concentration camp : A prison camp used to hold Jews during World War II and the Holocaust. Confucianism : Confucius lived in China during the Chou Dynasty, when there was mass disorder and confusion and degrading moral standards. Confucius was appalled by what appeared to be the fracturing of Chinese society. He believed that the only cure was to stress a sense of social order and mutual respect, a philosophy that later became known as Confucianism. Confucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five Relationships. Confucius : (551-479 BCE?) Chinese philosopher and writer of The Analects, a collection of moral and social teachings, including the concept of the Five Relationships. Also known as Kong Fu Zi. Congress of Vienna : Meeting of European political leaders to reestablish former territorial borders after the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the fall of Napoleon. The Congress was held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815, and was dominated by Prince Metternich of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. conquistadors : Spanish conquerors who came to the New World in search of gold and other riches. Constantine : (274 CE – 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire. constitution : A document detailing the fundamental laws of a country or organization. constitutional monarchy : A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch who has limited power due to a constitution
containment : A cold war policy that called for containing communism to areas already under its influence. This policy was proposed by U.S. President Harry Truman. Copernicus, Nicolaus : (1473-1543) Polish astronomer who wrote On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. Theorized that the Earth orbited the Sun (heliocentric system) and laid the foundations of modern astronomy. corporation : A company with business dealings in many different areas. Cortez, Hernan : (1485-1547) Spanish conquistador who was responsible for the conquest of the Aztec Empire and the claiming of much of Central America for the Spanish. Counter-Reformation : The movement initiated by the Catholic Church to contain the Protestant Reformation and, if possible, end it. coup d etat : The acting of overthrowing a government in favor of another, usually through violent means. craftsman : A person who makes quality, practical or decorative goods. Creoles : In colonial Latin America, American born Spanish gentry, They owned most of the land but were treated like second class citizens, and were denied political rights. Cromwell, Oliver : (1599-1658) Leader of the English Revolution that deposed the Stuart monarchs in favor of a short lived Republic. Cromwell acted as Lord Protector until the restoration of the Monarchy in 1660. Crusades : European Christian military expeditions made between the 11th and 13th centuries to retake the Middle Eastern Holy Lands occupied by the Muslims. Cuban Missile Crisis : (1961) Crises that developed as a result of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro’s decision to allow the Soviet Union to base nuclear missiles in Cuba. Upon discovery, the United States confronted the Soviet Union and demanded the missiles be removed. For nearly two weeks, nuclear war was imminent. Fortunately, diplomacy succeeded and crisis was averted. Cuban Revolution : (1958) A political revolution that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro who became the new leader of Cuba as a communist dictator. cultural diffusion : The spreading of ideas through contact such as trade or war. Cultural Revolution : (1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
culture : The shared beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people culture system : A system of slave labor used by the Dutch in their South East Asia colonies. cuneiform : One of the earliest forms of writing. It consisted of wedge shaped symbols usually imprinted in clay. Used throughout ancient Mesopotamia. Curie, Marie : (1867-1934) French scientist. She is best known for his work with her husband Pierre in the field of radioactivity. Curie, Pierre : (1859-1906) French scientist. He is best known for his work with his wife Marie in the field of radioactivity. Cyrillic : An alphabet created by Eastern Orthodox monks for the Slavic language. It is based on Greek, and still used through the various Slavic countries today, such as Russia. Czar : Title of the ruler of Russia. Taken from the word Caesar, which means emperor. Czar Nicholas II : (1868-1918) Czar of Russia (1894-1917). He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution’s leadership. Da Gama, Vasco : (1469?-1524) Portuguese explorer who, in 1498, established an all water route to India Da Vinci, Leonardo : (1452-1519) An Italian painter, sculptor, engineer, and inventor. Famous works include paintings Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Also left a variety of sketches showing flying machines and underwater boats centuries before the invention of planes and submarines. Daimler, Gottlieb : (1834-1900) German inventor. He is best know for his work in the development of the gasoline internal combustion engine. daimyo : Land owning feudal lords in Japan. Dalai Lama : The spiritual leader of the Tibetan sect of Buddhism, and is considered to be the reincarnation of the bodhisattva, or "buddha-to-be." dam : A structure built to hold water in place. Dante : (1265-1321) Italian poet and Renaissance writer. His greatest work is The Divine Comedy. Darius I : (558?BCE – 486BCE) King of Persia who expanded his empire to extend from the Mediterranean to the Indus River. de Cervantes, Miguel : (1547-1616) Spanish Renaissance writer. His greatest work is the comedic tale Don Quixote. de Klerk, F. W. : (1936 - ) The white South African president who ended Apartheid in the early 1990s. de San Martín, José : (1778-1850) Latin American revolutionary. He is one of the main leaders of the Latin American independence movement. de Santa Anna, Antonio López : (1794-1876) Mexican general and dictator who controlled Mexico for more than 25 years. Lost war against the United States which cost Mexico present day California, Nevada, and New Mexico. decimal system : Numeric system based on ten. Created by mathematicians during the Gupta golden age in India. Declaration of the Rights of Man : Revolutionary document of the French Revolution. Written in 1789, it spelled out certain rights believed to be universal to all mankind. Patterned on the American Declaration of Independence. deforestation : The widespread destruction of the world's forests. One of the largest areas of destruction are the tropical rainforests. These forest are cut down for the hardwood lumber, to clear space for farming, for building settlements, and for grazing animals. land bridge democracy : A system of government in which the citizens hold the legislative, judicial, and executive power, based on majority rule. democratic republic : A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature. Deng Xiaoping : (1904-1997) Chinese Communist leader. Ruled from 1978 until 1997. Descartes, Rene : (1596-1650) French intellectual who challenged traditional ideas. He said that human reason was capable of discovering and explaining the laws of nature and man. The idea of human reason being superior to tradition led to the beginning of the Enlightenment, a time of political awakening that became revolution. desertification : The process in which land slowly dries out until little or no vegetation exists becoming a desert.
