Vce ancient history Units 1- 4



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VCE Ancient history Units 1– 4
2016–2020

Resources

Some of the print resources contained in this list may be out of print. They have been included because they may still be available from libraries, bookshops and private collections.

At the time of publication the URLs (website addresses) cited were checked for accuracy and appropriateness of content. However, due to the transient nature of material placed on the web, their continuing accuracy cannot be verified. Teachers are strongly advised to prepare their own indexes of sites that are suitable and applicable to the courses they teach, and to check these addresses prior to allowing student access.



Books

General

Bowman, R 2008, Ancient Greece for Senior Students, Cengage, Australia.

Davies, G 2008, Ancient Rome for Senior Students, Cengage, Australia.

Hindmarsh, H & Harnack, C 2009, The Near East: Nelson Ancient History for HSC, Cengage, Australia.

Hurley, T, Medcalf, P et al. 2007, Antiquity 1, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Lawless, J, Cameron, K & Kenworthy, G 2010, Studies in Ancient Egypt, Cengage, Australia.

Lawless, J, Cameron, K & Young, C 2008, Unlocking the Past, 2nd edn, Thomson Learning Australia, Melbourne.

Stevens, V, Leadbetter, B, Thomas, C et al. 1999, Ancient History Skills: Personalities and Groups Teacher Resource Book, Nelson Cengage, Australia.



Unit 2B: Early China

Area of Study 1: Ancient China

Weeks 1–2: Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures

Suggested teaching resources:

Li Feng, Early China: A Social and Cultural History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, pp.1–65, 90–111.

Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600, Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, trs., New York: Columbia University Press, 2nd edn, 1999, pp.3–21.

The Grand Scribe’s Records, William Nienhauser, ed., Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994, Volume 1, pp.1–17.

New Sources of Early Chinese History, Edward Shaughnessy, ed., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997, pp.30–41.

http://www.waa.ox.ac.uk/XDB/tours/china1.asp

http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/index.htm

http://www.asia.si.edu/explore/china/bronzes/default.asp

http://etcweb.princeton.edu/asianart/timeperiod_china.jsp?ctry=China&pd=Neolithic

http://etcweb.princeton.edu/asianart/interactives/bronze/bronze.html

http://archive.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/dynasty-neolithic.cfm

Weeks 3–4: Western Zhou

Suggested teaching resources:

Li Feng, Early China: A Social and Cultural History, pp.112–61.

Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600, Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, trs., 2nd edn, pp.29–40.

I Ching: The Essential Translation of the Ancient Chinese Oracle and Book of Wisdom, John Minford, tr., New York: Penguin, 2014.

New Sources of Early Chinese History, Edward Shaughnessy, ed., pp.77–8, 82–3, 88–90,
97–99, 100–101, 111–3.

Classical Chinese Literature: An Anthology of Translations, Volume 1: From Antiquity to the Tang Dynasty, John Minford and Joseph S.M. Lau, eds., New York: Columbia University Press, 2000, pp.97–99, 135–138, 138–140, 144–147, 147–150, 156–161.



Weeks 5–6: Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period

Suggested teaching resources:

  • Li Feng, Early China: A Social and Cultural History, pp.162–182, 182–205.

  • Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600, William Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, trs., 2nd edn, pp.184–189, 216–223.

  • The Tso chuan: Selections from China's Oldest Narrative History, Burton Watson, tr., New York: Columbia University Press, 1989, pp.50-64.

  • Legends of the Warring States: Persuasions, Romances, and Stories from the Chan-kuo Ts'e, J.I. Crump, tr., Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1998, 63–74.

Weeks 7–8: Ethical thought and its contribution to state formation

Suggested teaching resources:

  • ‘Kongzi (Confucius) ‘The Analects’, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, Philip J. Ivanhoe and Bryan W. Van Norden, eds., Indianapolis: Hackett, 2001, pp.1–53.

  • ‘Mozi’, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, pp.65–68, 68–76.

  • ‘Mengzi (Mencius)’, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, pp.117–125, 152–157.

  • ‘Laozi (‘The Daodejing’)’, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, pp.163–180.

  • ‘Xunzi’, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, pp.267, 267–269, 269, 274–285, 298-306.

