FOUNDATIONS-8000 BCE- 1000CE The Origins of Civilization Summary.The first human beings appeared over two million years ago, with major stages in physical development ending about 140,000 years ago. They discovered tool using and improving and thus were able to move away from hunting and gathering practices to form larger groups. The key markers for the origins of human societies are the beginnings of agriculture, about 9000 B.C.E., and the achievement of the societies that followed. By 1000 B.C.E. several civilizations were ready for more elaborate political and cultural forms.
The Neolithic Revolution. Humans had spread widely long before agriculture was invented. Their hunting and gathering techniques kept them in small bands. Agriculture made larger systems possible, but it brought disadvantages. Relationships between men and women altered, and unfavorable changes occurred in the physical environment. Thousands of years passed as new political forms and technologies developed. The dispersion of the species ensured that the development of agriculture happened in different places at different times.
Civilization’s First Phase: The River Valleys. By 2000 B.C.E. five major civilizations had developed: Mesopotamia, Egypt, northwestern India, northern China, and central America. They had limited contact with each other. The five were the pioneers in generating elements common to later civilizations. The early civilizations ended or paused around 1000 B.C.E., a date marking a move to a more mature phase of civilization.
Issues for Interpretation: Problems in Analyzing Early World History. The focus in studying early societies is on the emergence of developing separate civilized traditions as people increased their mastery over nature. Technology and culture help to explain change and the characteristics of a civilization. Comparison between the differing civilizations broadens this knowledge, as does the question of borrowing between groups. The precedents established during this first period in world history allow us to ask questions valid for later historical periods.
The Classical Period in World History 1000 BCE-600 CE Summary. Classical civilizations, building upon the achievements of earlier rive-valley civilizations, took shape in Asia, North Africa, and southern Europe, between 1000 and 5OO B.C.E. They endured until the 5th century C.E. Dramatic innovations occurred, especially the formation of political empires and new philosophical and religious thinking. Many other regions, either not connected or only later in contact with classical centers, also produced important developments. In the Americas new civilizations took form; other areas developed more advanced agricultural techniques. After 1000 B.C.E. the world was divided into three main parts; one where the roots of civilization were well established; another where complex societies were first forming; and a third where forms of organization were built around nomadic economies.
The Boundaries of Classical Civilizations. Classic civilizations developed larger geographic range, forming more complex political institutions, commercial networks, and cultures than their ancestors. New civilization centers emerged in India, China, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean. Both nomadic groups and previously uninfluenced agricultural peoples in Asia, Europe, and Africa began to learn what civilization involved. The classical period ended between the 3d and 6th centuries C.E. Internal decay and invasions from Central Asia destroyed great states from China to Rome. The reworking of surviving civilization patterns triggered another new period in world history after 500 C.E.
Regional Integration in the Classical Period. Each classical civilization was distinctive, but each had to integrate politically large territories, extend common culture, and expand commerce. The Mediterranean, under the Greeks and Romans, became a single economic region allowing local areas to profit through specialization. In China and India similar regions appeared. Cultural integration through philosophy and religion emerged in the three classical centers, and in Persia. Enduring styles in art and architecture appeared. The new civilizations' geographical scope allowed important contacts resulting in cultural borrowing and diffusion. During this era the great monuments of thought, politics, and art that developed provided the foundations for most later civilizations.
The End of the Classical Era: World History in Transition, 200-700 C.E. The three great classical civilizations of Rome, Han China, and Gupta India collapsed or declined. All three suffered from invasions by nomads from central Asia who took advantage of internal imperial weaknesses. Rome also endured Germanic incursions, and the western portion of its empire lost more of its earlier achievements than other civilizations. The general collapse forms a significant break in world history. Many components of the classical achievement survived the period of decline, and new forms appeared as civilizations altered to meet changing conditions.
The Decline of Civilization and the Rise of Religions. New periods in history are infrequent; they must be defined carefully. At the close of the classical period the decline of empires and the rise of religions marks a new periodization.
Defining the New Period. Three related shifts must occur to mark a new period in world history. Some civilizations must divide in new ways, altering the world map. Different kinds of contacts must be established among civilization areas. New parallelisms must arise in the patterns displayed by major civilizations. The fall of the great empires meets the requirements. Cultural and political boundaries shifted in India and the Mediterranean world. Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread widely. The Islamic world replaced India as the most expansive civilization.
