VA/us history Mid-term Review Guide: key

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VA/US History Mid-term Review Guide: KEY
1. What document became the base for a colonial New England covenant community?

Mayflower Compact
2. What was the result of the First Great Awakening?

A renewed interest in religion

3. Why was slavery introduced on the British colonies?

To provide labor for plantations

4. What impact did European settlement have on American Indians during the colonial period?

5. Which food products were first grown by American Indians and then shared with European colonists who spread them to other parts of the world as a part of the Colombian Exchange?

Corn, Squash, and Beans.
6. Describe the economic policy of Mercantilism.

Export more than you import; nations seek a favorable balance of trade.

7. Who did Virginia tobacco plantation owners turn to for labor BEFORE the use of African slaves?

Native Americans & Indentured servants.

8. What was the Middle Passage?

Leg of Triangular trade that brought slaves from Africa to the colonies.

9. Which British colonies were exporting tobacco to Europe during the colonial era?

10. What did the earliest settlers in Massachusetts come looking for?

Religious freedom.
11. American Indians taught the colonists skills that had a large impact on which aspect of colonial life?

12. The phrase "Gold, God, Glory" best describes the motivations of which of the following groups during the age of discovery?

Conquistadors (from Spain)
13. What was the first PERMANENT English settlement in North America?

Jamestown, 1607; by the VA Company of London.

14. What was the reason for the establishment of the Jamestown settlement?

Profit/economic reasons

15. What crop turned the colony of Virginia into a profitable enterprise?

Tobacco; John Rolfe

16. Who promoted the philosophy of creating "a city upon a hill" for others to admire and acknowledge as a superior model by which to live?

John Winthrop. (MA Bay Colony; the Puritans)

17. Which colony was the least tolerant of religious diversity?

MA Bay Colony

18. One of the advantages that Virginia had over the other colonies involved the revenue from the cash crop tobacco. Who introduced tobacco to the colony?

John Rolfe

19. What was the significance of the House of Burgesses?

1st representative legislature in the U.S.

20. What institution replaced the system of indentured servitude in the South?

Slavery, to provide labor for plantations.

21. What was the difference between the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies?

Jamestown was established for Profit; Plymouth for religious freedom.

22. What was William Penn's Primary purpose in establishing the colony of Pennsylvania?

Religious Freedom

23. In which region of the country was ship-building an important industry?

24. Which Act prohibited American settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and is considered the beginning of the problems between the colonists and the British?

Proclamation of 1763
25. Which Act of Parliament created the greatest unified response in the American colonies?

The Stamp Act

26. Why was George Washington an effective military commander?

He preserved the army through his leadership skills

27. What role did the French play in the American Revolution?

Provided weapons, supplies, and money to the Americans.

28. Which group of people in the colonies opposed seeking independence because they were loyal to the British crown?


29. Which "event" helped unite colonists in 1774, particularly in Boston, around the idea of seeking independence?

Boston Tea Party

30. What was the largest and most active group of patriots who supported independence from Great Britain?

Sons of Liberty

31. Who was the author of the pamphlet common sense which helped to stir up pro-independence feelings in the colonies?

Thomas Paine

32. Which colonial Document outlines "the unalienable rights" of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"?

The Declaration of Independence.
33. What was a common theme in both Paine's common sense and Jefferson's Declaration of independence?

Unalienable rights/self-government

34. What year was the Declaration of Independence signed?

35. What was the Proclamation of 1763?

Colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.

36. In response to the Stamp Act, which famous Virginian stated, "Give me liberty, or give me death!" ?

Patrick Henry
37. Why did Samuel Adams and others call the confrontation between British soldiers and civilians in March of 1770 the "Boston Massacre"?

To gain support for the Patriot cause.

38. During the 1760's and 1770's what American tactics were used in gaining the repeal of the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts?

39. What was the most significant result of the Boston Tea Party?

It led to the passage of the Intolerable Acts.
40. When writing the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson drew on Locke's concepts of what?

Unalienable/Natural rights.

41. Who were Patriots?

Colonists who wanted Independence.

42. What event convinced the French to openly support the colonies in their war against the British?

The win at Saratoga.

43. Why was the Battle of Yorktown significant?

Cornwallis surrendered.

44. Where was the first confrontation between British soldiers and the Colonial Militia?

Lexington & Concord, MA

45. In which colony did the fighting of the American Revolution begin?

46. In which colony did the fighting of the American Revolution end?

47. George Mason most influenced the Constitution of the United States by supporting which aspect?

Bill of Rights

48. What advantages did Americans have over the British in the American Revolution?

Home field advantage, fighting for a cause, only had to hold off British.

