Vocabulary: Battle of Bull Run – first major battle of the Civil War, fought in Virginia in 1861

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US History

Fort Burrows

17.2 -- No Easy Victory

READ pgs 490 – 495

Main Idea:
Despite hopes for a quick victory, both northerners and southerners soon learned that they were in for a long, difficult struggle.

Battle of Bull Run – first major battle of the Civil War, fought in Virginia in 1861

Virginia – ironclad warship used by the Confederates to break the Union blockade
Monitor – ironclad Union warships
Battle of Antietam – 1862, battle in Maryland; day-long battle, more than 23,000 soldiers killed or wounded
Battle of Fredericksburg – an 1862 Civil War battle in Virginia; one of the Union’s worst defeats
Battle of Chancellorsville – an 1863 Civil War battle in Virginia; important victory for the Confederacy
Battle of Shiloh – 1862, battle in Tennessee, Union victory, also the bloodiest battle of the Civil War

Gen – Army General
Setting the Scene:

At first the armies of the North and the South marched proudly off to war. Each side expected a quick and painless victory. The reality of war soon shattered this expectation. Over and over, soldiers wrote home describing the awful face of battle:
I never saw so many broken down and exhausted men in all my life. I was sick as a horse, and as wet with blood and sweat as I could be…. Our tongues were parched and cracked for water, and our faces blackened with powder and smoke.” quoted by Shelby Foote in The Civil War: A Narrative
It soon became clear that there would be no quick end to the struggle. Both sides began to dig in for a long, difficult war.
Strategies for Victory
The Union planned an aggressive campaign; attack and move in -- OFFENSIVE

The South planned to hold tight until the North lost the will to fight: protect what you already have -- DEFENSIVE

Union Plans

 Blockade Southern ports; cut off the South’s supply of manufactured goods from Europe

In the East, seize Richmond, Virginia the Confederate capital; quickly capture the Confederate government

 In the West, seize control of the Mississippi River; prevent the South from using the river to supply its troops

 This maneuver would also separate Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana from the rest of the Confederacy
Confederate Plans

 Fight a strictly defensive war until the Northerners tired of fighting

 When the war became unpopular in the North, Lincoln would stop the fighting and recognize the South’s independence

 The Confederacy counted on aid from Europe

 Cotton was grown in the South; European textile mills needed their cotton

 Europe, in need of this Southern cotton, would recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation

 Thus, continue to buy the South’s primary resource -- COTTON
Early Encounters
Forward to Richmond! Forward to Richmond!

Every day for more than a month, the New York Tribune published this on the front-page of their newspaper

Giving into popular public pressure, Lincoln ordered an ATTACK!!!
Battle of Bull Run

 July 21, 1861, Union troops left Washington, D.C.

 They headed toward Richmond, Virginia, 100 miles away

Washingtonians, civilians from Washington, D.C., rode along with the troops to watch the battle

 The two armies met up near a small stream in Virginia know as Bull Run

 The Union began breaking through the Confederate battle lines

 The Yankees yelled, “The war is OVER!”

 Confederate General Thomas Jackson began gathering the Virginian troops

A Confederate soldier said, “Look! There is Jackson standing like a stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!”

 This was how Gen Jackson got his nickname, ‘Stonewall’ Jackson

 The Union troops panicked and retreated back toward Washington, D.C.

 The Battle of Bull Run showed both armies that their men needed training; also, it would be a long and bloody war!
¿¿ What was the significance of the Battle of Bull Run ?

Caution, Delay, and Retreat

 After the Bull Run disaster, Lincoln appointed General George McClellan as Commander of the Union Army of the East

 This group was known as the Army of the Potomac

McClellan transformed the inexperienced Union recruits into a trained group of soldiers – Ready for Battle!

He was a cautious leader; newspapers made fun AT him: ‘All quiet along the Potomac’

President Lincoln lost his patience; “If Gen McClellan does not want to use the army, I would like to borrow it.”

McClellan got the point; in March he sailed with some of his troops down the Potomac; landing South of Richmond, heading toward the Confederate capital

Gen Lee began counterattacks; Gen Jackson headed North to threaten Washington

 As a result Lincoln was prevented from sending the remainder of troops; they stayed to protect Washington

 Still cautious, McClellan abandoned the attack and began retreating
Naval Action

 Union ships blockaded southern ports

 Small fast ships, ‘blockade runners’ slipped through the Union blockade

These ‘blockade runners’ delivered matches, guns, and other needed supplies

The North tightened-up the blockade delivery rate to 1 out of 10 ships; cutting supplies by 90%

The Confederates took an abandoned Union warship, covered it with iron plates and named it the CSS Virginia

On the Virginia’s maiden voyage, she destroyed two Union ships and ran three aground

 Union cannonballs bounced harmlessly off the Virginia’s metal skin

 The Union countered with its own ironclad ship the USS Monitor

 The two ships clashed near Hampton Roads, VA; after an exhausting battle neither vessel was seriously damaged
 Fear of losing the Virginia, Confederates sank the ship after losing Norfolk

 The Union built 50 more ironclads

 The South did not have the materials or resources to build ironclad ships

 The Union dominated the seas and tightened the blockade

 Stopped ALL cargo from reaching the Confederate Army
¿¿ How did the battle between the Virginia and the Monitor change warfare at sea ?

 September 1862, Lee takes offensive and marched his troops North into Maryland

 A Union officer found a copy of Lee’s battle plan; wrapped around three cigars, which was carelessly left behind by one of Lee’s officers

 McClellan boasted, “If I cannot whip ‘Bobbie Lee’, I will be willing to go home”

 McClellan attacked Lee’s main force at Antietam (an TEE tuhm), Sept 17

 After a day long battle, 23,000 Union and Confederate soldiers were dead or wounded

 At night fall, Lee retreated back to Virginia

 Neither side was a clear winner of the Battle of Antietam even though the North claimed a victory due to the retreat; a huge morale boost for the Yankees

 Lincoln was disappointed that McClellan did not follow the retreating Confederate army to insure a Northern victory

 Lincoln replaced McClellan with General Ambrose Burnside

 Burnside was now the Commander of the Army of the Potomac
Confederate Victories in the East
Two stunning victories for the Confederates

1st – the Battle of Fredericksburg; one of the Union’s worst defeats

Confederate guns mowed down wave after wave of Union soldiers

Burnside’s Union Army lost 13,000 men compared to 5,000 men for the South

2nd – the Battle of Chancellorsville

Lee combined troops with Stonewall; three days of fighting produced another Southern victory

This victory came at a high price

Confederate sentries fired at what they thought was Union soldiers

The mistaken Union soldiers was actually Stonewall Jackson and his men

Gen Stonewall Jackson was wounded and died several days later

This mistake was a huge blow against the Confederate Army
Union Victories in the West
Union strategy for the West was to capture and control the Mississippi River

General Ulysses S Grant was in charge for the Union

February 1862, Grant attacked and captured Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee

These Confederate forts guarded important tributaries of the Mississippi River

Grant showed his toughness and determination by winning a 3rd battle, the

Battle of Shiloh; one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War

The Union Navy captured New Orleans and Memphis, Tennessee

By capturing these two ‘port’ cities, the Union controlled both end of the Mississippi River; Ole Man River became a Yankee

The South could no longer use the river as a supply line

1. What strategies did each side adopt to win the war ?

2. How did early encounters dispel hopes for a quick end to the war ?

3. What victories did the Confederate achieve ?

1.____________________________________ 2.____________________________________

4. What victories did the Union achieve ?

1.____________________________________ 2.____________________________________


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