Sputnik : Soviet satellite put into orbit around Earth in 1957. It was the first man made satellite put into orbit. stalemate : A situation where there are no clear winners. Stalin, Josef : (1879-1953) The General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party from 1922 until 1953. Known for his brutality in dealing with opponents and his failed policies of collectivism that caused widespread famine across the Soviet Union. Stock Market Crash : (1929)The steep fall in the prices of stocks due to widespread financial panic. It was caused by stock brokers who called in the loans they had made to stock investors. This caused stock prices to fall, and many people lost their entire life savings as many financial institutions went bankrupt. stockholder : A person holding ownership of part of a company or business venture. Stupa : A Buddhist shrine or temple in India. This form of architecture made its way to China where it was altered slightly and renamed the pagoda. subcontinent : Large area that is a separate part of a continent. The area encompassing India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are considered to be a subcontinent of Asia. Suez Canal : A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today. Suez War of 1956 : War between Israel and Egypt which resulted in Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula. suffrage : The right to vote in elections. Suleiman : (1494-1566) Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and considered to be their greatest ruler. Under his leadership, the Ottoman Empire reached its greatest height. Sun Yixian : (1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place. Also known as Sun Yat-sen. superpowers : Term given to the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Taiping Rebellion : (1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners. Talmud : The collection of Jewish writings that is the basis of Jewish religious law.
Taoism / Daoism : The Chinese philosophy of Taoism (or Daoism) developed in the latter part of the Chou Dynasty, during a period of turmoil in which it was not clear that Chinese civilization would survive. It represents a naturalistic ideal of how one should live their life. The Chinese term Tao can be translated into English, meaning "the way." It is a philosophy which teaches that nature has a "way" in which it moves, and that people should passively accept the "way" of nature, rather than resist it. One concept related to this is that of wu-wei, which means "not doing." This means that people should not act unnaturally by doing things, but rather should openly accept the natural way. An emphasis is placed on the link between people and nature. Taoism teaches that this link lessened the need for rules and order, and leads one to a better understanding of the world. Tao-te-Ching : Collected teachings of Chinese philosopher Lao Tze, the founder of Taoism/Daoism. tariff : A tax on imports. Ten Commandments : The ten laws given to Moses by God, according to the Bible. terrace farming : The cutting out of flat areas (terraces) into near vertical slopes to allow farming. Terrace farms appears as steps cut into a mountainside. This adaptation allowed both the early Chinese, and the Inca of Mesoamerica to grow enough food for their large populations. terrorism : The use of violence for political purpose. Theodosius : (346? CE – 395 CE) Emperor of the Roman Empire who is responsible for making the Christian religion the official religion of the empire. Tiananmen Square Massacre : A political and social protest by university students in Beijing, China in 1989. The protest called for political and social reforms and resulted in the government using the military to end it, which caused hundreds of deaths, thousands of injured, and many more imprisoned. Tokugawa Shogunate : (1603-1867) Feudal Warlord rulers of Japan. Responisble for closing Japan off from the rest of the world. Overthrown during the Meiji Restoration. Torah : The holy book of Judaism. It describes the creation of the world, the history of ancient Israel, the Ten Commandments, and contains the Psalms and the prophetic books. totalitarian state : A state or country completely controlled by a single power, such as a monarch or dictator. totalitarianism : An ideology where all social, economic, and political powers are centered in the government completely. trade : The exchange of goods or service between people. tradition : A long-established custom or belief. traditional economy : An economy based on agriculture, with others in society working in simple crafts, such as the manufacturing of cloth or pottery.
Treaty of Nanjing : (1842) An unequal treaty between Great Britain and China resulting from the Opium War. The treaty stated that China was to reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the war. The Chinese were forced to open several ports to British trade, provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong, and grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China. Treaty of Portsmouth : (1905) The treaty that ended the Sino-Japanese War. It granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate. Treaty of Tordesillas : A treaty dividing the New World possessions between Portugal and Spain. This treaty, signed in 1494 was a product of the Catholic Church. Treaty of Versailles : Treaty ending World War I. It was extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame for the war. It is a major cause of World War II. trench warfare : A form of combat where armies fight each other from opposing fortified positions, usually consisting of long, dugout holes or trenches. Triangle Trade : A catch all phrase for the trade occurring between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Trade goods include raw materials from the Americas, manufactured goods from Europe, and slaves from Africa. tribalism : Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes, and the cause of much war and strife in modern Africa. Tripitka : The collection of religious writings by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha. Triple Alliance : An alliance that was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy during World War I. Triple Entente : An alliance that was made up of France, Russia, and Great Britain during World War I. Truman Doctrine : A policy if the Truman presidency that called for supporting any nation resisting communism. Tull, Jethro : (1674-1741) British farmer and inventor, created the mechanical seed drill to aid in planting. Two Treatises of Government : Also known as The Three Baskets of Wisdom, a book written by John Locke describing his views on government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights. This book is the basis for many modern democracies. United Nations : An international body composed of many countries that seeks to promote peace, prosperity, and cooperation around the world. It was formed in 1945 at the end of World War II. United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) : An organization within the United Nations that works to provide food, clothing, and other assistance to children in need around the world. UNICEF was founded in 1946. Universal Declaration of Human Rights : A document