détente : A policy during the Cold War which was aimed at relaxing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The policy calls for increase diplomatic and commercial activity. developing nations : Nations that are economically and technologically less developed than industrialized nations. dharma : The act of fulfilling one's duty in life. Associated with Hinduism and Buddhism. Dias, Bartholomeu : (1450?-1500) Portuguese explorer who, in 1488, was the first person to round the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. diaspora : The enforced spreading out of a group of people. In history, there has been both a Jewish Diaspora and an African Diaspora. dictatorship : A system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power. Diocletian : (245-313) Emperor of Rome who was responsible for dividing Rome into different provinces and districts. Eventually, the eastern portions of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire. discrimination : To treat unfairly due to a persons ethnic background, gender, religion, or age divine : Godlike, or coming from, or having to do with a god. Divine Comedy, The : An epic poem written by Dante during the Renaissance. divine right : The justification of monarchy through the word of God. divorce : The legal act of ending a marriage. dome : A hemispherical roof. Dome of the Rock : First Islamic religious shrine. It was built in 687 C.E., and is located in present day Jerusalem, Israel. domesticate : To tame an animal to live with, or close to humans. domino theory : The idea that countries bordering communist countries were in more danger of falling to communism unless the United States and other western nations worked to prevent it. Don Quixote : A comedic book written by Miguel de Cervantes during the Renaissance. The title character is now used to refer to idealists that champion hopeless or fanciful causes. Duma : Name of the Russia Parliament. Dutch East Indies : A group of islands in South East Asia claimed by the Dutch during Imperialism. dyke : A drainage ditch used to help control flooding. dynastic cycle : In China, a dynasty would remain in power only as long as it was providing good government. When a dynasty went into decline, and began to abuse its power, it was said to lose the Mandate of Heaven, or the favor of the gods. A strong leader would usually emerge to claim the Mandate, and establish a new dynasty. The dynastic cycle would then begin again. dynasty : A succession of rulers of a country from the same family. Ebola : A contagious viral disease originating in Africa. It is transmitted by blood and body fluids and causes body organs and vessels to leak blood, usually resulting in death. economic rights : Rights such as owning property, or the choice to be employed. Edict of Milan : (313 CE) Proclamation by the Roman Emperor Constantine outlawing the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. Edison, Thomas Alva : (1847-1931) American inventor. He is best know for the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera. Eightfold Path : Code of behavior for followers of Buddhism. Einstein, Albert : (1879-1955) American scientist best known for his theory of relativity. Elizabeth I : (1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time. emperor : Political ruler of a country of nation. Similar to a king. empire : 1. A collection of nations or peoples ruled by a single authority, usually a monarch, but can be other systems of government as well. 2. A very large and powerful industrial organization Enclosure Movement : During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes. encomienda system : A system of production in Spain’s New World possessions which granted permission to conquistadors to enslave as many people needed to work a plantation. Engels, Friedrich : (1820-1895) German socialist and co-author of The Communist Manifesto. engineer : A person who plans and creates mechanic structures for a variety of uses. English Bill of Rights : (1689) A Bill of Rights written after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which placed William and Mary on the throne of England. The bill created a limited monarchy and established Parliament as the ruling body of the nation. enlightened despots : A monarch who retains absolute control of their country while also enacting reform based on Enlightenment ideas. Enlightenment : A movement in the 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Occurred in Western Europe. environment : Everything in nature including people, plants, and animals that affects development in life. Eratosthenes : (276?-196? BCE), Greek mathematician, astronomer, and geographer who measured the circumference of the Earth. His measurement was only off by 15%. escalate : To increase. Estates : Class system in France before the French Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople. Estates General : The legislative body of France. Composed of representatives from the three estates which are Clergy in the First Estate, Nobles in the Second Estate, and peasants in the Third Estate. Each Estate is entitled to one vote on legislative matters. The Estates General was never as strong as the British Parliament of the American Congress. ethnic cleansing : The removal of people of a specific ethnic group by means of genocide, terror, or forced expulsion. ethnic group : A group of people that shares distinctive cultural traits. ethnocentric : A belief in the superiority of a certain ethnic group or race.