49. What did the U.S. Constitution replace?

Articles of Confederation

50. what were Virginia's Declaration of Rights and Statute of Religious Freedom models for?

The Constitution

51. What issue was solved with the Three-Fifths compromise?

representation of slaves in Congress.

52. Which event helped convince many Americans that the Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced in favor of a stronger national government?

Shay's Rebellion

53. What did the supporters of the Constitution promise, to address the concerns that the Constitution failed to safeguard individual liberties?

The inclusion of a Bill of Rights.

54. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

Weak central government, could not tax, or raise an army.

55. Who was known as the "Father of the Constitution"

James Madison

56. What is the Bill of Rights?

A written guarantee of individual rights.

57. Describe the Great Compromise.

2 House legislature; one based on population, the other on equal representation.

58. What legislation established a system for territories to become states?

Land Ordinance of 1787

59. What was the most controversial part of Alexander Hamilton's economic program?

The National Bank.

60. During his presidency, George Washington sent a large contingent of federal troops to end which domestic disturbance?

The Whiskey Rebellion.

61. What did President Washington warn against in his farewell speech?

Political Parties.

62. Which event led to an undeclared naval war with France?

XYZ Affair

63. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions asserted the states' rights and opposed what federal policy?

The Alien & Sedition Acts

64. Who was the political leader of the Federalist party of the 1790's?

Alexander Hamilton

65. Who was the political leader of the Democratic-Republican party of the 1790's?

Thomas Jefferson

66. What was Thomas Jefferson in favor of in the 1790's?

Strict interpretation of the Constitution

67. What was Alexander Hamilton in favor of in the 1790's?

Loose interpretation of the Constitution - "implied powers"

68. In the early to mid-1800's, which group supported high protective tariffs to raise the price of imported manufactured goods?

The Industrial North

69. The Jefferson administration acquired which chunk of land from France in 1803, doubling the geographic size of the United States?

The Louisiana Territory.

70. What geographic advantages did the US gain with the Louisiana Purchase?

Doubled the size of the U.S, gained control of the Mississippi River.

71. What was the major difference between the economy in the North and the economy in the South during the mid-nineteenth century?

The North was Industrial; The south Agricultural

72. What did the Monroe Doctrine do?

Warned European nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere

73. During which was "The star-spangled Banner" written?
The War of 1812.
74. What are Impressments?

The British forcing American sailors in to the British Navy.

75. Why did the US declare war on Great Britain in 1812?

Impressments, Chesapeake incident, and British incitement of Native Americans in the Northwest territories.

76. Who won the election of 1800 and why was it significant?

Thomas Jefferson; "Revolution of 1800", First peaceful transfer of power between political parties.

77. What is Judicial Review?

Gives the Judicial branch the power to decide whether laws/actions of the legislative and executive branches are unconstitutional.

78. In which supreme court decision was judicial review established?

Marbury vs. Madison
79. Which Native American helped Lewis and Clark in their expedition?


80. Which invention helped spread a slavery-based society into the Deep South?

The Cotton Gin

81. Describe the Southern Economy in the antebellum period.

Agricultural, large plantations; cash crops (indigo, tobacco, rice)

82. What did Henry Clay's "American System" advocate?

Unify the nation; Protective tariffs, national bank, internal improvements.

83. The Erie Canal connect what 2 physical features?

The Hudson River and Lake Erie.

84. Which politician was known as "The Great Compromiser"?

Henry Clay

85. Who were the War Hawks during the War of 1812?

Northern Congressmen who wanted to go to war with Britain

86. What is Sectionalism?

Putting one's regional interests over national interests.

87. Describe the terms of the Missouri Compromise.

Maine was admitted as a Free State, Missouri = slave state (to maintain balance of power in Congress)

88. What was the result of President Andrew Jackson's bank veto?

The Panic of 1837

89. Why did Andrew Jackson oppose the existence of the Second National Bank?

Because he thought it benefited the North

90. What was the Trail of Tears?

Cherokee Indians traveled this to OK after the Indian Removal Act.

91. What helped Andrew Jackson win the election of 1828?

War Hero…Battle of New Orleans.

92. William Lloyd Garrison was a prominent figure in which major reform movement?

Abolitionist; "The Liberator"

93. How did westward expansion of the United States affect the American Indians?

It pushed them off their land & onto reservations.

