-Europeans

A group of semi-nomadic people who, around 2000 B.C.E. began to migrate from central Asia to India, Europe, and the Middle East

Brahmin

a member of the social class of priests in Aryan society

Quetzalcoatl

A Mesoamerica legend of a god who would someday return to rule his people in peace

Huns

A nomadic group, believed to be from Central Asia, who invaded into Europe near the end of Rome

Democracy

a political system in which the people rule

Monsoon

A seasonal wind

Dynasty

a series of rulers from the same family

Hieroglyphics

A system of picture writing used in Egypt

Cuneiform

a system of writing originating in Mesopotamia in which a wedge-shaped stylus was used to press symbols into clay

Foraging

A term for hunting and gathering

Covenant

agreement; in the Judeo-Christian heritage, an agreement between God and humankind

Slash-and-burn cultivation

An agricultural method in which farmers clear fields by cutting and burning trees, then use the ashes as fertilizer.

Pharaoh

An Egyptian monarch

Artifact

an object made by human hands

Oracle bones

Animal bones or shells used by the Chinese priests to receive messages from the gods.

Bodhisattvas

Buddhist holy men who accumulated spiritual merits during their lifetime; Buddhists prayed to them in order to receive some of their holiness.

Silk Roads

Caravan routes and sea lanes between China and the Middle East.

Analects

collection of teachings and sayings made by Confucius

Jati

Complicated system of subcastes in the Hindu caste system.

Steppe

Dry grassland.

Mystery religion

During the Hellenistic age, religions that promised their faithful followers eternity a state of bliss

Yahweh

God of the monotheistic religion of Judaism that influcenced later religions of Christianity and Islam

Aristotle

Greek philosopher who rejected the theory of forms and ideas, he believed that people could depend on their senses and reason to answer the mysteries of the world

Yin and yang

In ancient Chinese belief, the opposing forces that bring balance to nature and life.

Nirvana

In Buddhism, a state of perfect peace that is the goal of reincarnation

Filial piety

In China, respect for one’s parents and other elders.

Moksha

In Hindu belief, the spirit's liberation from the cycle of reincarnation

Karma

In the Hindu tradition, the good or evil deeds done by a person

Latifundia

Large landholdings in the Roman Empire

Alexander the Great

Macedonian king who led an army Eastward and conquered land from Greece to India. He was known as a brilliant military leader and his death marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era

Ziggurat

Mesopotamian Temples

Disciple

One of the 12 followers of Christ, or any of the professed followers of Christ in his lifetime.

Zoroastrianism

Persian religion based on the teaching of the 6th century BCE prophet Zarathustra; its emphasis on the duality of good and evil and on the role of individuals in determining their own fate would influence later religions

Patriarchal

Pertaining to a social system in which the father is the head of the family

Reincarnation

Rebirth; a belief of both Buddhism and Hinduism

Matrilineal

Referring to a social system in which descent and inheritance are traced through the mother

Twelve tables

The codification of Roman law during the republic

Mandate of heaven

The "will of the gods" that granted a ruler the right to rule

Geocentric theory

the belief held by many before the Scientific Revolution that the earth is the center of the universe

Polytheism

The belief in many gods

Monotheism

The belief in one god

Animism

The belief that spirits inhabit the features of nature

Hsiung-nu

The Central Nomadic people who invaded into China in the ancient world

Sati

The custom among the higher castes of Hinduism of a widow throwing herself on the burning funeral pyre of her husband.

Specialization of labor

The division of labor that aids the development of skills in a particular type of work

Hellenistic age

The era in which Greek culture blended with Persian and other Eastern influences and spread throughout the former empire of Alexander the Great

Diaspora

the exile of an ethnic or racial group from their homeland

Torah

The first five books of the Jewish scripture.

Pope

The head of the Roman Catholic Church.

Varna

The Hindu word for caste

Independent invention

The idea that ancient civilizations were able to achieve characteristics of civilization without contact with others

Neolithic revolution

The introduction of agriculture, domestication of animals, and a more sedentary life during the Neolithic Age

Ten commandments

The moral law of the Hebrews.

Stoicism

The most popular Hellenistic philosophy; it involved strict discipline and an emphasis on helping others.