Euclid : (circa 300 BCE), Greek mathematician. Considered to be the father of modern geomertry. European Community/European Union : Economic union between countries in Europe for mutual gain. Originally formed in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), it later became the European Community in 1967, then the European Union in 1991. evolution : The gradual change or development of something. excommunicate : To exclude a Christian from receiving the Sacraments. executive : Rrelating to a system that enforces laws. export : The sending of goods to another country for sale or trade. extermination : The complete destruction of a group of people. extinction : The death of all members of a species. extraterritoriality : A policy that guaranteed European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts. factory : A central location where goods are manufactured on a large scale. Fake Word : This is a fake Word famine : Widespread hunger caused by the near complete lack of food. fascism : A system of government that promotes extreme nationalism, repression, anticommunism, and is ruled by a dictator. Ferdinand and Isabella : During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus. Ferdinand, Franz : (1863-1914) Archduke of Austria, nephew to the Emperor. He was assainated by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914. This resulted in the start of World War I. fertilizers : A substance spread onto soil to increase its ability to support crops. Fertilizers include organic materials, such as manure, but can also be man made chemicals such as nitrates. Feudalism : A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life. fief : An area of land given to a person to farm in exchange for certain obligations. filial piety : A part Confucianism where respect is paid to the parents. Five Pillars of Islam : Code of behavior for followers of Islam. Includes Charity, Daily Prayer, Profession of Faith, Fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca called the hajj. Five Relationships : Confucian philosophy about social order where everyone has a place and respect is paid to elders, parents, and the government. The relationships are, ruler to ruled, father to son, older brother to younger brother, husband to wife, friend to friend. Five Year Plans : Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after World War II. Included massive industrialization and farm collectivization, where peasants lived collectively on government owned farms, often resulted in widespread famine as many peasants resisted this policy. Fleming, Alexander : (1881-1955) English scientist who, in 1928, observed that a mold called Penicillium killed germs. This discovery resulted in the development of antibiotics, which attack or weaken bacteria that cause many diseases. Antibiotics were not widely used until the 1940s. foot-binding : A popular practice that tightly bound the feet of young girls, deforming them as they grew older. This was done to achieve the desired cultural practice of having dainty, lady-like feet. Ford, Henry : (1863-1947) American Industrialist. Ford is best know for his innovations in the auto manufacturing industry. His company was the first to use an assembly line for production. foreign policy : A nation’s actions regarding how they treat other nations. Four Modernizations : An economic and social program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy. Unlike the Great Leap Forward, the Four Modernizations was an economic success. Four Noble Truths : Siddhartha's Gautama philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by four statements Fourteen Points Speech : An address given to the United States’ Congress by President Woodrow Wilson concerning the end of World War I and the treatment of all concerned with the war. The speech outlines the League of Nations and the ideas of self determination for different ethnic groups. fraternity : A group or society formed by people who share common interests. Frederick the Great : (1712-1786), King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress. French Indochina : Area of southeast Asia controlled by France during Imperialism. Includes Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
French Revolution : Political revolution in France starting in 1789 that brought about many changes in France. The revolution ultimately ended with a dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte before his defeat by the combined powers of Europe. fundamental : Affecting the underlying principles or structure of something. Galilei, Galileo : (1564-1642) Italian astronomer. One of the founders of Europe's scientific revolution, one of his main contributions is the application of the telescope to astronomy. He was able to prove Copernicus’ heliocentric model correct. Gandhi, Mohandas : (1869-1948) Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gain his country’s freedom from the British Empire. Ganges River : Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals. Garibaldi, Guiseppe : (1807-1882?) Military leader whose Red Shirt army liberated most of southern Italy, before conquering the northern section. He was instrumental in the unification of Italy. Gautama, Siddhartha : (563?-483?BCE), Indian philosopher and the founder of Buddhism. Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, and by all account led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root caused of all suffering. Also known as the Buddha. general will : Name Enlightenment thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau uses to describe majority rule. genetic engineering : The process of altering life forms by manipulating their genetic structure. Genghis Khan : (1167?-1227) One of the Mongol’s greatest leaders and founder of the Mongol Empire. genocide : The killing of all the people from a ethnic group, religious group, or people from a specific nation. gentry : Members of the upper class in some social class systems. geocentric model : Theory of the universe that states the earth is the center, and that the sun revolves around it. Ghana : One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert. ghetto : Term given to poor areas of town where Jews were sent during World War II. Glasnost : A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry. Global North : Economic and political designation given to industrialized countries such those in North America and Western Europe, and also including Japan, and Australia. These nations have high standards of living and a high literacy rate. Global South : Economic and Political designation given to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and South America, many of which were former colonies during European Imperialism. These post colonial nations face low literacy rates, massive unemployment, little to no industrialization, and are generally economically dependent on their former colonial masters. Glorious Revolution : Political revolution in Great Britain in 1688 that put William and Mary on the throne, while limiting the power of the monarchy and making Parliament supreme. This event marks the beginning of a constitutional monarchy in England. Gold Coast : Name given to the parts of the west coast of Africa by European imperialist due to the amount of gold found in the region. golden age : A time in a culture of high achievement in arts, literature, and science. Generally occurs in times of peace. Gorbachev, Mikhail : (1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism. government : a person or body of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a country or area. Great Depression : (1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world’s economy due to the United State’s stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations. Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies. Great Leap Forward : The economic program designed to increase farm and industrial output though the creation of communes. Communes are similar to Soviet collectives in that groups of people live and work together on government owned farms and in government owned industry. Great Purge : The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere : A imperialistic system founded by Japan consisting of other Asian countries during the early 20th century. Japan reduced its members to puppet nations, taking their raw materials and using them as new markets. Greco-Roman : The cultural mixing of both ancient Greek and Roman traditions. Greek column : Fluted column used in many of their buildings, and copied throughout the world today. Green Revolution : Throughout the 20th century, scientists worked on improving agriculture, especially in areas with high populations. Some of the technologies developed included better irrigation systems so farmers could get water to their crops. New machinery was built to handle larger production and to take the burden of agriculture work off of humans. New chemical fertilizers and pesticides were created to increase food production, and new varieties of grains and livestock were developed also for greater production. The Green Revolution has had only limited success. The high costs associated with many of these new technologies have kept the small farmer from taking advantage of them. greenhouse gas : A gas such as carbon dioxide, ozone, or water vapor that are a factoring the warming of the Earth’s atmosphere. Guevara, Che : (1928-1967) Latin American guerilla leader. In the mid 20th century Guevara was instrumental in helping Fidel Castro lead the Cuban Revolution. He was later killed in Bolivia while trying to lead a revolution there. guild : An association of merchants or craftspeople in medieval Europe, formed to make regulations and set standards for a particular trade or craft. gunpowder : Chemical compound that burns very quickly. Used in weaponry. Gupta Dynasty : (320-550 C.E.)Ruling family in India during its golden age. Responsible for many achievements. Gutenberg, Johannes : (1400?-1468) German printer and European pioneer in the use of movable type. habitation : A place where something lives. Haiku : A 3 line poem that has 17 syllables in the Japanese language, and expresses a single thought, feeling or idea. hajj : The pilgrimage or holy journey to the city of Mecca Hammurabis Code : Oldest written system of laws. They were created by King Hammurabi of Babylonia in th mid 18th century BCE and placed on stones tablets for all to see. Hebrew : Semitic language originating in ancient Palestine and spoken by the Israelites. Modern Hebrew was developed in the 19th and 20th centuries from the ancient written language. Hegira : The flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Median which was instrumental to the founding of the religion of Islam. Occurs in 622 ACE, which dates the founding of Islam. heliocentric model : Theory of the universe that states the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it. Hellenistic : Time period from the late 4th century BCE to the 1st century CE that was characterized by Greek achievement and a blending of Persian, Egyptian, Greek, and Indian cultures due to the empire of Alexander the Great. Henry VIII : (1491-1547) King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation. Herzl, Theodor : (1860-1904) Leader of Zionist movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. hieroglyphics : A system of writing which uses pictures for concepts and ideas. hijacking : The taking control of a public transport vehicle, such as an airliner or train to use the people aboard as hostages. Hinduism : A polytheistic religion that was formed from a variety of different religious practices. In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a spiritual oneness of the soul, atman, with the ultimate reality of the universe, Brahma. To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain moksha, or liberation from the samsara, the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. As a result of these basic teachings, Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is influenced by karma (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions), and dharma (fulfilling one's duty in life). Because all forms of animal life possess souls, Hindus believe in ahimsa, or that all life is sacred. and should not be harmed. In fact, one animal which Hindus consider to be extremely sacred is the cow. The peaceful and contented existence of cows is considered virtuous by Hindus and would represent a rewarding reincarnation for a soul. For this reason, most Hindus are vegetarians so that they do not harm other living beings. The belief in reincarnation, karma, and dharma also provides the religious justification for the existence of the rigid social structure known as the Caste System. Hippocrates : (460?-377? BCE) Greek physician. He is considered to be the father of medicine and the ethical standard of treating all patients known as the Hippocratic Oath. Hippocratic Oath : An promise made new physicians to treat all people fairly, and to seek to preserve life. Named after a ancient Greek physician who is credited with writing it. Hirohito : (1901-1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 until 1989. He is the last Japanese emperor to be considered divine. Led Japan through World War II. Hiroshima : Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on Aug 6th, 1945. Hitler, Adolf : (1889-1945) Austrian-born leader of Germany. He co-founded the Nazi Party in Germany, and gained control of the country as chancellor in 1933. Hitler started World War II with the invasion of Poland. He was responsible for the Holocaust. Ho Chi Minh : (1890-1969) Vietnamese leader who is responsible for ousting first the French, then the United States from his country. Supported by both communist China and the Soviet Union, he guided Vietnam through decades long warfare to emerge as a communist nation. Hobbes, Thomas : (1588-1679) English philosopher and political theorist. Wrote Leviathan, where he favored an absolute government as the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property. Holocaust : The attempted genocide of European Jews, Gypsies, mentally retarded, homosexuals, and others by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Holy Land : Term given to lands in present day Israel that is significant to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Holy Trinity : Formed by the Creator (Father), Redeemer (Son), and Sustainer (Holy Spirit). Christians believe that these three entities are all part of a single higher power.
