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Leaders of Early America
VIDEO COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:
1. What signaled Paul Revere and William Dawes to warn the colonists that the British troops were on their way by water? When and where was the signal given?
At around 10:00 p.m. on April 18, 1775, two lanterns placed in the steeple of the Old North Church in Boston signaled the news that the British troops planned to travel by water.
2. What warning did Paul Revere give to the colonists?
Paul Revere shouted the warning to the colonists that the regulars, or redcoats, were coming. He did not say, "The British are coming," since everyone regarded themselves as British at the time.
3. What did Paul Revere's ride signal?
Paul Revere's ride signaled the beginning of the Revolutionary War, from which there was no turning back.
4. What directions did the commander of the minutemen give to his troops?
Captain Parker, the commander of the minutemen, ordered his troops to, "Stand your ground. Don't fire unless fired upon. But, if they need to have a war, let it begin here."
5. What did the minutemen do when they saw the British regulars (redcoats) retreating from North Bridge?
When the British appeared to be retreating from North Bridge, the minutemen took a shortcut to hide behind houses and trees, where they fired on the British soldiers as they marched by.
6. What qualities was the Second Continental Congress looking for in the person selected as commander in chief of the Continental Army?
The Second Continental Congress was looking for a commander in chief who had the ability to lead an army, who was experienced in battle, and who had shown strong moral character.
7. Where had George Washington gained military experience?
George Washington had gained military experience while fighting for the British in the French and Indian War.
8. What was the name of George Washington's estate in Virginia?
Mount Vernon was the name of George Washington's estate in Virginia.
9. How did George Washington compare in size to the average man of the time, and how did he use this difference?
George Washington was 6'3" tall and weighed 225 lbs., while the average colonial man was 5'8" tall and weighed 140 lbs. George Washington used his "commanding physical presence to provide the moral authority" needed to lead.
10. What was George Washington's challenge in creating his army?
The colonial soldiers were poorly equipped and lacked military training, so George Washington had to meet the challenge of training mainly farmers and blacksmiths to be soldiers.
11. When was American independence from Britain announced, and who announced it?
On June 7, 1776, Delegate Richard Henry Lee of Virginia announced independence from England, stating that the colonies were free and independent states, absolved of all allegiance, or loyalty, to the British crown.
12. Why did the Second Continental Congress want to write a declaration of independence in addition to announcing it?
The Second Continental Congress wanted to write a declaration of independence to notify foreign countries so that the Congress could officially negotiate with foreign governments, contract alliances, and receive aid.
13. Who were the members of the five man committee appointed to write a declaration of independence?
The five man committee appointed to write a declaration of independence included Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Robert Livingston of New York, and Thomas Jefferson of Virginia.
14. Who was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence, and when did he do it?
On July 4, 1776, John Hancock, who was the President of the Second Continental Congress, became the first signer of the Declaration of Independence.
15. Who were not entitled to the rights stated in Thomas Jefferson's original Declaration of Independence?
Originally men without property, slaves, and women were not included in the rights stated in the Declaration of Independence.
Sugaring begins each spring when the days start to become warm, but the nights still remain cold.
18. What is sap, and how much does it take to make a gallon of syrup?
Sap is the watery liquid in a tree, and it takes 40 gallons of it to make one gallon of syrup.
19. What tools are used to tell when the syrup is ready?
The tools used to tell when the syrup is ready are a scoop, which is used to check the flow of the syrup, and a thermometer, which shows if the correct temperature has been reached.
20. How is maple syrup graded?
Maple syrup is graded by rating its color from light to dark. The lighter the syrup, the higher the quality.
21. What two companies were formed to build the Transcontinental Railroad, and how long did they take to build it?
The two companies formed to build the Transcontinental Railroad were the Central Pacific, which started in California and worked east, and the Union Pacific, which started in Omaha, Nebraska, and worked west. They took six years to lay the 1,775 miles of track.
22. Where and when did the transcontinental train lines meet, and what commemorated this event?
When the two transcontinental train lines met at Promontory Point, Utah, on May 10, 1869, a golden spike was driven into the railroad ties to commemorate the event, which joined the Atlantic to the Pacific by railroads.
23. How did the railroads help the United States establish an effective system for keeping time?
Increased rail travel made it necessary to replace the numerous local time systems with just one, beginning on November 18, 1883. Developed to keep the trains from running into each other, this new system consisted of four time zones.
24. What is the most common kind of train in the United States today, and how many are in operation?
Diesels are the most common kind of train in the United States today, with over 21,000 in operation.
25. What is the Transrapid, and how is it propelled?
Developed in Germany, the Transrapid is a train which has a cruising speed of over 300 mph, which it achieves through magnetic levitation.
26. When was the name "cowboys" first used?
The name cowboys was given to the trail riders required to move large cattle herds through the prairies in the 1860s.
27. When and how did cattle first arrive in the United States?
Cattle first arrived in what is now known as Texas in 1521, when the Spanish brought them.
28. Who owns the horses and saddles used by cowboys?
The rancher usually owns the horses, but the cowboy owns the saddle.
29. What different jobs do the cowboys have during a cattle drive, and how far do they travel each day?
Led by the point riders, a cattle herd usually travels 12 miles each day. Swing men work the middle of the herd, and drag men are at the rear, helping to keep slow cattle moving.
30. What is probably the most important skill a cowboy can have?
Roping cattle is probably the most important skill a cowboy can have.
31. How did the Cherokee respond to the U.S. policy of removing them from their lands?
The Cherokee responded to the removal policy by setting up their own government, which they based on the United States Constitution.
32. Who did the Cherokee choose as their principal chief when they set up their own government, and what was unusual about him?
The Cherokee chose John Ross as their principal chief, although he was only 1/8 Cherokee by blood.
33. What was President Andrew Jackson's response to the Supreme Court ruling finding the Indian Removal Act to be unconstitutional?
President Andrew Jackson chose not to recognize the Supreme Court decision finding the Indian Removal Act to be unconstitutional and void. He said the court would have to find its own way to enforce it.
34. What treaty did John Ridge make with Andrew Jackson on behalf of the Cherokee?
John Ridge, without any real authority from the Cherokee, and Andrew Jackson agreed to the Treaty of New Echota (1836), which required the Cherokee to relinquish all land east of the Mississippi in exchange for $5,000,000.
35. What name do historians give to the 850 mile Cherokee journey from their southeastern lands to Oklahoma?
Historians refer to the 850 mile Cherokee journey from the southeast to Oklahoma as the "Trail of Tears."