Surge in the Great Religions. The major world religions - Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam - rose or expanded as the great empires declined. Hinduism continued its evolution. Political and economic instability, plus the impact of devastating epidemics, prompted individuals to seek new spiritual answers.
Upheavals in Eastern and Southern Asia. The key transition in Asian civilizations came with the decline of the Han in China, the Gupta in India, and nomadic pressures.
Decline and Fall in Han China. The Han dynasty appeared to recover vitality during the 2nd century C.E., but poor rulers and popular unrest fueled by landlord exploitation culminated in revolution. Daoist leaders, the Yellow Turbans, in 184 C.E. began a period of disorder ending with the fall of the Han in 220. China split into three unstable kingdoms, with southern regions pulling apart from the north. The landowning class operated beyond government control. There were no firm dynasties for 350 years. The instability turned interest to the spiritual solace and cultural cohesion offered by Buddhism. Brought from India by merchants and missionaries, Buddhism overcame Daoist attacks to spread throughout China by the 5th century C.E. In the process Chinese cultural values, including subordination of women, were incorporated into Buddhism. Its growing influence stimulated thought among Daoists; they formalized their religion and adopted beliefs about achieving immortality through good works. Confucianism lost ground. Political revival occurred at the end of the 6th century when the Sui dynasty reunited China. They collapsed in 618 and were replaced by the Tang. During these troubled years old values survived and China retained greater homogeneity than other civilizations.
The End of the Guptas: Decline in India. Chandragupta II brought the Gupta dynasty to the high point of its rule in the early 5th century C.E. Under his successors the decentralized Gupta structure failed to repel Hun invasions. By 500 the Huns controlled northwestern India; the Gupta collapsed in 550. One final effort to revive the dynasty when a Gupta descendant, Harsha, briefly built a loose state in the north during the first half of the 7th century. India then divided into regional dynasties ruled by princes called Rajput. Buddhism steadily declined before Hinduism. Worship of the mother goddess Devi spread widely. The caste system strengthened, assimilating invaders, and extending to southern India. The economy flourished, with new trade links opening to southern India and Southeast Asia. An important threat to Indian cultural continuity came from the 7th century expansion of Islam as Muslim invaders entered northwest India and won converts. By the 8th century Arab traders gained control of Indian Ocean commerce.
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. The decline of the Roman Empire was more disruptive than that of the Han or Gupta.
The Causation of Roman Decline. The Roman Empire, for many reasons, was in decline from the late 2nd century C.E. A shrinking population hindered army recruiting. In political life emperors had lesser ability. Disputes over succession led to continual army intervention. Tax revenues fell during hard economic times. Pervasive despondency among individuals meant a loss of meaning in life. Expansion of the empire ended after 180, thus closing the sources of slave labor. Although labor policies on mines and estates were restructured, the economic system lost vitality. Environmental deterioration in North Africa diminished grain supplies and tax revenues. Recurring plagues further decimated population and disrupted economic life. Germanic soldiers had to be hired to defend frontiers. In the midst of these problems Rome's upper classes turned from political service to pleasure-seeking lives. Cultural activity, except for works by Christian writers, decayed.
The Process of Roman Decline. As central authority declined, farmers, seeking protection, clustered around large landlords. The political decentralization was most pronounced in the western empire. Political power passed to landlords and the economy contracted. Tax revenues fell, trade declined, and cities shrank in size. Some emperors tried to restore central authority. Diocletian (284-305) improved administration and tax collecting, and increased controls on the economy. Constantine (312-337) established a second capital at Constantinople and accepted Christianity. The measures did not restore vitality to the empire as a whole. The eastern half flourished, but the western did not. Economic regulation curbed initiative and lowered production. Many overburdened peasants welcomed the changes brought by the Germanic invasions of the 5th century. The last western Roman emperor was removed in 476.
Results of the Fall of Rome. Rome's collapse ended Mediterranean unity. Three zones emerged, each later producing distinct civilizations. The northeastern part of the empire did not fall. The vibrant, artistically creative, and commercially active Byzantine Empire incorporated Hellenistic and Roman patterns. A 2nd zone, in North Africa and along the Mediterranean's southeastern shores, suffered serious disruption. Temporary regional kingdoms emerged. Although Christianity spread, differing interpretations split its unity. Eventually North Africa fell to Islam. In the 3rd zone, the western and northern portions of the empire, the level of civilization declined. Regional Germanic kingdoms appeared. The only vital force was Christianity, but it was not able to prevent the decline of civilization.
