Main Idea: Despite hopes for a quick victory, both northerners and southerners soon learned that they were in for a long, difficult struggle. Vocabulary:
Battle of Bull Run – first major battle of the Civil War, fought in Virginia in 1861
Virginia – ironclad warship used by the Confederates to break the Union blockade Monitor – ironclad Union warships Battle of Antietam – 1862, battle in Maryland; day-long battle, more than 23,000 soldiers killed or wounded Battle of Fredericksburg – an 1862 Civil War battle in Virginia; one of the Union’s worst defeats Battle of Chancellorsville – an 1863 Civil War battle in Virginia; important victory for the Confederacy Battle of Shiloh – 1862, battle in Tennessee, Union victory, also the bloodiest battle of the Civil War
Gen – Army General Setting the Scene:
At first the armies of the North and the South marched proudly off to war. Each side expected a quick and painless victory. The reality of war soon shattered this expectation. Over and over, soldiers wrote home describing the awful face of battle: “I never saw so many broken down and exhausted men in all my life. I was sick as a horse, and as wet with blood and sweat as I could be…. Our tongues were parched and cracked for water, and our faces blackened with powder and smoke.” quoted by Shelby Foote in The Civil War: A Narrative It soon became clear that there would be no quick end to the struggle. Both sides began to dig in for a long, difficult war. Strategies for Victory The Union planned an aggressive campaign; attack and move in -- OFFENSIVE
The South planned to hold tight until the North lost the will to fight: protect what you already have -- DEFENSIVE
Blockade Southern ports; cut off the South’s supply of manufactured goods from Europe
In the East, seize Richmond, Virginia the Confederate capital; quickly capture the Confederate government
In the West, seize control of the Mississippi River; prevent the South from using the river to supply its troops
This maneuver would also separate Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana from the rest of the Confederacy Confederate Plans
Fight a strictly defensive war until the Northerners tired of fighting
When the war became unpopular in the North, Lincoln would stop the fighting and recognize the South’s independence
The Confederacy counted on aid from Europe
Cotton was grown in the South; European textile mills needed their cotton
A Confederate soldier said, “Look! There is Jackson standing like a stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!”
This was how Gen Jackson got his nickname, ‘Stonewall’ Jackson
The Union troops panicked and retreated back toward Washington, D.C.
The Battle of Bull Run showed both armies that their men needed training; also, it would be a long and bloody war! ¿¿ What was the significance of the Battle of Bull Run ?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Caution, Delay, and Retreat
After the Bull Run disaster, Lincoln appointed General George McClellan as Commander of the Union Army of the East
This group was known as the Army of the Potomac
McClellan transformed the inexperienced Union recruits into a trained group of soldiers – Ready for Battle!
He was a cautious leader; newspapers made fun AT him: ‘All quiet along the Potomac’
President Lincoln lost his patience; “If Gen McClellan does not want to use the army, I would like to borrow it.”
McClellan got the point; in March he sailed with some of his troops down the Potomac; landing South of Richmond, heading toward the Confederate capital
Gen Lee began counterattacks; Gen Jackson headed North to threaten Washington
As a result Lincoln was prevented from sending the remainder of troops; they stayed to protect Washington
Still cautious, McClellan abandoned the attack and began retreating Naval Action
Union ships blockaded southern ports
Small fast ships, ‘blockade runners’ slipped through the Union blockade
These ‘blockade runners’ delivered matches, guns, and other needed supplies
The North tightened-up the blockade delivery rate to 1 out of 10 ships; cutting supplies by 90%
The Confederates took an abandoned Union warship, covered it with iron plates and named it the CSS Virginia
On the Virginia’s maiden voyage, she destroyed two Union ships and ran three aground
Union cannonballs bounced harmlessly off the Virginia’s metal skin
The Union countered with its own ironclad ship the USS Monitor
The two ships clashed near Hampton Roads, VA; after an exhausting battle neither vessel was seriously damaged Fear of losing the Virginia, Confederates sank the ship after losing Norfolk
The Union built 50 more ironclads
The South did not have the materials or resources to build ironclad ships
The Union dominated the seas and tightened the blockade
Stopped ALL cargo from reaching the Confederate Army ¿¿ How did the battle between the Virginia and the Monitor change warfare at sea ? 1.________________________________________________________________________2.________________________________________________________________________3.________________________________________________________________________4.________________________________________________________________________. Antietam
Grant showed his toughness and determination by winning a 3rd battle, the
Battle of Shiloh; one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War
The Union Navy captured New Orleans and Memphis, Tennessee
By capturing these two ‘port’ cities, the Union controlled both end of the Mississippi River; Ole Man River became a Yankee
The South could no longer use the river as a supply line
1. What strategies did each side adopt to win the war ?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. How did early encounters dispel hopes for a quick end to the war ?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What victories did the Confederate achieve ?