V. K. Antoshkin modern components and challenges of economic security of ukraine summary

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The aim of the paper is to define the content and justification of the components of economic security in national terms , the analysis of the factors of its formation and development, set challenges and threats that are reduced, studies of measures and mechanisms to strengthen economic security.

The main material. The Law of Ukraine "On the basis of national security of Ukraine" the basic components are determined of a state policy, national security, military field, illegal immigration, domestic sphere (economic, social and humanitarian sphere, science and technology sector, invironmental and information field) [2].

A special place in organization of national security takes economic security, which creates the level of satisfaction in production as defense and civil purposes, and in extreme conditions is the criterion of military economic security. Improving self-state technology of civil defense production, increasing technological capabilities strengthens its military and economic security. The latter, is of course, determined by the latest achievements of scientific and technological progress. So providing to-date economic security is an important task of Ukrainian state.

Economic security is a state of nationality of the economy, which allows you to keep resistance to internal and external threats and able to meet the needs of individuals, family, society and state. The main terms of economic security are the best mix of real state market and economic mechanisms, creating efficient and effective legal framework that provides appropriate compensation to threats and supports of commercial risks at a minimum, the lack of criminal activity that undermines the economy, availability of modern physical and technical protection; functioning infrastructure that meet the objectives of a particular business, real pluralism of ownership and so on. [5, c.39].

Analyzing the economic security there are three important components: economic independence, which means primarily the possibility of state control over national resources, the ability to use national competitive advantages to ensure equal participation in international trade, sustainability and stability of the national economy, providing durability and reliability of all elements of economic system, protection of all forms of ownership, creating guarantees for effective business operations, deter destabilizing factors, the ability to self-development and progress, i.e. the ability to independently implement and protect national economic interests, to the constant modernization of production, efficient investment and innovation policy, to develop intellectual and labor potential country.

Eсonomic security policy is based on certain principles that create political and legal framework for the assessment of external and internal threats, the formation of national economic interests and strategy of economic security. The basic principles of security economic of Ukraine include: a) the rule of law, while ensuring economic security b) maintaining the balance of economic interests of the person, family, society, state, and c) the mutual responsibility of the person, family, society and the state to ensure economic security, d) timeliness and adequacy of measures related to the threat and protecting national economic interests, and e) priority of agreement (peaceful) actions in dealing with both internal and external economic conflict e) integration of national economic international security.

The objects of national economic security is the state, society, family, individuals, businesses, institutions, organizations, individual territories, as well as the basic elements of economic security. The state is not only the object but also the main subject of national economic security and shall exercise its functions in this area through the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government. This does not exclude the participation of citizens and their associations in support of economic security. Moreover, such actions should be encouraged by the state. [5] However, the active participation of citizens in economic security is not possible without awareness of the importance of this case and the public manifestation of an active life position.

The Constitution of Ukraine clearly defines that along with the protection of the sovereignty and integrity of the teritory Ukraine ensuring its economic security which is the main function of the state and the matter of all Ukrainian people [1]. Economic security has integral nature, as it is the result of joint efforts of the whole nation that manifests itself through the acts of all branches of government ( from local to Ukrainian) available in the state forces and means, citizen groups and individuals.

It should be noted that there are some contradictions between the individual citizens and the state in providing them by economic security. This is primarily due to the fact that the state can not only act as a guarantor of economic safety of citizens, but itself it can be a source of danger for them ( the depreciation of monetary savings, late payment of fees and other social payments , exorbitant taxes , and so on ). If the state will create the threat to the citizens which will greatly exceed the danger of which it protects then, it is clear that such a state is unlikely to cause respect. Moreover, such a state will not be able exponent of national economic interests .

Equally important, in our view, is the appropriate level of security and settlement and payment discipline in the state and reducing of overdue debit and credit debt between companies - partners. Accounts receivable are the debt of enterprise arising in the course of economic relations with other legal and natural persons across the untimely payment for goods supplied and services rendered. Significant amounts of debt worsen the financial condition of the subject of economical activity as excluded from the circuit current assets , threatening the stability of financial enterprises.

The most effective means to prevent large debit is it refinance - a system of financial operations providing debit accelerated conversion of debt into cash assets . The main forms of debt refinancing are: a) factoring b) account for bills. We believe that we should also include assignment of a claim on debt. Nowadays such an operation, although is defined by the Civil Code, but is not done in Ukraine.

However, unequal financial position of companies in a particular sector, intersectoral structures leads to the implementation of the policy of mergers and acquisitions, bankruptcy and business reorganization, restructuring of business entities. It is preferred to form new large integrated corporate structures, especially in export-oriented industries. Clearly, this contributes to the sustainability and competitiveness of the domestic industry, including world markets, but there is a danger of monopolization of certain industries.

Justificating national economic security it must be taken into account the new challenges and threats that accompany the current socio-economic development in the regional and the international dimensions. This is a "trade war" between countries that signify the use of unfair competition in bilateral or multilateral industrial and economic relations. Their effects are significant losses of enterprises, industries, state budget. There are threats and political confrontation of individual countries or blocks. In domestic terms, we can note regional separatism, weak linkages between central and local power hierarchy, immaturity national elites. Therefore, those components should be considered in the structure of the modern paradigm of security threats for the economy Ukraine. Measures aimed at eliminating or reducing them, form the content of economic development in the context of strengthening economic security.

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