In Depth: The Problem of Decline and Fall. Historians long have sought the causes of the decline or fall of great civilizations. Moral failure often has been awarded importance for Rome’s collapse, but the explanation often is stimulated by anxieties of analysts worrying about the course of their own civilization. More realistically, it appears that civilizations naturally rise and fall as part of an inevitable process influenced by the changes occurring in their societies. And, importantly, the decline or collapse of a civilization does not mean that its contribution disappears.
The Development and Spread of World Religions. The decline of the classical civilizations contributed to the growth of the three great world religions. Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam became the only religions spreading far beyond a single region. Hinduism and Daoism, remained regional religions, but gained new followers.
Christianity and Buddhism Compared. Both religions stressed otherworldliness, produced important monastic movements, and offered the possibility of an afterlife. Chinese Buddhism, called Mahayana, emphasized Buddha as a savior god similar to Christ. Each religion accepted a role for holy men - among Buddhists called bodhisattvas - aiding believers to gain holiness. There were differences. Christianity, the heir to the legacy of Mediterranean religions and Roman traditions, emphasized church organization, gave more value to missionary activity, and claimed possession of exclusive truth. Christianity began as a Jewish reform movement, only gradually turning to missionary activity. The Christians believed that there was a single god who loved humanity, that virtuous life should be devoted to his worship, and that Christ's sacrifice permitted attainment of an afterlife. The message, its travels facilitated by Roman unity, satisfied unfilled spiritual needs present in the deteriorating empire. Under Paul, Christianity became a separate religion open to all.
Christianity Gains Ground. Despite competition from Eastern mystery religions and government persecution, by the 4th century Christianity had won over about 10% of the Roman empire's population. Emperor Constantine converted and made Christianity an accepted faith. Rulers intervened in church affairs, particularly in the eastern empire where government remained strong. In the disorganized west bishops created a centralized church organization that endured when the western empire collapsed. There were many doctrinal controversies. The Council of Nicea (325) demonstrated the importance of unified doctrine to Christianity. It ruled in favor of the Nicene creed, an interpretation holding that the one Christian god had three persons. Strong leaders assisted the consolidation of Christianity. Leo I clearly established the papacy as the supreme religious authority in western Europe. Augustine made major contributions in formulating a theology that incorporated elements of classical philosophy. Holy male and female mystics flourished, a tendency disciplined by the institution of monasticism. Benedict of Nursia created the Benedictine Rule for monks in 6th century Italy; Basil organized eastern empire monasticism in the 4th century. Christianity continued to appeal to all classes, especially to the poor and women. It promoted a new culture different from that of the classical world by its beliefs in spiritual equality and otherworldly emphasis. The state was accepted, but made second to religion. Greater emphasis was awarded to disciplined work. Classical values retained included philosophical themes, architectural styles, and the Latin language in the west and Greek in the east. Monastic libraries preserved classical literature.
The New Religious Map. The rise and spread of Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam over many centuries incorporated most of the inhabitants of the civilized world. Numerous peoples in different societies left old beliefs and turned to concentration on a single divine force and a hope for an afterlife. The world religions, a new force in world history, provided beliefs that transcended political entities..
Conclusion: In the Wake of Decline and Fall.By 600 C.E. the major civilizations had altered in permanent ways. China maintained political cohesion; along with India it preserved much cultural cohesion. The Roman Empire in contrast disintegrated, and successor civilizations did not restore geographical unity or a unified classical culture. Nomadic invaders both toppled empires and spread new ideas and techniques. Missionaries brought Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam into new regions.
POST CLASSICAL ERA-600-1450 Rise of Islam and the Spread of Global Religions Summary. The post-classical period extends between the 5th and 15th centuries C.E. A new international framework emerged to produce a genuine world historical dynamic. Explicit exchange became a standard part of world history.
The Chronology of the Postclassical Period. The world civilization map was altered greatly by the decline or collapse of the classical civilizations and by nomadic invasions. The postclassical era closed as new central Asian invasions once again changed patterns. Another phase of world development opened as new empires formed and Europeans explored the wider world.