Hubble Space Telescope : Large space telescope able to see farther than any other telescope at the end of the 20th century. human and physical geography : The study of the environment, people, and the resources they use to live. human rights : The rights that are considered by most societies to belong automatically to all people, including the rights to justice, freedom, and equality. humanism : A philosophical movement during the Renaissance that stressed life on Earth, and the quality of being human. Rejected living only for the afterlife of Christianity. hunting and gathering : System of food production for prehistoric peoples. Involves hunting animals and gathering foods grown in the wild. Hussein, Saddam : (1937- ) President of Iraq since 1979. He has led his control into two devastating wars, one against Iran in 1980 to 1988, and the Persian Gulf War in 1990 – 1991 which started as a result of his invading Kuwait. Hutus and Tutsis : Tribes in Rwanda responsible for decades of warfare. hydroelectric power : Power that is derived from a moving body of water, such as a river or waterfall. Ibn Sina : Islamic physician, wrote a book called Canon on Medicine, which was an encyclopedia of Greek, Arabic, and his own knowledge of medicine. This book became the standard medical text in Europe for over five hundred years. idealized realism : Art form practiced by the Greeks during the 5th century BCE. Portrays the human form very realistically, but in its perfect form. ideographs : Writing system that uses pictures of ideas. ideology : An organized system of beliefs, values, and ideas. They form the basis of a political, social, and economic philosophy. Imam : In Islam, the leader of prayers and religious scholar. immigration : The movement of people from one nation to another. Imperialism : The complete control of a weaker nation’s social, economic, and political life by a stronger nation. import : The bringing in of goods from another country for sale or trade. Inca : A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. The Inca ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century. Indian National Congress : Nationalistic organization in India with the purpose of ending British control. Prominent members include Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Indian Nationalist Movement : Nationalist movement to end British control of India. individualism : A social philosophy which stresses the importance of the individual above society. indulgence : Letters of forgiveness for one's sins provided by the medieval Church, and one of the causes of the Reformation. Industrial Revolution : In the second half of the 19th century, it was the fundamental change in the way goods were produced through the use of machines, capital, and the centralization of work forces in factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and the United States. industrialization : The change to industrial methods of production such as the use of factories. inflation : The raising of prices on consumer goods due to an increase in the money supply. information superhighway : Term given to the Internet due to the amount of information transferred. inherit : To gain something when someone dies, such as property or money. interdependence : Mutual assistance or reliance between two or more parties. International Court of Justice : Headquartered at the Hague, the Court started work in April of 1946. The Court usually hears only cases brought before it by any of the 189 U.N. Member States, but has made several concessions over the years.
Irish Potato Famine : A famine in 1845 when the main crop of Ireland, potatoes, was destroyed by disease. Irish farmers grew other food items, such as wheat and oats, but Great Britain required them to export those items to them, leaving nothing for the Irish to live on. As a result, over 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease, while millions of others migrated to the United States.
Irish Republican Army (IRA) : A terrorist organization based in Ireland which seeks to remove the British government from the Six Northern Counties which they control. Iron Curtain : A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union’s policy of isolation during the Cold War. The Iron Curtain isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world. Its most poignant symbol was the Berlin Wall. irrigation : A system to bring water to support crops. Islam : The word Islam, which when translated from Arabic, means "to submit to the will of Allah," is the youngest of the world's major religions. Worshippers of this monotheistic religion are known as Muslims, which means "one who submits to the will of Allah." The Islamic holy book is called the Qur’an. Islam is currently the second most practiced religion in the world, and experts predict that it will overtake Christianity as the most popular religion in the world sometime during the 21st century. Islamic fundamentalists : Muslims who believe the Quran to be a literal guide to political, social, and religious life. Israeli - Palestinian Conflict : Conflict over landownership in Israel/Palestine. This conflict has at times involved most of the nations of the Middle East as well as the United States and the Soviet Union. Widespread terrorism against Israel and its allies occurs because of this conflict. Israeli War for Independence : (1948-49) War between Israel and the Arab world over the formation of the nation of Israel. Jiang Jieshi : (1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek. jihad : Effort in God’s service waged by Muslims in defense of the Islamic faith. joint stock company : A company that sells shares to investors who share in the profits and losses. Joseph II : The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire. Juárez, Benito : (1806-72) President of Mexico from 1861 to 1863 and 1867 to 1872. He was responsible for many reforms including reducing the power of the Catholic Church. Judaism : Judaism is the oldest known monotheistic religion still practiced in the world today. Its fundamental teachings have been influential and are the basis for more recently developed religions such as Christianity and Islam. Judaism teaches that there is one God who is the creator of all things. after the Hebrew exodus from Egypt, many Hebrews began to lose their faith in God. During this time, Moses went atop Mount Sinai and returned with two stone tablets containing laws that all Hebrews needed to follow. These laws, recorded in the Exodus 20:3-17, became known as the Ten Commandments. judicial : Relating to a system that administers justice. Justinians Code : A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system. Kabuki theatre : Feudal Japanese theatre that performed comedic or melodramatic presentations of everyday life or historic events. Kaiser Wilhelm : (1859-1941) King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war. Kami : Sacred spirits that are worshipped in the Shinto religion of Japan. Kana : Japanese writing system adapted from Chinese, with the addition of phonetic symbols representing syllables. karma : Actions in this life resulting from the consequences of a previous life’s actions. Associated with Hinduism and Buddhism. Kellogg-Briand Pact : A treaty signed in 1928 renouncing war as a means of solving international disputes. Kenyatta, Jomo : (1894?