published by the United Nations in 1948 stating that all people had certain basic rights including life, liberty, equality, justice and self determination. Source Document: Universal Declaration of Human Rights Untouchables : Members of Hindu society thought to have been removed from the Caste System, with no hope of returning to it, due to their misdeeds in previous lives. Work that is deemed unclean for all other Hindus is reserved for these Outcasts. After winning its independence from Great Britain in 1947, India adopted a national constitution which stated that "Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden." Since that time many Caste reforms have been enacted to diminish discriminatory practices in India. Today, the Caste System still exists in practice, despite the many laws designed to legally abolish it. Upanishads : Hindu holy book from the 8th century BCE. urbanization : The movement of people to urban areas in search of work. vaccine : A prevention treatment containing weakened microbes of the kind of disease one is guarding against. It is administered to stimulate the immune system against that disease. vassal : A person owing service to a feudal lord. Vedas : A Hindu holy book which is a collection of Aryan hymns that were transmitted orally before being written down in the 6th century BCE. Venice and Florence : Italians City-States which were the center of the rebirth of European trade and culture at the end of the Middle Ages. Victor Emmanuel : (1820-78) He was king of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861, when he became king of a united Italy until his death in 1878. His support of the unification movement was vital to its success. Viet Cong : The name of the Vietnamese communist who fought against South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War. Vietnam Conflict/War : A war in the country of Vietnam, first between the French and Vietnamese, as France was attempting to hold onto its colony. The second war was between the United States and the communist forces of North Vietnam, as the U.S. was attempting to keep South Vietnam free from communism. The North Vietnamese eventually won, forcing the United States to withdraw. Vishnu : Hindu god called the Preserver. Vishnu is the second member of the triad that includes Brahma the Creator and Shiva the Destroyer. Voltaire : (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church. von Bismarck, Otto : (1815-1898) Appointed Prussian chancellor in 1862. he began a program of war to unify all the German states under the control of Prussia. His policy was known as Blüt und Eisen or Blood and Iron. He was the most powerful statesman in Europe as chancellor of the new German Empire from 1871 to 1890. He was known as the Iron Chancellor. Walesa, Lech : (1943- ) Polish labor union leader, Nobel laureate, and President of Poland from 1990 to 1995. He was instrumental in the collapse of communism in Poland and throughout Eastern Europe through the work of the labor union Solidarity. Walpole, Robert : (1676-1745) British statesman, and first Prime Minister from 1721 to 1742. Warsaw Pact : An international defense alliance between the Soviet Union and many of its Eastern European satellite states as a response to NATO. Formed in 1955. Watt, James : (1736-1819) Improved upon Newcomen’s steam engine. Watt’s steam engine would be the power source of the Industrial Revolution. Wealth of Nations : British philosopher and writer Adam Smith‘s 1776 book that described his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laissez-faire economics. westernization : To adopt western ideas and culture. Wheel of Life : important symbol of Buddhism. It represents the endless cycle of life through reincarnation. White Man's Burden, The : A poem by Rudyard Kipling written in 1899. It is also the name given to the idea that the culture of the native populations where European imperialism was occurring were inferior to western nations. Some interpreted Kipling’s poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the savage native populations that were encountered in far off lands. William and Mary : King and Queen of England from 1689 to 1702. They were placed on the throne as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and ruled as limited monarchs. Wilson, Woodrow : (1856-1924) President of the United States during World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles. He also proposed a regulating body of nations to avoid future conflicts through diplomacy in his 14 Points Speech. working class : Lowest class in most social class systems, including factory workers, miners, and others. World Bank Group : A vast financial resource owned and controlled by its membership of over 180 countries. The purpose of the bank, established in 1944, is to provide loans and economic advice to its member countries. In 2001, the bank provided over 17.3 billion dollars in loans to over 100 different developing nations. World Health Organization (WHO) : An organization attached to the united Nations that is concerned with the health and well being of all people. The organization works in developing nations to curb disease and other health related problems. World War I : (1914 – 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. World War II : (1939 – 1945) A war fought in Europe, Africa and Asia between the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Wright, Orville : (1871–1948) American inventor. He is best know for his work with his brother Wilbur in the development of the airplane. Wright, Wilbur : (1867-1912) American inventor. He is best know for his work with his brother Orville in the development of the airplane. Yeltsin, Boris : (1931- ) President of Russia. He was elected before the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. He served until 1999. Yeltsin was instrumental in keeping a cout d’etat from occurring which would have returned hard line communists to power in Russia. Yin and Yang : Symbol used to illlustrate the natural harmony that exists in the world. Everything must have an opposing force that allows the harmonious universe to exist. Yom Kippur War : (1973) War between Israel and Egypt and Syria in which Israel defeated the two capturing land from each. Young Italy : Nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy. Started in 1831 by Guiseppe Mazzini. Zen Buddhism : A blending of Buddhism from India with Taoism from China. It is predominately practiced in China and Japan. Zheng He : (1371-1433?) Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death. Zionism : Jewish nationalist movement to establish a homeland in Palestine. This movement began in the late 1800s, as anti-Semitic feelings intensified in Europe. The main leader of this movement was a journalist by the name of Theodor Herzl. Herzl's dream of a homeland for Jewish peoples was realized in 1948 with the creation of Israel. Zollverein : A trade union among other German states formed by Prussia in the 1930s. Zulu : The name of a tribe of South Africa people who live in the northern part of Natal. They were the dominate tribe in the late 19th century when European Imperialism began. They resisted both the Boers and the British, but ultimately lost their homeland and freedom by 1879.