The Postclassical Millennium and the World Network. Four developments define postclassical centuries:  Islamic civilization spread politically and culturally into Asia, Europe, and Africa;  civilization expanded into new world regions;  the great world religions gained adherents from peoples once following local belief structures; and  the creation of a world network linking many of the individual civilizations.
The Rise of Islam. Islam created a new empire encompassing Asian, African, and European territories. In the classical period the three civilizations were roughly in balance; with Islam there was a world leader. Islam's decline marked the end of this phase of world history.
The Expansion of Civilization. Civilization spread into many new regions in Africa and Europe; it became more established in Japan. Both American and Polynesian societies expanded their reach. Seven diverse areas were important in the postclassical era: the Middle East and North Africa, India, China and East Asia, eastern and western Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, India and southeast Asia and the Americas.
The World Religions. In the postclassical era major religions spread into much of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism brought a new focus on issues of spirituality and an afterlife. They were able to extend beyond local cultures and draw together diverse peoples, many of whom were living in very confused political times. Growth in international commerce also assisted change.
The World Network. The most important characteristic of the postclassical world was the development of a world network. International trade and military contacts allowed all types of intellectual and material exchanges. Diseases also spread. Once established the network steadily intensified and expanded. Individual civilizations still maintained their essential values, but many were operating in a genuinely international framework. The major limitation was that the Americas, Polynesia, Australia, and a few other places were not yet included.
World History Themes. Although agriculture expanded during the postclassical period, there was not, except in central America, a period of massive environmental problems. Since few new fundamental technological innovations occurred, environmental change mainly reflected population growth. Basic structures of social and gender inequality persisted. The nomadic impact on history peaked with the achievements of the Mongols. Expanding civilizations and new religions provided opportunities for individuals to influence societal developments.
Exchange and Imitation in the Postclassical World. Three characteristics highlighted the importance of imitating established centers. Expanding commercial contacts and missionary activity connected peripheral regions to established civilizations. The expansion of civilization built on the possibility of explicit imitation. The best established civilizations were in roughly the same centers where key classical developments occurred. They were surrounded by areas where there were newer and less strongly organized civilizations. They participated in the world exchange at a disadvantage and attempted to imitate features of the major centers.
EARLY MODER PERIOD-1450-1750 The West and the World Chapter Summary. The rise of the West between the 15th and 18th centuries involved distant explorations and conquests resulting in a heightening and redefining of relationships among world societies. During the classical era larger regional economies and culture zones had developed, as in the Chinese Middle Kingdom and the Mediterranean basin, but international exchanges were not of fundamental importance to the societies involved. During the postclassical period contacts increased and were more significant. Missionary religions - Buddhism and Islam - and trade influenced important changes. The new world relationships after 1450 spelled a new period of world history. The Americas and other world areas were joined to the world network, while older regions had increased contacts. Trade became so significant that new relationships emerged among societies and prompted reconsideration of existing political and cultural traditions.
The West's First Outreach: Maritime Power. Europeans had become more aware of the outside world since the beginning of the 12th century. Knowledge gained during the Crusades and from contacts with the great Mongol Empire spurred interest. European upper classes became used to imports, especially spices, brought from India and Southeast Asia to the Middle East by Arab vessels, and then carried to Europe by traders from Italian city-states. The fall of the Mongol dynasty in China, the strength of the Ottoman Empire, plus lack of gold to pay for imports and poor naval technology, hindered efforts for change. Europeans launched more consistent attempts for expansion from the late 13th century.
New Technology: A Key to Power. Technological improvements during the 15th century changed the equation. Deep-draught, round-hulled ships were able to sail Atlantic waters. Improved metalwork techniques allowed the vessels to carry armament far superior to the weapons aboard ships of other societies. The compass and better mapmaking improved navigational skills.
