start of the revolt.
1. King Louis XVI was in debt due to wasteful
spending and war.
2. There was an industrial depression meaning
that almost 50% of people in urban areas were
3. Successive bad harvest created food shortages
that led to high prices and starvation.
B. Based on these conditions, France was almost
1. Bankrupt means that you do not have enough
money to pay off your debt.
C. One solution to the problem was to raise taxes.
D. The social and financial unrest caused King Louis
to call the Estates-General for the first time in
1. This was the French legislature that had to
approve the King’s request for more money.
2. They did not meet for this long because the King
did not need them for any reason, but now he
1. Is made up of Three Estates
2. They are:
a. First Estate-Clergy
b. Second Estate-Nobles/Aristocrats
c. Third Estate-Everyone else
3. It was the Third Estate that was expected to pay
taxes since the First and Second did not.
4. Each of the Estates was asked to bring
cahiers-notebooks to the meeting.
a. Cahiers were to include complaints from
each of the Estates.
5. The Estates were to have equal representation
and voting at the meeting, but the First and
Second Estate made a rule requiring only
property owners to be able to vote at the
a. This eliminated most members of the Third
Estates-General and form the National
a. The next day, the National Assembly’s
meeting hall was shut down by the king.
b. The new National Assembly then met on a
nearby tennis court and made the Tennis
1. The National Assembly would meet
regularly and at any place they had to
until they had a fair constitution for
2. They agreed to stay united, as well.
B. National Assembly
1. One month after the Bastille the National
Assembly passed the Declaration of Rights of
2. Similar to US Declaration of Independence
a. Three Estates were abolished
b. All people are equal under the law
c. Freedom of speech, religion, press
d. Separation of Power
e. Taxation only by consent
of the revolution, which led to disorder and
1. One group called Jacobins gained control.
Assembly to the National Convention.
2. Another group called Girondists wanted the
revolution to spread to other countries.
B. Robespierre and Reign of Terror
1. He was a key figure to the French Revolution
as well as the Reign of Terror.
a. He promoted religious toleration and
wanted slavery to be abolished.
b. Member of Committee of Public Safety
1. an elite group within the Convention
established to deal with the crisis
c. Led the Reign of Terror from
September 1793 to July 1794
d. he thought “liberty could not be secured
unless people lose their heads”
e. As leader of the Committee of Public Safety
he was placed in charge of the revolution.
f. Invented the Guillotine
2. He began his Reign of Terror by seeking out
those who were opposed to the revolt.
3. Opponents were placed on trial and thousands
were executed during this time.
4. He became too powerful and the Committee
was concerned for their own safety.
1. He was arrested and executed by the
guillotine, himself a victim of the revolt.
C. Olympe de Gouges
a. Demanded equal rights in her ‘Declaration
of Rights of Woman’ and ‘The Female
1. “Woman is born free and her rights are
the same as those of man”
2. “all citizens, be they men or women,
being equal in the state’s eyes, must be
equally eligible for all public offices,
positions, and jobs.
b. Was very upset about the Declaration of
the Rights of Man
1.It gave rights to the men but nothing to
2. in The Declaration of the Rights
used the Declaration of the Rights of
Man and replaced man with women in it
a. Later in the revolution met resistance for
expressing their views and public, many
including Gouges were imprisoned and
D. Result of the Revolt
1. A spirit of nationalism began in France
a. Feeling of pride in one’s country.
b. People believe their country is the best in
2. Catholic church became less important.
to rule France.
a. Made up of 5 men who ruled France
b. Over time the Directory was overthrown by
Napoleon and others.
2. Directory was replace by the Consulate
a. Run by three men with Napoleon named First
France into a republic- a form of government
where the people chose representatives to make
decisions for them
c. In reality it was more like a dictatorship- one
ruler with absolute power gained by force.
1. Usually with military help
3. Napoleon then took the title Emperor-one ruler with
absolute power who is worshipped as a god.
a. Became Emperor only after a plebiscite- ballot
where people vote on a question.
b. The question was whether Napoleon should
have the title Emperor, and the people voted
a. He created the Napoleonic Code
1. All people are equal under the law
2. Freedom of religion.
3. Law was standardized-same for everyone
4. Started public schools and built new roads.
5. Government officials were chosen based on
merit and not who they knew.
a. In other words you had to prove you
deserved the position.
5. Napoleon Falls
a. Mostly due to wars that put France back where
they started at the start of the revolution with
1. Therefore, this term refers to the changes that
took place with industry. Going from goods
being produced by hand to using machines in
2. Science was being used to create machines that
would meet human needs.
a. This is called technology.
3. New forms of energy rans machines and sped
up production. Leads in time to the assembly
people from rural to urban areas to find
work in factories.
2. Cities were not prepared to handle this quick
increase in population.
3. Overcrowded conditions and poor sanitation
4. Tenements appeared
a. Multi-story buildings with small
1. Worked many hours a day and were poorly
2. Women and Children were paid less than men.
B. Poor Living Conditions
1. Lived in overcrowded tenements.
2. No sanitation to speak of. Waste was thrown in
a. Resulted in disease
C. Conditions eventually led to protests.
1. Father was an Anglican clergy member
2. Escaped fire thought he was destined to find a
special purpose in the world
3. Wesley tutored graduates at Lincoln College at
Oxford, Wesley’s brother and peers created a
study group which turned into the nickname
“methodists” because of the concerned
pattern which they worshipped
1. Wesley was creator of Methodism
2. Anglican church would not accept him so began
field preaching - preaching in public places
3. Methodist message: poor could gain access to
God’s kingdom in heaven as easily as the upper
4. Wesley’s teachings spread through Europe;
6. Encouraged people to have faith and live a good
moral life and eventually their lives would improve.
7. Improved literacy rates as a result and started
a. Improvements in the way people lived their
1. Said the world’s progress will be limited by the
inability of the global food supply to keep pace with
2. The poor should not have children because there
would not be enough food
a. If they did, they were economically irresponsible
b. Economy would be ruined
faster” than food
2. Workers’ Children
a. Should not have children because there would not
be enough jobs for their children.
b. Would contribute to a poor economy for workers to
produce more workers(children) because it would
cause high unemployment, which is irresponsible.
a. He was unhappy with the British government and
thought that the government should do things that
are in the best interest for the most people.
should always be general happiness
2. Utilitarian philosopher
3. Believed that women should have equal rights as men.
a. Including women’s suffrage
4. Emphasized that the government should be utilitarian in laws passed to help workers.
a. Only the owners were profiting and happy,
therefore the government should help the workers
find happiness by passing laws to help improve
2. New Harmony
1. A model community to practice his beliefs
a. Socialism vs. individual system/
b. Everyone shared property/no private property
c. Focused on the importance of community
d. Didn’t believe that young kids should be
working in factories
B. New Lanark
a. Helped start the community in Scotland
b. Didn’t believe that young kids should be
working in factories
a. Became friends with Frederick Engels who
shared his beliefs on Communism.
b. Together they wrote the Communist Manifesto,
which talked about how class struggle was the
force driving forward progress in History.
a. Important thinker of the 1800’s, len to
him being the founder of Communism
b. Believed class struggle was unavoidable
because of the situation with the “haves” and
2. His ideas became Marxism, and this was the model
Lenin used to bring communism to Russia in the early
B. Friedrich Engels
2. Arguably the most important social theorist of
the 19th century
3. Engels also contributed to the Marxist Political