Classical Argument Structure/Arrangement (your argument will have SIX chunks)
Ethos-win over the interest and good will of the audience
State facts in chronological order but don’t start at the beginning of time. Sound logical not “believe it or not.” Don’t repeat yourself-just part relevant to your argument. This should be predictable and what they hear should sound usual, expected, natural
Division with reluctant conclusion
List points where you and your opponent agree and disagree. Get into definitions as well. It is a chronological, ethical, rights, practical issue or is it fairness. Value over value.
Logos-Here is where you get into your argument, setting out your argument packet-we should do this- because of this-and your examples
Level 3: Noun classes-broad group names with little specification
People, men, women, young people, everybody, nobody, industry, we goals, things, television (MEAT)
Level 2: noun categories-more definite groups
Teen-agers, middle-class, clothing, industry, parents, college campus, newborn child, house plants, TV Comedies, (PORK)
Level 1: Specific, identifiable nouns
Levi 501 jeans, my blue, three bedroom house on Hollis Street, In Living Color, African violets, Tina’s newborn sister, Mina (CARNITAS)
What it means to either Defend, Qualify or Challenge?This is a declarative statement of statement of values written in the form of a resolution.
Affirm the resolution
Adolescents ought to have the right to make autonomous medical choices.
Negate the resolution
Adolescents ought NOT have the right to make autonomous medical choices.
Create your own
Unless under extreme circumstances, adolescents ought not have the right to make autonomous medical decisions.
You will use the following to support your resolution (ERO). Your ERO’s are your experiences, your readings and your observations. Since we are studying literature and theme, all of your readings and your analysis of the characters, events, conflicts, and themes may be used for support of position. So, as we read the literature of our Dystopian Literature Unit, you should be paying close attentions to the characters, events, conflicts and themes in the pieces of literature.
Dip into first person narration then dip right out (small story or experience)
Documented proof, works cited, media, films, plays, TV shows
Combination of E and R. Common knowledge is not documentable but if it is factual, have a credible source
How do you change people’s minds/appeal to your audience? Ethos, Pathos Logos!
A speaker’s credibility, believability, and trustworthiness-their reputation. This is your defense of your character
Emotional appeal-emotional state of the audience as produced by the speaker-work your audience to feel something.
The logic of the speech and the argument that it makes. You need facts and proof. If the speaker is not logical, then the speech is not logical. Avoid logical fallacies.
One problem: speakers make mistakes in their arguments and end up with incorrect conclusions they did not ear through valid argument, we apply the term fallacies to mistakes and errors in argumentation and reasoning. Fallacious arguments are invalid because even though the conclusions appear to follow from the premises, they actually don’t. You are to know all of the logical fallacies in reasons below but we will deepen the meaning of the fallacies in bold.
Ad personam/Ad hominem
Attempts to refute an argument by indicting the source of the argument, rather than the substance of the argument itself-disregard the source not the argument.
Example: There is no reason to listen to the arguments of those who oppose school prayer, for they are the arguments of atheists.
(playing to the gallery/appeal to the crowd)
Refers to popular opinion or majority sentiment in order to provide support for a claim. Often the “common man” or “common sense” provides the basis for the claim.
Attempts to justify an argument by citing a highly admired or well-known (but not necessarily qualified) figure who supports the conclusion being offered.
Example: If it’s good enough for a Kardashian, it’s good enough for me.
Example: We have to play Pomp and Circumstance: at graduate because we always have.
Argumentum ad ignorantiam
(Appeal to ignorance)
Attempts to use an opponent’s inability to disprove a conclusion as proof of the validity of the conclusion-you can’t prove me wrong so I must be right.
Example: The new form of experimental chemotherapy bust be working, not a single patient has returned to complain.
Guilt by association
Occurs when an arguer jumps to conclusions based on evidence that is irrelevant to the point at issue. Stereotyping is a common example of this.
Example: This is a bad law because it was proposed by a Republican.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Mistakes correlation or association for causation, by assuming that because one thing follows another it was caused by the other.
Example: A black cat crossed my path yesterday and, sure enough, I was involved in a car accident that same afternoon.
Attempting to hide a weakness in an argument by drawing attention away from the real issue.
Example: Accused by his wife of cheating at cards, Ned replies “Nothing I do ever pleases you. I spent all last week repainting the bathroom, then you said you did not like the color.
Suggests that if one step or action is taken it will invariably lead to similar steps or actions, the end results of which are negative or undesirable. A slippery slope always assumes a chain reaction of cause-effect events which result in some eventual dire outcome.
Example: If the Supreme Court allows abortion, next thing you know they’ll allow euthanasia, and it won’t be long before society disposes of all those person s whom it deems unwanted or undesirable.