  • ‘Han Feizi’, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, pp.314–317, 335–339,
    339–351.


Area of Study 2: The early empires

Weeks 9–10 : Qin

Suggested teaching resources:

  • Li Feng, Early China: A Social and Cultural History, pp.228–255.

  • Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600, Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, trs., 2nd edn, pp.192–198, 208–212.

  • The Book of Lord Shang, J.J.L. Duyvendak, tr., London: Arthur Probsthain, 1963, pp.185–196, 274–284, 311–314, 314–317, 322–327.

  • Martin Kern, The Stele Inscriptions of Ch’in Shih-huang: Text and Ritual in Early Chinese Imperial Representation, New Haven, CT: American Oriental Society, 2000, pp.17–23, 71–75.

  • Records of the Grand Historian: Qin Dynasty, Burton Watson, tr., New York: Columbia University Press, 1993, pp.85–87, 167–178, 179–206.

  • Modern representations of Qin Shi Huangdi and Qin rule, for example: Jorge Luis Borges,
    ‘The Wall and the Books’ in Other Inquisitions, 1937–1952, tr. Ruth L.C. Simms, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1964, pp.3–5; films The Emperor and the Assassin (1999) and Hero (2002); TV drama-documentaries First Emperor: The Man Who Made China (2006) and China’s First Emperor (2008).

  • Qin Shi Huangdi’s tomb: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/441.

Weeks 11–12: Western Han 1

Suggested teaching resources:

  • Li Feng, Early China: A Social and Cultural History, pp.256–265, 282–323.

  • Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600, Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, trs., 2nd edn, pp.228–234, 268–273.

  • Records of the Grand Historian: Qin Dynasty, Burton Watson, tr., pp.74–83.

  • Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty 1, Burton Watson, tr., New York: Columbia University Press, 1993, pp.28–33 and 63 (on the Hongmen Banquet); pp.40–44 and 70–74 (encounter across the Guangwu Gorge outside Chenggao).

  • The Huainanzi: A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China, John S. Major et al., trs., New York: Columbia University Press, 2010, pp.295–299, 310–314,
    315–321, 336–339 (‘The Ruler’s Techniques’), 848–862
    (‘An Overview of the Essentials’).

Weeks 13–14: Western Han 2

Suggested teaching resources:

  • Li Feng, Early China, as above; also pp.265–76.

  • Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2nd edn., Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, trs., 2nd edn, pp.295–310, 311–317.

  • Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty 2, Burton Watson, tr., New York: Columbia University Press, 1993, pp.61–85, 129–162.

  • Homer Dubs, History of the Former Han Dynasty, Baltimore, Waverly Press, 1944, Volume 2, pp.38–66 (Chapter 6, ‘The Annals of Emperor Hsiao-Wu’: 133–119 BC) [Available online at: http://www2.iath.virginia.edu:8080/exist/cocoon/xwomen/texts/hanshu/tpage/tocc/1/0/english]

  • Esson M. Gale, Discourses on Salt and Iron, Taibei: Ch’eng-wen Publishing Company, 1967, pp.1–11 (Chapter 1, ‘The Basic Argument’), 66–73 (Chapter 11, ‘Discoursing on Confucianists’), 99–105 (Chapter 16, ‘Territorial Expansion’), 104–110 (Chapter 28, ‘On National Ills’) [Available online at: http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/saxon/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=xwomen/texts/yantie.xml&style=xwomen/xsl/dynaxml.xsl&doc.view=tocc&chunk.id=tpage&toc.depth=1&toc.id=d2.24&doc.lang=english].

Weeks 15–16: Xin and Eastern Han

Suggested teaching resources:

  • Li Feng, Early China, pp.276–282.

  • Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2nd edn., Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, trs.,
    2nd edn, pp.363–366.

  • Homer Dubs, History of the Former Han Dynasty, Baltimore, Waverly Press, 1955, Volume 3, pp.260–366 (chapter 99, Part B) [Available online at: http://www2.iath.virginia.edu:8080/exist/cocoon/xwomen/texts/hanshu/tpage/tocc/1/0/english].