Portugal and Spain Lead the Pack. The initiative for Atlantic exploration came Portugal. Prince Henry the Navigator directed explorations motivated by Christian missionary zeal, the excitement of discovery, and a thirst for wealth. From 1434 Portuguese vessels, searching for a route to India, traveled ever farther southward along the African coast. In 1488 they passed the Cape of Good Hope. Vasco da Gama reached India in 1497. Many voyages followed. One, blown off course, reached Brazil. By 1514 the Portuguese had reached Indonesia and China. In 1542 they arrived in Japan and began Catholic missionary activity. Fortresses were established in African and Asian ports. The Spanish quickly followed the Portuguese example. Columbus reached the Americas in 1492, mistakenly calling their inhabitants Indians. Spain gained papal approval for its claims over most of Latin America; a later decision gave Brazil to Portugal. 16th century expeditions brought the Spanish as far north as the southwestern United States. Ferdinand Magellan began a Spanish voyage in 1519 that circumnavigated the globe. As a result, Spain claimed the Philippines.
Northern European Expeditions. In the 16th century the exploratory initiative from the Portuguese and Spanish to strong northern European states - Britain, Holland, France. They had improved oceanic vessel design while Portugal and Spain were busy digesting their colonial gains. The British naval victory over Spain in 1588 left general ocean dominance to northern nations. The French first crossed the Atlantic in 1534 and soon established settlements in Canada. The British reached North America in 1497, beginning colonization of its east coast during the 17th century. The Dutch also had holdings in the Americas. They won control of Indonesia from the Portuguese by the early 17th century, and in mid-century established a relay settlement on the southern tip of Africa. French, Dutch, and British traders received government-awarded monopolies of trade in the newly-reached regions, but the chartered companies acted without much official supervision. They gained great profits and acted like independent political entities.
In Depth: Causation and the West's Expansion. Historians desiring to understand social change have to study causation. The many factors involved in any one case make precise answers impossible, but when sufficient data is available high probability can be attained. Scholars looking for single-factor determinants use cultural, technological, economic, or ‘great man’ theory explanations. All of the approaches raise as many questions as answers. The best understanding is reached through debate based on all efforts chosen as explanations.
Toward a World Economy. Europe's new maritime activity had three major consequences for world history: the creation of a new international pool for exchanges of food, diseases, and manufactured products; the forming of a more inclusive world economy; and the opening of some parts of the world to Western colonization.
The "Columbian Exchange" of Disease and Food. The extension of international interaction facilitated the spread of disease. Native Americans and Polynesians, lacking natural immunities to small pox and measles, died in huge numbers. In the Americas Europeans forged new populations from their own peoples and through importation of African slaves. New World crops spread rapidly. American corn and the potato became important in Europe; corn and the sweet potato similarly changed life in China and Africa. major population increases resulted. The use of tobacco, sugar, and coffee slowly became widespread in Europe. European and Asian animals passed to the New World..
The West's Commercial Outreach. Westerners, because of their superior military might, dominated international trade, but they did not displace all rivals. Asian shipping continued in Chinese and Japanese coastal waters, Muslim traders predominated along the East African littoral, and the Turks were active in the eastern Mediterranean. Little inland territory was conquered in Africa or Asia; the Europeans sought secure harbors and built fortifications to protect their commerce and serve as contact places for inland traders. When effective indigenous states opposed such bases, Europeans gained protected trading enclaves within their cities.
Imbalances in World Trade. By the 17th century a new world economy, dominated by Europeans, had formed. Spain and Portugal briefly held leadership, but their economies and banking systems could not meet the new demands. England, France, and Holland, the core nations, established more durable economic dominance. They expanded manufacturing operations to meet new market conditions. The doctrines of mercantilism protected home markets and supported exports; tariff policies discouraged competition from colonies and foreign rivals. Beyond Europe areas became dependent participants in the world economy as producers and suppliers of low-cost raw materials; in return they received European manufactured items. Africa entered the world network mainly as a slave supplier. The Europeans controlled commercial and shipping services.
A System of International Inequality. The rise of core and dependent economic zones became an enduring factor in world economic relationships. Some participants in the dependent regions had an opportunity for profit. African slave-traders and rulers taxing the trade could become rich. Indigenous merchants in Latin America satisfied regional food requirements. Many peasants in all regions remained untouched by international markets. Still, indigenous merchants and landlords did not control their terms of trade; the wealth gained was expended on European imports and did not stimulate local manufacturing or general economic advance. Dependence in the world economy helped form a coercive labor system. The necessity for cheap products produced in the Americas exploitation of indigenous populations or use of slaves. In the Dutch East Indies and British India peasants were forced into labor systems.