Neolithic age

The New Stone Age that was marked by the discovery and mastery of agriculture

Climate

The pattern of temperature and precipitation over a period of time

New testament

The portion of the Christian Bible that contains the Gospels that relate the account of the life of Jesus; letters from the followers of Jesus to the early Christian churches and the Book of Revelation, a prophetic text

Dharma

the position in the Hindu caste system that was determined by one’s birth

Pastoralism

The practice of herding.

Messiah

The religious term for "any expected deliverer"

Pax Romana

The Roman Peace; the period of prosperity and stability throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E.

Untouchables

The social division in Hindu society that fell in rank below the caste system; it was occupied by those who carried out undesirable occupations such as undertaking, butchering, and waste collection.

Agricultural Revolution

The transition from foraging to the cultivation of food occurring about 8000 - 2000 BC; also known as the Neolithic revolution

Cultural diffusion

the transmission of ideas and products from one culture to another


Vocabulary 600C.E. to 1450

Match the term to the definition. To create a better review sheet, write the term instead of the letter.



Ka'aba

A black stone or meteorite that became the most revered shrine in Arabia before the introduction of Islam; situated in Mecca, it later was incorporated in the Islamic faith

Syncretism

A blend of two or more cultures or cultural traditions

Austronesian

A branch of languages originating in Oceania

Hadith

A collection of the sayings and deeds of Mohammed

Magna carta

A document written in England in 1215 that granted certain rights to nobles; later these rights came to be extended to all classes

Harem

A household of wives and concubines in the Middle East, Africa, or Asia

Daimyo

A Japanese Feudal lord in charge of an army of samurai

Chivalry

A knight's code of honor in medieval Europe

Mita

A labor system used by Andean societies in which community member shared work owed to rulers and the religious community

Maori

A member of a Polynesian group that settled in New Zealand about 800 C.E.

Bakufu

A military government established in Japan after the Gempei Wars; the emperor became a fiugurehead while real power was concentrated in the military, including the samurai

Khan

A Mongol ruler

Astrolabe

A navigational instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars

Serf

A peasant who is bound to the land he or she works

Neo-Confucianism

A philosophy that blended Confucianism and Buddhist thought

Feudalism

A political, economic, and social system based on the relationship between lord and vassal in order to provide protection

Parliament

A representative assembly, most notably in England

Kowtow

A ritualistic bow practiced in the Chinese court

Caravel

A small, easily steerable ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in their explorations

Stateless society

A society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government

Quipus

A system of knotted cords of different sizes and colors used by the Incas for keeping records

Manorialism

A system of self-sufficient estates that arose in medieval Europe

Zakat

A tax, comprising percentages of personal income of every kind, levied as almsgiving for the relief of the poor: the third of the Pillars of Islam.

People of the book

A term applied by Islamic governments to Muslims, Christians, and Jews in reference to the fact that all three religions had a holy book

Minaret

A tower attached to a mosque from which Muslims are called to worship

Lateen sails

A triangular sail attached to a short mast

Age grade

Age groups into which children were placed in Bantu Societies of early sub-Saharan Arica; Children within the age grade were given responsibilities and privileges suitable for their age and in this manner were prepared for adult responsibilities.

Abacus

An ancient Chinese counting device that used rods on which were mounted movable counters

Tea ceremony

An ancient Shinto ritual still performed in the traditional Japanese capital of Kyoto

Quechua

An Andean society also known as the Inca

Perspective

An artistic technique commonly used in Renaissance painting that gave a three-dimensional appearance to works of art

Sultan

An Islamic ruler

Gothic architecture

Architecture of twelfth-century Europe, featuring stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, tall spires, and pointed arches

Arabesque

Artwork first seen in Muslim lands. A type of curvilinear decoration in painting, metalwork, etc., with intricate intertwining leaf, flower, animal, or geometrical designs

Calpulli

Aztec clans that supplied labor and warriors to leaders

Toltecs

Central American society that was centered around the city of Tula

Ming dynasty

Chinese dynasty founded by Hongwu and known for its cultural brilliance

Yuan dynasty

Chinese dynasty that was founded by the Mongolian ruler Kublai Khan

Celadon

Chinese porcelain that has a pale, green, translucent glaze

Mississippians

First society people located in central North America

Five pillars

Five practices required of Muslim; faith, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage

Foot binding

In China, a method of breaking and binding women's feet; seen as a sign of beauty and social position, foot binding also confined women to the household.

