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High Speed Rail 6-28-22 1 2


Need Public Funding



HSR is empirically profitable but public funding is essential to getting the system up and running – New Jersey, France, and Spain prove


American Public Transportation Association, ’12 – non-profit that advocates for the advancement of public transportation programs in the U.S. ( “An Inventory of the Criticisms of High-Speed Rail: with Suggested Responses and Counterpoints,” January 2012, p. 8, http://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/HSR-Defense.pdf) // SP

As to the French TGV and the Japanese Shinkansen, there have been many valuable lessons learned from which the United States will benefit as we go forward. The most important of these lessons that the critics acknowledge but refuse to accept is that passenger trains, if allowed to compete in an even environment with other modes, can cover their costs and in some instances even turn a profit. According to the New Jersey Public Interest Research Group, high-speed rail lines generally cover their operating costs with fare revenues. In the United States, a financially sustainable high-speed rail system will likely not require operating subsidies from taxpayers (although public funding is essential to getting the system up and running). High-speed rail service generates enough operating profit that it can subsidize other, less-profitable intercity rail lines in countries such as France and Spain, as well as in the U.S. Northeast. Two high-speed rail lines—the French TGV line between Paris and Lyon and the original Japanese Shinkansen line from Tokyo to Osaka—have covered their initial costs of construction through fares.


HSR will be vastly superior to Amtrak – and even its ridership numbers are on

Health


HSR improves health care outcomes

Cai-Xia Song, Cui-Xia Qiao* and Jing Luo, mSchool of Economics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, China, 2021, Does High-Speed Rail Opening Affect the Health Care Environment?–Evidence From China, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.708527/full


Using the panel data of 280 prefecture-level cities in China from 2004 to 2014, this paper examines the effects of high-speed rail opening on health care environment based on Difference-in-Differences method (DID). Through an empirical analysis, the results proved that high-speed rail opening can significantly promote the health care environment and this effect is different in regions with different levels of economic development. Finally, we tested the mechanisms of how the high-speed rail opening affects the healthcare environment. High-speed rail opening improves the healthcare environment by increasing road accessibility and promoting economic development. Our results support the view that high-speed rail opening has an important contribution to the improvement of health care conditions.
Introduction
In response to the huge demand for cross-regional movement of people and materials brought about by economic development, China has placed a high priority on transport infrastructure development. High-speed railway, with its high speed and wide coverage, can meet the need for efficient and convenient transport. As a transport infrastructure with large-scale investment, high-speed railways have a close relationship with economic development and national living standards, and also play an important role in improving the health care conditions of cities along the route (1–3).
Road infrastructure is considered to be a key catalyst for regional economic growth and residential environment (4–7). Existing studies have categorized the impacts of road infrastructure into two types: direct and indirect. Direct impacts are about service and accessibility improvements, including market opening, foreign investment and urban expansion. Indirect impacts are related to regional responses and policy changes along road construction, including greater urban attractiveness, lower development costs and tax incentives. It's also the way in which high speed rail affects the health care environment (8). Transport infrastructure can improve the healthcare environment by increasing the accessibility of healthcare resources and the use of healthcare services, thereby, improving the health of the population (9–12).
Studies have proven that the opening of a high-speed railway will have an overall impact on the development of a region (13). In the specific area of healthcare, the question of how the high-speed railway will affect the medical environment and how the advantages of the high-speed railway can be transformed into development momentum to drive healthcare development needs to be carefully considered. To address these issues, this paper uses the panel data of 280 prefecture-level cities in China from 2004 to 2014, and examines the effects of high-speed rail opening on health care environment based on Difference–in– Differences method (DID). The results of the paper show that the opening of high-speed rail is conducive to improving the health care environment. As an important part of modern transport infrastructure, high-speed rail can provide healthcare resources and health protection to regions by reducing time costs, increasing the mobility of healthcare resources and promoting economic development. The health effects of the high-speed rail opening have already been demonstrated. In addition, the effect of the opening of the high-speed rail in improving the healthcare environment is different in different regions.

Conclusions
This paper explores the impact of high-speed railway opening on health care environment applying Difference-in-Differences method (DID) in China. The empirical results highlight that high-speed railway opening has a significant positive effect on public health care environment. And the performance of the eastern region is better than that of the central and western regions. Finally, the article examines the mechanisms by which the opening of high-speed rail affects the health care environment. High-speed rail enhances the health care environment by improving road accessibility and economic development.
The results of the article have important policy implications. Firstly, the opening of the high-speed railway should be used as an opportunity to better 'bring in' and 'go out' medical resources. Specifically, we should strengthen exchanges with developed medical regions to learn about advanced medical technology and management. At the same time, we should also pay attention to the introduction and training of high-level medical talents and resources. Secondly, as there are differences in the level of medical development in different regions, local governments should actively encourage medical cooperation between medical institutions to promote the spatial spillover of the health effects of the opening of the high-speed railway. Thirdly, in addition to directly improving health care conditions, the government should also work to improve the overall living environment in other areas such as economic development and financial development, thereby increasing the locational advantage and attracting the construction of the high-speed rail, which in turn will lead to improved medical conditions. Ultimately, this will lead to a virtuous cycle of improving the health care environment.



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