How Much World in the World Economy? Huge world areas remained outside the world economy. They were not affected politically or economically by its structure, and until the 18th century did not greatly suffer from the missed opportunities for profit or technological advance. East Asian civilizations did not need European products; they concentrated upon consumption or regional commerce. China was uninterested in international trading involvement and remained mainly outside the world economy until the end of the 18th century. It was powerful enough to keep Europeans in check. Some limited trade was permitted in Portuguese Macao, and European desire for Chinese manufactured items made China the leading recipient of American silver. In Japan early openness to Europeans, in missionary activity and interest in military technology, quickly ended. Most contacts were prohibited from the 17th to the 19th century. Mughal India, the Ottomans, and Safavid Persia all allowed minimal trade with Europeans, but concentrated upon their own internal development. Russia and African regions not participating in the slave trade lay outside the international economic orbit.
The Expansionist Trend. European dominance spread to new areas during the 17th and 18th centuries. British and French merchants strengthened their positions as the Mughal Empire began falling apart. Britain passed legislation designed to turn their holdings into dependent regions. Tariffs blocked cottons from competing with British production. India’s complex economy survived, but with a weakened international status. Eastern Europe joined world economic activity by exporting grain, mainly produced by serfs working on large estates, from Prussia, Poland, and Russia to the West.
Colonial Expansion. Western colonial dominance over many peoples accompanied the new world economic network. Two types of American colonies emerged, in Latin America and the Caribbean, and in North America. Smaller colonies were present in Africa and Asia.
The Americas: Loosely Controlled Colonies. Spain quickly colonized West Indian islands; in 1509 settlement began on the mainland in Panama. Military expeditions conquered the Aztecs and Incas. The early colonies were formed by small bands of adventurers loosely controlled by European administrations. The settlers ruthlessly sought gold; when there were substantial Indian populations they exacted tribute without imposing much administration. As agricultural settlements were established Spanish and Portuguese officials created more formal administration . Missionary activity added another layer of administration. Northern Europeans began colonial activity during the early 17th century. The French settled in Canada and explored the Mississippi River basin. The Dutch and English occupied coastal Atlantic territories. All three nations colonized West Indian islands and built slave-based economies.
British and French North America: Backwater Colonies. North American colonial patterns differed from those in Latin America and the Caribbean. religious refugees came to British territories. Land grants to major proprietors stimulated the recruitment of settlers. The French in Canada planned the establishment of manorial estates under the control of great lords controlled by the state. French peasants emigrated in small numbers but increased settlement through a high birth rate. The Catholic church held a strong position. France in 1763 through the Treaty of Paris surrendered Canada and the Mississippi basin. The French inhabitants remained unhappy with British rule, but many American loyalists arrived after the 1776 revolution. The North American colonies had less value to their rulers than Asian or West Indian possessions. The value of the exports and imports of their small populations was insignificant. Continuing settler arrival occurred as Indian populations declined through disease and warfare. Indians and Europeans did not form new cultural groups as they did in Latin America; Indians instead moved westward where they developed a culture based upon the imported European horse. North American colonial societies developed following European patterns. British colonies formed assemblies based upon broad male participation. The colonists also avidly consumed Enlightenment political ideas. Trade and manufacturing developed widely, and a strong merchant class appeared. The colonists retained vigorous cultural ties with Europe; an unusual percentage of the settlers were literate. The importation of African slaves and slavery separated the North America experience from European patterns.
North America and Western Civilization. Western habits had been transplanted into a new setting. Americans married earlier, had more children, and displayed an unusual concern for children, but they still reproduced the European-style family. When British colonists revolted against their rulers, they did so under Western-inspired political and economic ideology. Once successful they were the first to implement some of the principle concepts of that ideology.
Africa and Asia: Coastal Trading Stations. In Africa most Europeans were confined, because of climate, disease, geographical barriers, and African strength, to coastal trading forts. The exceptions were in Angola and South Africa. The Portuguese sent disruptive slaving expeditions into Angola from established coastal centers. In South Africa the Dutch founded Cape Town in 1652 as a settlement for supplying ships on the way to southeastern Asia. The settlers expanded into nearby regions where they met and fought indigenous hunters and herding peoples. Later they began persisting wars with the Bantu. European settlements in Asia also were minimal. Spain moved into the Philippines and began Christianizing activities; the Dutch East India Company administered parts of Indonesia and briefly had a presence in Taiwan. Asian colonization began a new phase when France and Britain, with forts along both coasts, began to compete for control in India as Mughal authority declined. Outright war began in 1744, with each side allying with Indian princes. French defeat destroyed their power in India. British victories over Indians in Bengal from the 1750s further increased British power. . In India, as in most African and Asian territories, and unlike the Americas, European administration remained limited. Officials were satisfied to conclude agreements with indigenous rulers. European cultural impact was slight and few settlers, apart from the Dutch in South Africa, took up residence. Only in the Philippines were many indigenous peoples drawn to Christianity.