  • Rafe de Crespigny, Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling, Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1989, Volume 1, pp.174–180 (‘Guanghe 6’, ‘Zhongping 1’:
    183–184 AD) [Available online at: https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/html/1885/42048/HuanLing_part6.pdf]

  • Early Daoist Scriptures, tr. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997, pp.104–108, 113–117, 132–142.

  • Wu Liang Shrine: http://etcweb.princeton.edu/asianart/selectionsdetail.jsp?ctry&pd&id=1124952

Egypt

Baines, J & Malek, J 1990, Atlas of Ancient Egypt, Equinox, Oxford.

Bietak, M 1996, Avaris, The Capital of the Hyksos. Recent Excavations at Tell el-Dab’a, British Museum Press, London.

Chadwick, R 2005, First Civilizations, 2nd edn, Equinox Publishing, London.

Dodson, A & Hilton, D 2004. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, London.

Lichteim, M 1973, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdom, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Lichteim, M 1976, Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume II: The New Kingdom, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Reeves, N 1990, The Complete Tutankhamun, Thames & Hudson, London.

Roberts, JW 1998, City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, 2nd edn, Routledge, Abingdon.

Robins, G 1994, Proportion and Style in Ancient Egyptian Art, Thames & Hudson, London.

Romer, J 1993, Romer’s Egypt, Michael O'Mara Books, London.

Shaw, I 2004, Oxford history of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Silverman, DP 1997, Ancient Egypt, Duncan Baird Publications, London.

Thomas, AP 1988, Akhenaten's Egypt, Shire Publications, Aylesbury.

Wilding, D 1997, Egypt, From Prehistory to the Romans, Taschen, Cologne.

Greece

Azoulay, V 2014, Pericles of Athens, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Bowman, R 2007, Ancient Greece for Senior Students, Thomson Social Science, Melbourne.

Evans, N 2010, Civic rites: democracy and religion in Ancient Athens, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Kagan, D, 2004, The Peloponnesian War, Viking, New York.

Kennell, N 2010, Spartans: A new history, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.

Mitchell, L 2013, The heroic rulers of archaic and classical Greece, Bloomsbury Academic, London.

Rhodes, PJ 2011, Alcibiades, Pen & Sword Military, Bansley, South Yorkshire.

Shapiro, HA 2007, The Cambridge companion to archaic Greece, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Mesopotamia

Aaboe, A 1974, ‘Scientific Astronomy in Antiquity’, in Hodson (ed.), 21– 42.

Aaboe, A 1992, ‘Babylonian mathematics, Astrology, and Astronomy’, in Boardman et al. (eds), 276–92.

Algaze, G 1993, The Uruk World System, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Alster, B (ed.) 1980, Death in Mesopotamia, Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology 8, Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen.

Amiet, P 1980, Art of the Ancient Near East, Harry N Abrams, New York.

Armstrong, J 1997, ‘Ceramics: Mesopotamian Ceramics’, in Meyers, 1, 453–59.

Astour, M 1995, ‘Overland Trade Routes in Ancient Western Asia’, in Sasson (ed.), 3, 1405–20.

Avalos, H 1995, Illness and Health Care in the Ancient Near East: the role of the Temple in Greece, Mesopotamia and Israel, Scholars Press, Atlanta.

Avalos, H 1997, ‘Medicine’, in Meyers (ed.), 3, 224–38.

Badawy, A 1966, Architecture in Ancient Egypt and Near East, MIT Press, Cambridge.

Barnett, RD & Lorenzini, A 1975, Assyrian Sculpture in the British Museum, McClelland & Stewart, Toronto.

Bar Yosef, O 1992, ‘The Neolithic Period’, in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, A Ben-Tor (ed.), 10–39, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Bass, GF 1995, ‘Sea and River Craft in the Ancient Near East’, in Sasson (ed.), 3, 1421–31.

Bayliss, M 1973–74, ‘The Cult of Dead Kin in Assyria and Babylonia’, Iraq 35–36, 115–25.

Beaulieu, PA 1989, The Reign of Nabonidus, King of Babylon 556 –539 BC, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Beaulieu, PA 1993, ‘An Episode in the Fall of Babylon’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 52,
241–61.

Beaulieu, PA 1995, ‘King Nabonidus and the Neo-Babylonian Empire’, in Sasson (ed.), 2, 969–79.