94. What political movement began with a convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848?

Women's Suffrage Movement

95. How did Nat Turner contribute to the goals of the abolitionist movement?

Slave Rebellion

96. How did the number of eligible voters increase prior to the election of 1828?

Property requirements were eliminated.

97. What political party did Andrew Jackson establish?

The Democratic Party.

98. What issue was the Nullification Crisis over?

Protective Tariffs; SC threatened secession.

99. Which individual is the doctrine of nullification most closely associated?

John C. Calhoun.

100. The forced removal of the Cherokee tribes to the west in the 1830's is known as what?

Indian Removal Act, 1830

101. Which President vetoed he national bank re-charter bill in 1832?

Andrew Jackson, resulted in the Panic of 1837

102. Which escaped slave worked in the abolitionist movement?

Frederick Douglass

103. What was the purpose of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848?

First women's rights convention.

104. Which US president started the "spoils system"?

Andrew Jackson

105. What caused the migration of American Indians to the west of the Mississippi River during the Jacksonian Era?

Indian Removal Act, 1830

106. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were prominent members of which reform movement?


107. The Gold Rush in 1848 took place in which state?


108. What reasons did Abolitionists give for the opposition of slavery?

Believed slavery was inhumane & wrong

109. What is "Manifest Destiny"?

God-given right to expand west.

110. The movement of Americans into Texas led to a revolt against which country?

111. Which battle in the War with Mexico symbolized the commitment to Texas' Independence?

The Alamo
112. What issue dominated James K. Polk's presidency?

Westward Expansion

113. What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850?

California admitted as a free state, new SW territories = popular sovereignty.

114. What balance were the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 designed to protect?

Slave vs Free States in congress.

115. What novel was published in 1852 that depicted slavery as an evil institution?

"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
116. Why was Harriet Tubman known as the "Moses" of her people?

Aid in escape of slaves along the Underground Railroad.

117. Who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin?

Harriet Beecher Stowe

118. What is Popular Sovereignty?

The people vote to decide

119. Who was most closely associated with the concept of popular sovereignty?

Stephen Douglas

120. Which legislative agreement enacted the principle of popular sovereignty?

Kansas-Nebraska Act

121. What was the mini civil war that erupted in Kansas over the issue of slavery known as?

"Bleeding Kansas"

122. Which abolitionist became famous because of his actions in "Bleeding Kansas"?

John Brown

123. Which group of people did the Know-Nothing party fear and hate?

Immigrants and Catholics

124. Why was the Republican Party formed?

To prevent expansion of slavery into the new territories.

125. What did the Supreme Court rule in the Dred Scott case?

He was a slave, therefore he was property. Because he was property, he had no citizenship rights.

126. What was the purpose of John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry?

Seize arsenal & Incite a slave rebellion.

127. What happened after Lincoln was elected in 1860?

SC seceded.

128. What major event occurred at the Appomattox Court House during the Civil War?

General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant.

129. Why was Ulysses S. Grant an important asset to the Union?

Helped win majority of union victories.

130. Which Civil War leader commanded the Army of Northern Virginia from June 1862 until he surrendered in April 1865?

Robert E. Lee

131. Why was the Emancipation Proclamation significant?

Freed the slaves in the rebelling states.

132. What was the turning point of the Civil War?

The Battle of Gettysburg

133. Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired?

Fort Sumter

134. What was Lincoln's main goal during the Civil War?

To preserve the Union.

135. Which former slave became a prominent black abolitionist prior to the Civil War?

Frederick Douglass

136. What did the Emancipation Proclamation change the goal of the war for the North to?

To Abolish slavery.

137. The Emancipation Proclamation was issued after what event?

The battle of Antietam.

138. Lincoln's secondary goals in issuing the Emancipation Proclamation were?

To prevent England from intervening on behalf of the Confederates.

139. Where did the Army of Northern Virginia surrender?

Appomattox Court House, VA

140. Which basic constitutional issue was resolved by the Civil War?


141. Who was known as the "Angle of the Battlefield" in her efforts in the Battle of Antietam?

Clara Barton

142. What was Lincoln's plan for readmission of the Southern states into the Union?

The 10 percent plan

143. Why was President Johnson impeached?

He went against the Tenure of Office Act

144. Under the Radical Republicans reconstruction plan what happened to the south?

It was split into 5 Military Districts.

145. What ended Reconstruction in the South?

Compromise of 1877

146. What were the Jim Crow Laws?

Southern states attempted to limit the impact of the constitutional amendments passed during the reconstruction era.

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