Impact on Western Europe. Colonial development affected Western Europe economically and diplomatically. Colonial rivalries added to the persisting hostilities between nations. The Seven Years’ War, fought in Europe, Asia, and America, was the first world-wide war. The colonies brought new wealth to Europe, profiting merchants and manufacturers. New products changed life-styles: the once costly sugar became available to ordinary people.
Conclusion.:The Impact of a New World Order. The development of a world economy and European colonialism had major impacts. Economic pressures brought important changes. African populations were disrupted by the slave trade. Indian manufacturing levels declined. new labor systems formed in many regions. The interaction between civilizations was significant. New elements entered the world history framework. Indigenous responses, as with Christianity, combined their ideas with the arriving influences. Despite the many hardships imposed upon many societies, some benefits resulted. New food crops and increased trade allowed population growth. Challenges had been created for all civilizations, and whatever the individual reaction, innovation was required.
MODERN PERIOD-Industrialization and Western Global Hegemony, 1750-1914
Summary.. The Industrial Revolution brought great changes to Western economy and society. The West was able to acquire hegemony - through colonization or economic dependence - over most other world civilizations. All civilizations had to come to terms with Western institutions and values.
Chronology: From Industrial Revolution to the Beginning of a Western Breakdown. The period begins around 1750 when the forces shaping the Industrial Revaluation emerged: population growth, expansion of manufacturing, a surge of inventions. The era closed with the beginning of World War I in 1914 because the conflict fundamentally weakened the Western world.
Population Movements. The many changes resulted in huge shifts in world population structures as peoples moved from their home areas. In the West and the United States birthrates fell as machines altered the role of children in society.
Diversities in the Age of Western Dominance. During this complex period themes of change are not confined to Western industrialization and imperialism. Individual civilizations continued to experience distinctive developments.
POST MODERN PERIOD-1914-Presnt-The Twentieth Century in World History Summary. The 20th century has provided one of the relatively rare breaks in world history. Previous similar periods, such as in the 5th or 15th centuries, have met the criteria that occur in the 20th century. First is a basic geographical rebalancing among major civilizations. In the 20th century the shift is a relative decline of the West due to two great world wars and the development of other societies. Western population declined while growth soared in other regions. By 1980 just about all of the great Western colonial empires had disappeared; so had Western weapons dominance. In world trade and manufacture the West had been joined by important rivals. A 2nd criteria involves increasing the intensity and extent of contact among civilizations. Innovations in all aspects of technology and culture now spread faster than ever before. There is no single world culture but great similarities are shared. The 3rd criteria is the presence of new and roughly parallel patterns among major civilizations.
The Repositioning of the West. The 20th-century shift in balance among civilizations has meant a relative decline for the West. Even the entry of the United States into Western ranks has not changed this pattern. Western decline is indicated in population decline as a percentage of world totals, the end of colonial empires and monopoly over advanced weapons systems, and the loss of its position as preeminent world trader. By the 1990s no single civilization had replaced Western preeminence.
International Contacts. Although great diversity of interests remained among nations, international contacts increased as civilizations rebalanced. Technology made isolation almost impossible. Even though many influences pass from one nation to another, no single world culture has emerged.
International Challenges in Politics and Culture. There were many political changes because of imitation of the West or of efforts to counter its dominance. Most societies changed their forms of government, while governments have expanded into many new roles. Changes in belief systems occurred as secular systems gained adherents. Rigid social inequalities declined, but did not disappear.
Using the 20th Century as a New Period in World History. The new period of the 20th century has at least two phases. Between 1914 and 1945 two major wars and a great depression brought forward a new international order. Since 1945 there have been many adjustments - such as decolonization - to the working out of a new world order.