Ayllus

In Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler

Parallel descent

In Incan society, descent through both the father and mother

Fief

In medieval Europe, a grant of land given in exchange for military, or other services

Benefice

In medieval Europe, a grant of land or other privilege to a vassal

Vassal

In medieval Europe, a person who pledged military or other service to a lord in exchange for a gift of land or other privilege

Jihad

Islamic holy war

Junks

Large Chinese sailing ships especially designed for long-distance travel during the Tang and Song Dynasties

Flying money

Letters of Credit issued in place of coins

Shogun

Military leader under the bakufu

Sufis

Muslims who attempt to reach Allah through mysticism

Bantu-speaking peoples

Name given to a group of sub-Saharan African peoples who migrations altered the society of sub-Saharan Africa

Muslim

One who submits; a follower of Islam

Medieval

Pertaining to the middle ages of European history

Chinampas

Platforms of twisted vines and mud that served the Aztecs as floating gardens and extended their agricultural land

Chimor

Pre-Incan South American society that fell to Incas in the fifteenth century.

Bushi

Regional military leaders in Japan who ruled small kingdoms from fortresses

Malay sailors

Southeast Asian sailors who traveled the Indian Ocean; by 500 C.E. they ha colonized Madagascar, introducing the cultivation of the banana

Griots

Storytellers of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions and histories

Middle kingdom

Term applied to the rich agricultural lands of the Yangtze River valley under the Zhou dynasty

Kamikaze

The "divine wind" credited by the Japanese with preventing the Mongol invasion of Japan during the thirteenth century

Battle of Tours

The 732 battle that halted the advance of Muslim armies into Europe at a point in northern France

Investiture

The authority claimed by monarchs to appoint church officials

Shariah

The body of law that governs Muslim society

Sunni

The branch of Islam that believes that the Muslim community should select its leaders; the Sunnis are the largest branch of Islam

Shi'ite

The branch of Islam that holds that the leader of Islam must be a descendant of Muhammad's family

Caliph

The chief Muslim political and religious leader

Scholar-gentry

The Chinese class of well-educated men from whom many bureaucrats were chosen

Bushido

The code of honor of the samurai in Japan

Umma

The community of Muslim believers

Moldboard plow

The curved metal plate in a plow that turns over an earth from the furrow

Black death

The European name for the outbreak of the bubonic plague that spread across Asia, Europe, and North Africa in the Fourteenth century

Hijah

The flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina, the first year in the Muslim calendar

Allah

The god of Muslims; Arabic word for "god"

Metropolitan

The head of the Eastern Orthodox Church

Quran

The holy book of Islam

Ramadan

The holy month of Islam which commemorates the appearance of the angel Gabriel to Muhammad; fasting is required during this month

Dar al-Islam

The House of Islam; a term representing the political and religious unity of the various Islamic groups

Mosque

The house of worship of followers of Islam

Seppuku

The Japanese practice of ritual suicide

Samurai

The military class of feudal Japan

Anasazi

The name given to the pueblo dwelling natives in the South-west North American continent

Mexica

The name given to themselves by the Aztec people

Tribute

The payment of a tax in the form of goods and labor by subject peoples

Mongol peace

The period from about 1250 to 1350 in which the Mongols ensured the safety of Eurasian trade and travel

Middle ages

The period of European history traditionally given as 500 to 1500

Hajj

The pilgrimage to the Ka'aba in Mecca required once of every Muslim who was not limited by health or financial restrictions

Excommunication

The practice of the Roman Catholic and other Christian churches of prohibiting participation in the sacraments to those who do not comply with the church teachings or practices

Renaissance

The revival of learning in Europe beginning about 1300 and continuing to about 1600

Shogunate

The rule of the shoguns

Inca

The ruler of the Quechua people of the west coast of South America; the term is also applied to the Quechua people as a whole

Steppe diplomacy

The skill of political survival and dominance in the world of steppe nomads; it involved the knowledge of tribal and clan structure and often used assassinations to accomplish its goals

Shinto

The traditional Japanese religion based on veneration of ancestors and spirits of nature.

Moundbuilders

The various American tribes who, in prehistoric and early historic times, erected the burial mounds and other earthworks of the Mississippi drainage basin and the southeastern U.S.

Mamluks

Turkic military slaves who formed part of the army of the Abbasid Caliphate in the ninth and tenth centuries; they founded their own state in Egypt and Syria from the thirteenth to the early sixteenth centuries

Gempei wars

Wars in Japan that pitted the Samurai against the peasants




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