Vocab: assembly, town meeting, militia, delegate People

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Chapter 11

Breaking Ties with Great Britain

Lesson 1: The Road to Self-Government
Vocab: assembly, town meeting, militia, delegate

People: Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, John Adams, John Peter Zenger, Phillis Wheatley

*Earliest form of self government was town meetings*

*Royal Governors were chosen by the king to make sure the colonies were following British laws*
House of Burgesses- early form of self-government in Virginia

Powers of the House of Burgesses:

  • Print money

  • Build roads

  • Make land laws

  • Call for taxes

  • Raise money to support their militia

  • Prepare for war

Why was John Peter Zenger in trouble with the Royal Governor?

Answer: He publicly criticized the Royal Governor of New York in a newspaper article.
What happened as a result of Zenger’s trial?

Answer: The freedom of speech law was established. You could print things publicly as long as they were true.

Lesson 2: The 13 Colonies Rebel
Vocab: liberty, rebel, Stamp Act, treason, Sons of Liberty, repeal, Townshend Acts, boycott, Committees of Correspondence, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts

People: Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, Crispus Attucks, Abigail Adams
*Why was Great Britain in debt???*

Answer: They just ended the French and Indian War. Also, it is expensive to govern and protect a country that is so far away.

*How did Great Britain resolve to get out of debt???*

Answer: The King decided an easy solution to their debt would be to tax the colonies for the services Great Britain is providing.

Stamp Act: colonists had to pay taxes on any newspaper, pamphlet, or signed document

Result: some colonists attacked British tax collectors and others refused to pay the tax; one year later it was repealed.
Townshend Act: tax on tea, paper, glass, lead, and other items from England

Result: colonists boycotted these goods; Boston Massacre resulted; Great Britain repealed the taxes except for the tax on tea.
*Boston Massacre- Boston residents were upset about British soldiers doing drills in the streets. Some colonists picked fights, threw things, and attacked the soldiers. The British fired shots killing 5 men.

*Committees of Correspondence- helped to unify the colonies by writing to each other to inform colonists about important political events in the colonies.

*Since Great Britain left a tax on tea, angry colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians and dumped valuable chests of tea into Boston Harbor.*
*The King didn’t know who to punish so he punished all of Boston*
Intolerable Acts: until the tea was paid for the King closed the port of Boston, town meetings were banned, colonists had to feed and house British soldiers in the colonies.

Result: The First Continental Congress was formed

Lesson 3: The Revolution Begins
Vocab: First Continental Congress, petition, minutemen, American Revolution, Battle of Bunker Hill

People: John Hancock, Paul Revere, William Dawes, John Parker, Ethan Allen, Israel Putnam, Peter Salem
First Continental Congress- Delegates from each colony but Georgia met at Philadelphia to send a petition to King George III asking for a repeal of the Intolerable Acts.
*British soldiers were heading to Lexington from Boston to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock. They would then continue on to Concord where the colonists were rumored to store weapons.*
*Colonial militias near Lexington were told “to be ready at the beat of the drum.” (Be ready to fight!)*
*Paul Revere left Boston to warn people in Lexington and Concord that “the British are coming”. (Revere was joined by William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott.)*


*At Lexington, the first shots of the American Revolution were fired.

“…And fired the shot heard round the world.”—Ralph Waldo Emerson
*British soldiers defeated the outnumbered colonial militia at Lexington, and then marched on to Concord to destroy the stored weapons.
*At Concord, minutemen, along with militias from other towns, forced the British to retreat. (Most of the weapons were hidden by the women before the British could capture or destroy any.)
*Patrick Henry continued delivering fiery speeches about his dislike for the British……one of his most famous speeches was “…..but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!”
Fort Ticonderoga: this fort was one of the major supply posts for the British Army.
What happened there??? Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys crept past the fort’s light defenses. Without firing a shot, Allen and the Green Mountain Boys captured the fort from the British thus cutting off their supplies from Canada.
Battle of Bunker Hill: the colonial militia tried to set up a fort on the hills outside of Boston. After the third charge by the British, the colonial militia was forced to retreat to nearby Bunker Hill.
*More than 1000 British died; more than 400 colonists also died.
*The Battle was won by the British, but clearly showed the colonists were willing to put up a hard fight for their freedom.
What is a Political Cartoon?

A political cartoon is a drawing that expresses a cartoonist’s opinion about people, political events, or newsworthy issues.

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