Bienkowski, P & Millard, A 2000, Dictionary of the Ancient Near East, University Press, Philadelphia.

Biggs, R. 1995, ‘Medicine, Surgery, and Public Health in Ancient Mesopotamia’, in Sasson (ed.), 3, 1911–24.

Black, J & Green, A 1992, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, University of Texas Press, Austin.

Boardman, J, Edwards, WJES, Hammond, NGL & Sollberger, E (eds) 1992, The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bottero, J 1992, Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning and the Gods, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bottero, J 2001, Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Braidwood, R & Howe, B 1960, Prehistoric Investigations in Iraqi Kurdistan, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bryce, T 2002, Life and Society in the Hittite World, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Burney, C 2004, Historical Dictionary of the Hittites, Scarecrow Press, Maryland.

Casson, L 2001, Libraries in the Ancient World, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Chadwick, R 2005, First Civilizations, 2nd edn, Equinox Publishing, London.

Childe, GV 1952, New Light on the Most Ancient East, Praeger, New York.

Cook, JM 1983, The Persian Empire, Schocken Books, New York.

Cooper, JS 1983, The Curse of Agade, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Cotterell, A (ed.) 1980, The Encyclopedia of Ancient Civilizations, Mayflower Books, New York.

Crawford, H 1991, Sumer and the Sumerians, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Dalley, S 1984, Mari and Karana: Two Old Babylonian Cities, Longman, London.

Dalley, S 1989, Myths from Mesopotamia, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Drews, R 1993, The End of the Bronze Age, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Edwards, IES, Gadd, CJ & Hammond, NGL (eds) 1971, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol 1, Part 2: Early History of the Middle East, 3rd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Fortin, M 1999, Syria, Land of Civilizations, J. Macaulay (trans.), Musee de la Civilisation, Quebec/Editions de L’Homme, Montreal.

Foster, B 1995, From Distant Days: Myths, Tales and Poetry of Ancient Mesopotamia, CDL Press, Bethesda.

Frankfort, H 1954, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Frankfort, H 1956, The Birth Of Civilization in the Near East, Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City.

Freedman, DN (ed.) 1992, The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Double Day, Garden City.

Gallery-Kovacs, M 1989, The Epic of Gilgamesh, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Gardener, J & Maiier, J 1984, Gilgamesh, Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

George, A 1999, The Epic of Gilgamesh: A New Translation, Barnes & Noble, New York.

Hacket, J (ed.) 1989, Warfare in the Ancient World, Facts on File, New York.

Healy, M & McBride, A 1991, The Ancient Assyrians, Osprey Publishing, Oxford.

Hodson, FR (ed.) 1974, The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jacobsen, T 1939, The Sumerian King List, Assyriological Studies No. 11, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Jacobsen, T 1943,Primitive Democracy in Ancient Mesopotamia’, Journal of near Eastern Studies 2, 159–72.

Jasim, SA & Oates, J 1986, ‘Early Tokens and Tablets in Mesopotamia’, World Archaeology 17 (3), 348–62

Kramer, SN 1963, The Sumerians, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Kuhrt, A 1995, The Ancient Near East, c3000 –330 BC, 2 vols, Routledge, London.

Lamberg-Karlovsky, CC & Sabloff, J 1995, Ancient Civilisations: The Near East and Mesoamerica, Waveland Press, Prospect Heights.

Lieberman, S 1980, ‘Of Clay Pebbles, Hollow Clay Balls, and Writing: A Sumerian View’, American Journal of Archaeology 84, 339–58.

Lloyd, S 1978, The Archaeology of Mesopotamia, Thames & Hudson, London.

MacNish, RS 1990, The Origins of Agriculture and Settled Life, University Of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Maisels, C 1990, The Emergence of Civilisation, Routledge, London.

Matthiae, P 1981, Ebla: An Empire Rediscovered, Doubleday, Garden City.

Mazar, A 1990, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000 –586 BCE, Doubleday, Garden City.

McCormick, AR 1981, Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

McCormick, AR & Nissen, HJ 1972, The Uruk Countryside: The Natural Setting of Urban Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Mellaart, J 1975, The Neolithic of the Near East, Thames & Hudson, London.