(Two things make a right)
Pointing to a similar wrong or error committed by another.
Example: Gee, Mom and Dad, how can you tell me not to do drugs when both of you smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol?
(sub category of circular argument)
Defining terms or qualifying an argument in such a way that it would be impossible to disprove the argument. Often, the rationale for the argument is merely a restatement of the conclusion in different words.
Example: You are a disagreeable person and, if you disagree with me on this, it will only further prove what a disagreeable person you are.
(does not follow)
Irreverent reasons are offered to support a claim.
Example: I wore a red shirt when I took the test, so that is probably why I did so well on the test.
STATEMENTS of VALUE, DEFEND, CHALLENGE, QUALIFY and support with E.R.O
On Thursday, you will be choosing your statement of value which you will either defend qualify or challenge. Take a look at these, and pick your top 5 or 6. Number them in order of choice. No two students in the same class will have the same topic. It will be the luck of the draw. Literally, you will draw a number when you walk in my room.
Value statements/Resolutions to choose
Resolved: Inaction in the face of injustice makes individuals morally culpable.
Resolved: In a democracy, voting ought to be compulsory.
Resolved: Oppressive government is more desirable than no government.
Resolved: The United States is justified in intervening in the internal political processes of other countries to attempt to stop human rights abuses.
Resolved: Rehabilitation ought to be valued above retribution in the United States criminal justice system.
Resolved: The United States ought to guarantee universal health care for its citizens.
Resolved: A government has the obligation to lessen the economic gap between its rich and poor citizens.
It is morally permissible for victims to use deadly force as a deliberate response to repeated domestic violence.
Resolved: Individuals have a moral obligation to assist people in need.
Resolved: When forced to choose, a just government ought to prioritize universal human rights over its national interest.
Resolved: In the United States, juveniles charged with violent felonies ought to be treated as adults in the criminal justice system.
November/December Topic - Resolved: The abuse of illegal drugs ought to be treated as a matter of public health, not of criminal justice.
September/October - Resolved: States ought not possess nuclear weapons.
Resolved: Compulsory inclusion of non-felons' DNA in any government database is unjust.
Resolved: Public health concerns justify compulsory immunization.
Resolved: Public High school students in the United States ought not be required to pass standardized exit exams to graduate.
Resolved: Military conscription is unjust.
Resolved: Vigilantism is justified when the government has failed to enforce the law.
Resolved: It is morally permissible to kill one innocent person to save the lives of more innocent people.
Resolved: That secondary education in America should value the fine arts over athletics.
Resolved: In the United States, plea-bargaining in exchange for testimony is unjust.
Resolved: On balance, violent revolution is a just response to political oppression..
Resolved: The actions of corporations ought to be held to the same moral standards as the actions of individuals.
Resolved: When in conflict, an individual's freedom of speech should be valued above a community's moral standards.
Resolved: the pursuit of scientific knowledge ought to be constrained by concern for societal good.
Resolved: the primary purpose of formal education ought to be to impart knowledge.
Resolved: democracy is best served by strict separation of church and state.
Resolved: the United States has a moral obligation to promote democratic ideals in other nations.
Resolved: as a general principle, individuals have an obligation to value the common good above their own interests.
Resolved: rehabilitation ought to be valued above punishment in the U.S. criminal justice system.
Resolved: capitalism is the most just economic system.
Resolved: when in conflict, the letter of the law ought to take priority over the spirit of the law.
Resolved: when in conflict, academic freedom in U.S. high schools ought to be valued above community standards.
Resolved: laws which protect citizens from themselves are justified.
Resolved: the people's right to know outweighs the government's need for confidentiality.
Resolved: limiting the freedom of expression of adults is justified by society's interest in protecting children.
Resolved: decentralized governmental power ought to be a fundamental goal of democratic society.
Resolved: establishing a safe educational environment in grades K-12 justifies infringement of students' civil liberties.
Resolved: colleges and universities have a moral obligation to prohibit the public expression of hate speech on their campuses.
Resolved: the use of economic sanctions to achieve U.S. foreign policy goals is moral.
Resolved: when they conflict, respect for cultural sensitivity ought to be valued above the commercial use of free speech.
Resolved: capitalism is superior to socialism as a means of achieving economic justice.
Resolved: in the United States' justice system, due process ought to be valued above the pursuit of truth when they are in conflict.
Resolved: civil disobedience is justified in a democracy.
Your argumentative essay must:
MLA works cited
All formal writing rules learned the first 9 weeks
Sound grammar, syntax, and diction
Include all learned vocabulary in written and spoken form