-1978) Independence leader who help lead Kenya out of European imperialism after World War II. Khmer Rouge : A group of communist guerillas in Cambodia during the late 20th century, led by Pol Pot, that gained control of Cambodia after the withdrawal of American troops from the Vietnam War. The initiated a reign of terror, killing over a million people to remove all western influence from the country. This gross violation of human rights ended when Vietnam invaded and occupied the country in 1979. In the 1990s, the United Nations negotiated a peace settlement, and began the democratic process in Cambodia. Khrushchev, Nikita : (1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin’s policies and attempted to reverse some of them. He is responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis. King Leopold : (1835-1909) King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa. Kipling, Rudyard : (1865-1936) British writer and poet. His poem The White Man’s Burden became a popular justification for European imperialism. Koch, Robert : (1843-1910) German physician who, in the 1880’s, discovered that bacteria caused tuberculosis. Kong Fu Zi : See Confucius Korean Bridge : The term given to process in which cultural diffusion occurred between China and Japan though Korean contact with both civilizations. Korean War : A war between North Korean, which was supported by both the Soviet Union and communist China, and South Korea, which was supported by the United States and the United Nations. The war occurred between 1950 and 1953 and ended in an armistice and original borders. Kristallnacht : On November 9th, 1938, Nazis in German looted, and burned Jewish stores and Synagogues, often beating Jews in the street. Over 90 Jews were killed during Kristallnacht. Also called Night of Broken Glass. Kublai Khan : (1215-1294) Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China. Kuomintang : Nationalist Party in China led by Jiang Jieshi, which began a war against the Communist Party led by Mao Zedong. Both fought for control of China, with Mao and the Communists ultimately winning in 1949. Kurds : Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq. Laissez-Faire Economics : This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic system dominated most of the Industrial Revolution. Lao Tze : (570-490 BCE?) Chinese philosopher credited with originating Taoism/Daoism. His teachings were collected and published as the Tao-te Ching. Last Supper, The : A famous Renaissance painting by Leonardo Da Vinci. Latin America : The Geopolitical designation for Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands which were settled by the Spanish. Latin American Revolutions : Political revolutions in various Latin American countries beginning in the late 18th century. These revolutions were aimed at overthrowing the European powers that controlled these nations. Many were successful, but few achieved the success of the American Revolution. latitude : Lines of equal distance measured north and south of the equator. Laws of the Twelve Tables : A system of laws. Some of the features of this system include, men being equal under the law, having the right to face their accusers, and being considered innocent until proven guilty. lay investiture : The creation of a Bishop by a non church official, usually a feudal lord. League of Nations : A multinational peace keeping organization which began as an idea of United States President Woodrow Wilson following the first World War. The Treaty of Versailles created a League with over 40 different countries joining. The United States was not one of them. The League of Nations was to be an international body that would settle future problems through negotiations instead of warfare. The member nations were to work cooperatively through economic and military means to enforce its decisions. However, since the United States did not join, the League never achieved its intentions. While the League did attempt to halt the aggressiveness of Hitler's Germany, their inherent weakness prevented them from stopping World War II. legislative : Relating to a system that makes laws. Lenin, Vladimir : (1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader and political theorist. He was the first leader of the new communist government of Soviet Russia. Later, he was also the first leader of the Soviet Union, which was composed of most of the republics of the former Russian Empire. Leviathan : A book written by Thomas Hobbes describing his theory that an absolute government was the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property. Lister, Joseph : (1827-1912) English surgeon who discovered that germs cause post operative infections. He then insisted doctors use antiseptics, substances that kill germs, on their hands and instruments before surgery. This process greatly reduced the number of deaths caused by infection after surgery. Little Red Book : A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools. Lloyd George, David : (1863-1945) British Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922, he led Great Britain through World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles. Locke, John : (1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights. Long March : March the Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China’s Nationalist Party. longitude : The curving distance east or west of the prime meridian that stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole. Louis XIV : (1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles. Louis XVI : (1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded. L'Ouverture, Toussaint : (1743?-1803) Revolutionary leader who is responsible for ousting France from Haiti during the Latin American Revolutions in the early 19th century. Loyola, Ignatius : (1491-1556) Founded the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Jesuits. He worked to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe. Luther, Martin : (1483-1546) Theologian and religious reformer who started the Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences. Machiavelli, Niccolo : (1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that “the ends justifies the means.” Magellan, Ferdinand : (1480?-1521) Spanish explorer who was the first to circumnavigate the globe. Magna Carta : A document granting rights to both the Church in England and the Nobility signed by King John in 1215. This is considered to be the beginnings of British democracy. Mahabharata : Hindu epic poem that was written in Sanskrit in the 5th century BCE. Its most important part is the Bhagavad-Gita.
Mali : One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert. Greatest ruler was Mansa Musa, who converted to Islam and made a famous pilgrimage. mandate : A territory that was given to a European nation to administer by the League of Nations following the end of World War I. Mandate of Heaven : Divine right of rule in China. Mandela, Nelson : (1918 - )A black South African leader who protested the policy of Apartheid and spent over thirty years in prison before becoming the first black president of South Africa. manorialism : Economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord’s manor including peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lord's castle or manor house. Mansa Musa : Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East. Mao Zedong : (1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976. Marco Polo : (1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period. Maria Teresa : An enlightened Despot who ruled the Austrian Empire. market economy : An economy based on free trade and supply and demand. Marshall Plan : Economic aid from the United States used to rebuild Europe after World War II. Named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall. Marx, Karl : (1818-1883), German political philosopher and writer. Coauthor with Friedrich Engels of The Communist Manifesto which described the new philosophy of scientific socialism, which is the basis for modern communism. mass production : The manufacturing of products on a large scale, usually through the use of machines. massacre : The killing of large numbers of people matriarchal : A society or political/social system in which women hold the power. Mau Mau : Revolutionary group in Kenya who used violent means to force out European settlers. Maurya Dynasty : (321? BCE - 185? BCE) Dynasty that united most of India under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya. Its greatest ruler, Asoka, converted to Buddhism and was instrumental in its spread. Maurya, Chandragupta : (?-286 BCE) First king of the Maurya dynasty in India. Mayans : A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E.. Mazzini, Guiseppe : (1805-1872), Nationalistic leader in Italy, who started a group called Young Italy in 1831. Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy. Mecca : A city in Saudi Arabia where Muslims must make a pilgrimage at least once in their life. Meiji : (1852-1912) Emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912. He was responsible for the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the rapid modernization and industrialization of Japan.