Meyers, E (ed.) 1997, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Moorey, PRS 1979, The Origins of Civiisation, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Moorey, PRS 1982, Ur ‘of the Chaldees’: A Revised and Updated Edition of Sir Leonard Woolley’s ‘Excavations at Ur’, Cornell University Press, New York.

Nissen, HJ 1988, The Early History of the Ancient Near East 9000 –2000 BC, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Oates, J 1979, Babylon, Thames & Hudson, London.

Oates, D & Oates, J 1976, The Rise of Civilisation, Elsevier-Phaidon, Oxford.

Oded, B 1979, Mass Deportation and Deportees in the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Dr Ludwig Reichert, Wiesbaden.

Olmstead, AT 1948, History of the Persian Empire, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Oppenheimer, AL 1977, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization, revised and completed by E. Reiner, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Oren, E 1997, The Hyskos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

Oren, E 2000, The Sea Peoples and their World: A Reassessment, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Parpola, S 1970–1983, Letters From Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal, Alter Orient und Altes testament 5, 2 vols, Butzon & Bercker, Kevelaer/ Neukirchener, Neukirchen-Vlyun.

Pettinato, G 1981, The Archives of Ebla, An Empire Inscribed in Clay, Doubleday, Garden City.

Pritchard, JB (ed.) 1969, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd edn, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Read, J 1983, Assyrian Sculpture, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Redman, C 1978, The Rise of Civilization From Early Farmers to Urban Society in the Ancient Near East, W H. Freeman, San Francisco.

Renfrew, C 1976, Before Civilizations, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth/Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Richardson, MEJ 2000, Hammurabi’s Laws, Texts, Translations and Glossary, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.

Roaf, M 1990, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, Facts on File, New York.

Roth, M 1997, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Volume 6, 2nd edn, Scholars Press, Atlanta.

Roux, G 1980, Ancient Iraq, 2nd edition, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Saggs, HWF 1965, Everyday Life in Babylonia and Assyria, Dorset Press, New York.

Saggs, HWF 1984, The Might that was Assyria, Sidgwick & Jackson, London.

Saggs, HWF 1988, The Greatness that was Babylon, 2nd edn, Sidgwick & Jackson, London.

Saggs, HWF 1989, Civilization Before Greece and Rome, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Saggs, HWF 1995, Babylonians, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Sasson, J (ed.) 1995, Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.

Schhmandt-Besserat, D 1992, Before Writing, Volume I, From Counting to Cuneiform, University of Texas Press, Austin.

Schhmandt-Besserat, D 1992, Before Writing, Volume II, A Catalogue of Near Eastern Tokens, University of Texas Press, Austin.

Snell, D 1997, Life in the Ancient Near East 3100–332 BCE, Yale University Press, New Haven.



Rome

Burstein, Stanley M., (2004), The reign of Cleopatra, Greenwood Press, Westport.



Caven, B 1980, The Punic Wars, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.

Cornell, TJ 1995, The beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars


(c. 1000
–264 BC), Routledge, London/New York.

Davies, G 2008, Ancient Rome for Senior Students, Thompson, Melbourne.

Dunstan, W 2011, Ancient Rome, Rowman and Littleford, Lanham.

Freeman, P 2008, Julius Caesar, Simon & Schuster, New York.

Goldsworthy, A 2000, The Punic Wars, Cassell, London.

Goldsworthy, A 2014, Augustus: First emperor of Rome, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Polo, FP 2011, The consul at Rome: the civil functions of the consuls in the Roman Republic, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Ramage, N & Ramage, A 2008, Ancient Rome, British Museum, London.

Rodgers, N 2009, The History and conquests of ancient Rome, Hermes House, London.

Roller, D 2010, Cleopatra: a biography, Oxford University Press, New York.

Southern, P 1998, Augustus, Routledge, London/New York.

Websites

University College London, Digital Egypt for Universities


www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk

PBS, Egypt’s Golden Empire


www.pbs.org/empires/Egypt

PBS, The Roman Empire in the First century


www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire

American Institute for Roman Culture – Ostia Antica – eight-part series


www.youtube.com/user/WEDIGROME

© VCAA 2015






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