Meiji Restoration : The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868. Mencius : (371?-289 BCE), Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China. Also known as Mengzi, or Meng-tzu. Menes : (3100? BCE) King of Upper Egypt, united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt mercantilism : The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports. Colonies are instrumental in this policy as they supply their parent nations with raw materials that are used to produce finished goods, and then exported back to the colonies. Colonies not only served as a source for the raw materials, but also as an exclusive market for the parent country. merchant : A person who sells goods or services. A member of the middle class in most societies. Mesoamerican : A region of Central America, Mexico, and South America where several pre-Columbian civilizations lived including the Maya, Inca, and Aztecs. messiah : According to the Hebrew Bible, an anointed king who will lead the Jews back to the land of Israel and establish justice in the world. According to the Christians, the Messiah was Jesus Christ. Mestizos : In colonial Latin America, Spanish/Native America who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage. Mexican Revolution : (1910 – 1920) A political revolution that removed dictator Porfirio Diaz, and hoped to institute democratic reforms. While a constitution was written in 1917, it was many more years until true change occurred. Michelangelo : (1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David. Middle Ages : Time period in European history between the fall of Rome in 476 C.E. and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance in the early 15th century. middle class : Social and economic class usually composed of merchants, artisans, and business people. In some societies, the richest class, but without a title of nobility. The middle class is usually the backbone of society as they are generally more moderate in their economic, social, and political habits. Middle East : Geo-Political designation of the area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the western side of the Indian subcontinent. Consists of countries such as Israel, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Middle Kingdom (China) : Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. The believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom. Middle Kingdom (Egypt) : (2040 BCE – 1640 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by internal strife and hardships, and the invasion, and subsequent take over by the neighboring Hyksos. migration : The mass movement of people from one area to another. militarism : Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms. military : The armed forces of a nation. Milosevic, Slobodan : (1941- ) Former Yugoslavian President. He fought to keep non-Serbs from breaking away from Yugoslavia. During the 1990s, he used his army to terrorize ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, who were asking for self rule. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) finally put a stop to this violence, and Milosevic has since been arrested and awaits trial for war crimes.
minority : A small group of people from a larger group. missionary : A person who spreads the teachings of a religion. mixed economy : An economic system which is a combination of Market and Command economic systems where market forces control most consumer goods, but government directs industry in need areas.
Model Parliament : (1295) English Parliament where bishops and abbots, peers, two knights from each shire, and two representatives from each town all met in modern format for the first time. modernization : To change something to make it conform to modern standards Mohammed : Prophet of Allah; founder of Islam. Moksha : In Hinduism, it is the release from the cycle of reincarnation through unification with Brahma. Mona Lisa : A famous Renaissance painting by Leonardo Da Vinci. monarchy : A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch. monotheism : The belief in one god or goddess. Monroe Doctrine : (1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference. Moses : He is considered a founder of Judaism due to his role in the liberation of the Hebrews from Egypt, and his delivery of the Ten Commandments from Mount Sinai sometime around 2000 BCE. mosque : A domed Islamic religious building. movable type printing machines : A printing machine that used individual letters that could be moved after each printing. This allowed for faster and easier printing. Muezzin : In Islam, one who issues a call to prayer, causing the faithful to gather at the local Mosque. mulattoes : In colonial Latin America, Spanish/African who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage. multinational company : A company that does business in more than one country, usually by setting up branch offices. mummification : The process of preserving a corpse by removing the moisture from it before burial. This process was practiced by many different cultures. musket : Handheld weapon that uses small balls of lead as projectiles and gunpowder as the blasting agent. Muslim League : Nationalist movement in India by the Islamic population who did not feel represented by the Indian National Congress. They initially formed to protexct Muslim rights, but later called for an independent state. Mussolini, Benito : (1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance. NAFTA : North American Free Trade Agreement, an economic treaty between Canada, the United States, and Mexico to lower tariffs and create a free trade environment. NAFTA was ratified by its member nations in 1994.
Nagasaki : Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945. NASA / National Aeronautical and Space Administration : American space agency responsible for administrating the United State’s space program. Nasser, Gamal Abdel : (1918-1970) President of Egypt from 1956 to 1970. He was responsible for nationalizing the Suez Canal, and was an important leader to the Arab world. He was often at odds with the West and Israel. Nasser, Gamal Abdel : (1918-1970) President of Egypt from 1956 to 1970. He was the most influential leader of the Arab world during his lifetime. He supported the idea of Pan Arabism, where all Arab nations should unite. Also supported the Soviet Union during the Cold War. National Assembly : First new government during the first stage of the French Revolution. nationalism : Pride in one’s country or culture, often excessive in nature. nation-state : An independent state or country. Native Americans & Slaves : In colonial Latin America, lowest social class. They had no rights and were often treated poorly and used as a labor source by the plantation owning Creoles.
NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international defense alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and others formed in 1949 as a response to the spread of communism. natural resources : Various materials found in nature used in manufacturing such as wood, coal, and oil. natural rights : Concept of John Locke’s that states all people have the right to life, liberty, and property. navigable rivers : A river that is able to be navigated by boat. Nazi : Name of German National Socialist Party, which gained control of Germany in 1933 under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. Nehru, Jawaharlal : (1889-1964) Indian nationalist leader and the first prime minister of independent India from 1947 to 1964. Along with Mohandas Gandhi, he was instrumental in freeing India from Britain’s control. Neolithic Age : (10,000 BCE - 5000 BCE) New Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the development of agriculture and permanent settlements. Neolithic Revolution : (10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization. New Economic Policy : An economic policy of Vladimir Lenin’s in the Soviet Union where government controlled most banks and industry, but did allow some private ownership. New Imperialism : A policy of economic, political, and social of one country by another. Industrialized countries sought control of other countries for raw materials and new markets. New Kingdom : (1550 BCE - 1100 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by strong pharaohs who conquered an empire that stretched from Nubia in the south, to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia.
New Testament : The second half of the Christian Bible. It describes the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, as well as other Christian teachings. Newcomen, Thomas : (1663-1729) Developed a steam engine powered by coal. Newton, Isaac : (1642-1727) English scientist who discovered gravitation, invented calculus, and formulated the laws of motion. Nirvana : In Buddhism, spiritual enlightenment. Nkrumah, Kwame : (1909-1972) Independence leader who help lead Ghana out of European imperialism after World War II. nomad : A person who belongs to a group of people who move from place to place seasonally in search of food and water. Northwest Passage : Mythical water route from the northeast region of North America to the Pacific Ocean. Many people during the Age of Exploration searched for this route that does not exist. However, the search resulted in the discovery of much of the northeast region of North America by the Europeans. nuclear weapons : Weapons in which the explosive potential is controlled by nuclear fission or fusion. Nuremburg Trials : War crime trials held in Nuremburg after World War II to try the surviving Nazis concerning the Holocaust, aggressive war making, mistreatment of prisoners among other things.
occupation (military) : The control of one country by another through the stationing of military troops and military government. Old Imperialism : A European policy of conquest that occurs in the 15th through 18th centuries in Africa, India, the Americas, and parts of Asia The motives were the same for most areas, the establishment of lucrative trade routes. Various European countries dominated these trades routes and one time or another, and a some countries, such as Great Britain and Spain, came to dominate entire countries. Old Kingdom : (2575 BCE – 2134 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by the building of the Great Pyramids at Giza. Old Testament : The first half of the Christian Bible, that describes the creation of the world, the history of ancient Israel, the Ten Commandments, and contains the Psalms and the prophetic books. Also is the Hebrew Torah. Oligarchy : A political system in which the government is under the control of the merchant class. Olmecs : A Mesoamerican civilization that flourished around 1200 C.E.. Achievements include irrigation, a simple calendar and writing system, and small cities. OPEC : Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, an international organization concerned with the crude-oil policies of its member states. This organization was founded in 1960, and has 11 members, including Kuwait, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Indonesia, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. Due to their control of most of the world’s oil supply, OPEC has a strong influence on many industrialized nations. Open Door Policy : A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism. Opium War : In the early 19th century, Great Britain began importing opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China. Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of unequal treaties. oracle bones : In ancient China, they were pieces of bone or turtle shell used by Shang priests to tell the future. They would write a question addressed to either one of the gods, or an ancestor on the bone, then heat it until it cracked. They believed that by studying the pattern of cracks, one could learn the answer to the question. Oracle bones are the oldest example of Chinese writing. Orlando, Vittorio : (1860-1952) Prime Minister of Italy during World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles. Orthodox Christianity : A branch of Christianity developed in the Byzantine Empire, after its split from the Roman Empire. It spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean and Russia. Osama bin Laden : (1957- ) Saudi Arabian multimillionaire and leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. He is responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on the United States including the destruction of the World Trade Center. Ottoman Empire : Hereditary nation state centered in Turkey. It was founded in the late 13th century after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and extended across most of Asia Minor and the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire collapsed shortly after World War II. ozone layer : The layer of the upper atmosphere where ozone collects. This layer absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Pacific Rim : The countries that border the Pacific Ocean, specifically, the countries of East Asia, considered as an economic unit. pagoda : A multistoried building with the corners of the roof curved up that were used as a temple. Pahlavi, Muhammad Reza : (1919-1980), Dictator ruler of Iran from 1941 to 1979. He was supported by the United States throughout most of the Cold War due to his anti communist stance. Overthrown during the Iranian Revolution in 1979. Paleolithic Age : (750,000 BCE - 10,000 B.C.E.) Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source. Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) : One time terrorist organization, now considered to be a legitimate political body whose goals have been to create a nation-state for the displaced Palestinians. The PLO is lead by Yasir Arafat. Pan Africanism : Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Africans, and sought to end foreign control. Pan Arabism : Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Arabs, and sought to end foreign control in the Middle East. Pan Slavism : Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Slavic peoples, and sought to end foreign control of various Slavic nations. Panama Canal : A canal that crosses the isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Built by the United States between 1904 and 1914. Pantheon : A domed temple in Rome that was completed in 27 BCE, and still stands today. papyrus scrolls : Paper like material made from the reeds of the papyrus plant. It was used by the Egyptians for the writing and storing of documents. parliament : A government's legislative body. parliamentary democracy : A form of government where the citizens elect members to represent them in a parliament, or legislative assembly.